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California State Library "y . 

■ > » < ' 

Accession No. 

1237 6-20 1011 


Mining and Scientific Press 

January to March 1 922 


Accidents in metal mines H. F. Lunt. . . . 

Prevention A. W. Allen .... 

Adsorption of gases during flotation 

R. S. Dean and R. A. White. . . . 

Air. measurement of W. S. Weeks. . . . 

Airplane Engine, book review L. S. Marks. . . . 

\klns notation machine 

Alaska in 1921. mining in 

tldricb Pump Co 

vllen. A. W Accident Pievention. . . . 

Ditto Artificial pebbles for tube-milling. . . . 

Ditto Hydro-electric power plant 

at Oroya. Peru 

Ditto Julian & Smart's Cyaniding Gold and 

Silver Ores, book review 

Ditto Work and industrial progress. . . . 

Alworth-Stephens Co. v. K. J. Lynch 

Amalgamated Zinc, company report 

Ambrose, J. J., obituary 

American Brass and Anaconda merger 

American Language, book review. .H. L. Mencken. . . . 

American Smelters Securities Co 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co. .'. 199, 320. 


Anglo-American Corporation 

Another pipe-dream Editorial .... 

Appropriations for Bureau of Mines and Geological 


Architects and Builders Handbook, book review. ..... 

F. E. Kidder .... 

Argall. Philip, obituary Editorial. . . . 

Arizona mining companies, merger of 

Mining in V. C. Heikes 

Arkansas Diamond Co 

Ashanti Goldfields Corp.. company report 

Audley. J. A Silica and the Silicates. 

book review 


Ball-mills P. R. Hines. . . . 

Better advertisements P. B. McDonald. . . . 

Black. H. E Errors latent in mine-sampling. . . . 

Blomfield. A. L The engineer. . . . 

Boiling-over concentration H. T. Darlington.... 

Bonus to soldiers 

Bostwick. W. A., obituary 

Botsford. R. S Russian placer mining. . . . 

Branner. J. C, obituary 

Brick-making H. C. Robson .... 

Brinsmade. R. B. . . .Militarism and millionairism . . . . 
Bruhl, P. T Cyanide flotation concentrate. . . . 

Ditto Lime in cyanidation .... 

Bucyrus Co ....143, 

Bugbee, E. E Codding process. . . . 

Bureau of Mines Editorial .... 

Buried bullion Editorial .... 

Burma Corporation, company report 

Butte & Superior mine 



4 10 



4 05 



3 3 1 


3 r, o 














3 25 












Cajon. . . 

.W. S. Hutchinson. 
.M. G. F. Sohnlein. 



California, metal output in 1921 156 

Mining in 340 

Rand silver mine H. R. Layng. ... si 

Ditto, III A. B. Parsons .... 11 

Calumet & Arizona Mining Co 309 

Canadian ore-export regulations 167 

Card-indexing 3 6 

Carroll Chain Co 144 

Carson Hill Co 235 

Cedar Mountain, Nevada 366 

Cerro de Pasco ms 

Channing. J. Parke Sampling of mines. . . . 220 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co ■. 71 

Chihuahua & Oriente R. R 25 

Chile Copper Co 61 

China, quicksilver mining in :: 7 1 

Christie Co.. L. Jt v 210 

Cia. Beneficiaddra'de Pachuca. company report 60 

Cia. de Santa Gertrudis. company report. 17- : > 

Class legislation Editorial .... 321 

Cochrane. G. M Treatment of concentrate. . . . 358 

Codding process 2 

Ditto E. E. Bugbee. . . . 153 

Colburn, C. L Underground loading devices. ... 119 

Colcord, R. K. . Early Comstock days. . . . 327 

Cold-water thawing of frozen gravel. . 

E. E. Pearce. . . . 154 

Colorado Metal Mining Association 167 

Colorado, oil-shale in R. L. Chase. . . .373 

Colorado River development 133 

Comings. G. R., obituary 240 

Compressed air, conservation of J. P. Cotter. . . . 192 

Comstock days, early R. K. Colcord. . . . 327 

Concentrate, treatment of G. M. Cochrane. . . . 358 

Ditto E. P. Crawford. . . . 219 

Cone classifier regulator 370 

Congo copper 6 2 

Consolidated Goldfields of South Africa, company report 6 

Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co 342 

Co-ordination, Co-operation & Conference, Inc 

C. T. Hutchinson. ... 18 

Copper company, the oldest Editorial. ... 215 

In the Sierra Nevada, Spain C. De Kalb. . . . 291 

Production 341 

Statistics. 1921 61 

To Germany 133 

Corless. C. V Definition of engineering. . . . 395 

Correction K. B. McMahan. ... 220 

Cost of flotation plant Editorial. ... 37 

Of small flotation plant E. Gayford. . . . 183 

Cotter, J. P -Conservation of compressed air. . . . 192 

Crawford, E. P Treatment of concentrate. . . . 219 

Crocker, W Indicative plants. ... S4 

Cyanidation of flotation concentrate. . .P. T. Bruhl. . . . 193' 

Cyanide import duty 134 

Regeneration H. R. Layng. ... 357 

Ditto C. Lintecum .... 218 

Ditto J. E. White. ... 394 

Cyaniding gold and silver ores, Julian & Smart's, book 

review A. W. Allen .... 307 


Vol. 124 

Dane,.*k..Ti.'.;. «..:.;.., flanffSoelwJf Construction Equip- 
ment, book review '.". '.'..'.'...'. 308 

Darlington, H. C Boiling-over concentration. . . . 217 

Davis-Daly Copper Co., company report 60 

Davis, F. P The prospector. . . . 115 

Day, B. R., obituary 382 

Dayton-Dowd Co 210 

Dean. R. S.. and R. A. White Adsorption of 

gases during flotation 410 

De Beers Consolidated Mines, company report 60 

Deep-Well Drilling, book review. . . .W. H. Jeffery. ... 22 

Denver Fire Clay Co 246 

Dern, J., obituary 68 

Design of steel mill buildings, book review 

M. S. Ketchum 243 

Diamond cutting 146 

Mining 211 

Diesel-engine plant at Bisbee 132 

Dividends from mines 267 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Co 245 

Donaldson, S., obituary" 174 


East Butte Copper Mining Co 200 

East Siberian littoral C. W. Purington. ... 79 

Eastman Kodak Co 319 

Economic Aspects of Geology, book review 

C. K. Leith. ... 197 

Another pipe-dream 283 

Bureau of Mines 39 

Buried bullion 3 6 

Class legislation 321 

Cold-water thawing in the North 147 

Genoa conference 388 

Government publications 353 

Industry and the technical paper 284 

Insurance for employees 4 

International disposition of minerals 184 

Journal-Press 353 

Labor turn-over 354 

Land of our children 75 

Licensing of engineers 182 

Methods of a trust 6 

Mining on the Rand 181 

New year 2 

Oil on troubled waters 181 

Oldest copper company 215 

Open door in China 109 

Parasites 389 

Pasturage for bulls 3 

Physical work and the human machine 76 

Re-location of mining claims 322 

Risks of mining 109 

Spraying with atomized metal 75 

Synthetic gold 216 

Thacher, Arthur 249 

Use of metals 5 

War minerals relief ISO 

Wasting coal 389 

What ails Pioche? 248 

Eilers-Guggenheim controversy 319 

El Oro Mining & Railway Co 134 

Company report 60 

Electric Storage Battery Co 282 

Electrical hazards 258 

Elements of Fractional Distillation, book review 

C. S. Robinson. . . . 308 

Emminger, W. G Lime in cyanidation. ... 43 

Engelke, B. H., obituary 31 

Engels Copper Mining Co 24 

Engineer A. L. Blomfield. . . . 153 

Definition of P. B. McDonald .... 44 

Training the 375 

Engineering, definition of C. V. Corless. . . . 395 

Ditto A. B. Parsons. . . .186, 285 

Ditto ■ W. H. Shockley. ... 285 

Ditto W. S. Weeks. . . . 185 

Errors latent in mine sampling H. E. Black. . . . 286 

European copper market 168 

Eye. C. M Mining law revision. ... 323 

Eyesight of miners 231 

Farewell and hail! T. A. Rickard. ... 385 

Fiat money IgO 

Finland, copper mines of 94 

Fire Prevention and Fire Protection, book review. 

J. K. Freitag. ... 22 


Flotation plant, cost of Editorial. ... 37 

Fluorspar 395 

Forbes, C. R Mining laboratory of the 

Missouri School of Mines 359 

Freight-rates on ore 147 

Freitag, J. K Fire Protection and Fire 

Prevention, book review 2 2 

Fry, A. S Measurement of air. . . . 251 

Fuel in British Columbia F. H. Mason. ... 183 

Garred-Cavers Corporation 

Gasoline-operated shovel 

Gayford, E Cost of small flotation plant! '. '. '. 

General Electric Co 

General Engineering Co 

Genoa conference Editorial .... 

Geological department of a porphyry copper mine — 

I- II X. B. Starnes. . . .361, 

Gibson, A Magnetic prospecting. . . . 

Glass p. B. McDonald .... 

Gold in industries 

Premium S. J. Kidder. . . 


Synthetic Editorial .... 

Goulds Manufacturing Co 

Government publications Editorial .... 

Grabill, C. A Ore-reserve appraisal. . . . 

Graphical Analysis, book review W. S. Wolfe. . . . 

Greenawalt, W. E Research .... 

Greene-Cananea Co 


Halferdahl, A. C Surface-tension in flotation. . . . 

Hammill. B. S.. obituary 

Handbook of Construction Equipment, book review. . . 

R. T. Dana .... 

Hardinge mill 

Hayes, S. Q Switching equipment for 

power control 

Hecla-Bunker Hill contract to purchase Star mine. . . . 
Heikes, V. C Mining in Arizona and 

Utah during 1921 

Hill, L Ventilation and human efficiency. . . . 

Hines. P. R Ball-mills .... 

Holleman. A. F.. and H. C. Cooper Text-book 

of Inorganic Chemistry, book review 

Hollinger Consolidated Mines Co 341, 

Ditto v. Northern Canada Power Co. . . . 

Holmes, A Petrographic Methods of 

Calculations, book review 

Hornsilver mining district J. K. Turner. . . . 

Hulse, E. W., obituary 

Hutchinson, C. T Co-ordination, Co-operation 

& Conference, Inc 

Hutchinson, W. S Cajon .... 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co 

Hydro-electric plant at Oroya, Peru. . .A. W. Allen. . . . 
Hydro-metallurgy of low-grade zinc ores . M. Namba. 















Indicative plants .W. Crocker. . . 

Industrial works 

Industry and the technical paper Editorial. . . . 

Institute dues 


Transactions . 

Insurance of employees Editorial. . . . 

International disposition of minerals. . . .Editorial. . . . 

International Smelting Co 

Investing in copper shares A. B. Parsons. . . . 

Iron and copper E. S. Smith . . . . 


Jack, R. L., obituary 

Janin, Charles To the 'M. & S. P.'. . . . 

Jeffery, W. H Deep-well Drilling, book review. . . . 

Jennings, C. F., obituary 

Jerome-Superior Copper Co 

Jones, J. T Plight of the prospector. . . . 

Journal-Press Editoral .... 

.Quicksilver in southern Oregon. . . . 
Winning the Public, book review. . . . 
.Design of Steel Mill Buildings, 

Kellogg, A. E. 
Kennedy, S. M. 
Ketchum. M. S. . . . 

book review 
Kidder, F. E Architects and Builders Hand 

book, book review 

Kidder, S. J Gold premium 

Kiernan & Co 

Kingsbury, R. H Synthetic gold. . . . 

. 153 
. 246 
. 90 
. 301 






















Vol 124 


Labor turn-ovei Editorial . 

Land of our children Editorial .... 7". 

Lawrence, s . obituary 818 

Layng, ii k California Kami silver mine. ... 84 

Ditto Cyanide regeneration. . 

Ditto Thermal requirements of chlorid- 

Izing volatilization 884 

Lead and tine during 1921 

C B. Slebenthal and A. Stoll. . . . 58 

Ilullion and country of origin 133 

Leek.- D, \V . and R. II Jarvis Function of 

oil in Rotation 223 

Leith. C. K Economic Aspects of Geology. 

book review 197 

Ditto Mining law and the geologist .... 232 

Leland. O. M Practical Least Squares. 

book review 188 

Lewis. J. V Manual of Determinative Miner- 
alogy, book review 243 

Licensing of engineers Editorial. . . . 182 

Lime in cyanldatton P. T. Bruhl. . . . 113 

Ditto W. G. Emminger. ... 43 

Lintecum. Charles Cyanide regeneration. . . . 218 

Lunt. H. F Accidents in metal mines. . . . 117 


Magnetic prospecting A. Gibson. ... 392 

Ditto W. S. Weeks. ... 85 

Manual of Determinative Mineralogy, book review. . . . 

J. V. Lewis. . . . 243 

Manual of Flotation Processes, book review 

A. F. Taggart. ... 307 

Marks. L. S Airplane Engine, book review. . . . 350 

Mason. F. H Fuel in British Columbia. . . . 183 

Ditto Wetting and amalgamation. . . . 113 

McDonald. P. B Better advertisements. . . . 414 

Ditto Defining engineer. ... 44 

Ditto Glass. . . . 337 

Ditto Structural steel practice. . . . 221 

McMahan. K. B Correction. . . . 220 

Measurement of air A. S. Fry. ... 251 

Mencken. H. L. American Language, book review. . . . 350 

Metric weights and measures S. B. Talmadge. . . . 114 

Mexican Corporation, company report 175 

Mexico, conditions in 299 

Mica 336 

Militarism and millionairism . . . ,R. B. Brinsmade. ... 41 
Mineral Land Surveying, book review. J. Underhill . . . . 376 
Mineral particle, size of. in relation to flotation con- 
centration 330 

•M. ft S. P.'. to the Charles Janin. . . . 391 

Ditto S. F. Shaw .... 391 

Mining in British Columbia in 1921 

H. Mortimer-Lamb. ... 10 

Law and the geologist C. K. Leith. ... 232 

Law revision 200. 339 

Ditto C. M. Eye 323 

Mining Manual and Mining Year Book. 1922, book re- 
view W. S. Skinner. ... 418 

Missouri School of Mines, mining laboratory of the. . . 

C. R. Forbes. . . . 359 

Mojave. California, proposed smelter at 271 

Monarch Shole Oil Co 352 

Mono lake, gold in 212 

Moore. Philip N Editorial. ... 38 

Moore. Philip N., of St. Louis, an interview 

T. A. Rickard .... 45 
Morecroft, J. H., and F. W. Hehre Testing Elec- 
trical Machinery, book review 243 

Mortimer-Lamb, H Mining in British Columbia 

in 1921 1" 

Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., company report. . . 175 


Namba. M. Hydro-metallurgy of low-grade zinc ore. . . . 301 

New Cornelia Copper Co 134 

New Modderfontein 1, 36 

New year Editorial .... 2 

Nipissing output in 1921 133 

North. A. C Royston.... 114 

Norton. L. H., obituary 278 

Nugget gold mines G. H. Shepherd. ... 51 


Oil in flotation, function of 

D. W. Leeke and R. H. Jarvis. . . . 223 

On troubled waters Editorial. . . . 181 

Refining industry 215 

Shale in Colorado R. L. Chase. ... 373 

.' * • •• 

Oliver Iron Mining. ]('(>. /.'*',... 271 

Open door in China Editorial, . . . 109 

Ore-reserve appraisal V A. Grablll. , .. 219 

Oregon precious-metal production in 1921 168 

O'Rourke, P., obituary us 


Pacific -Tank & Pipe Co 244 

Parasites Editorial. . . . 389 

Park City mining companies 272 

Parker. F. W., obituary 278 

Parsons, A. B. . .California Rand Silver mine — III. ... 11 

Ditto Definition of engineering. ... 186, 285 

Ditto Investing in copper shares. ... 157 

Pasturage for bulls Editorial .... 3 

Patent bill, Lampert 145 

Pearce. E. E. .Cold-water thawing of frozen gravel. ... 154 

Pebbles for tube-milling, artificial. . . .A. W. Allen. . . . 405 

Pelton Water Wheel Co 144, 352 

Pensacola Tar Products Co 2 4n 

Perret. L. A Russian placer mining. . . .184, 356 

Petrographic Methods and Calculations, book review. . 

A. Holmes. . . . 307 

Phelps Dodge Corporation 341 

Physical work and the human machine. .Editorial. ... 76 

Pioche? what ails Editorial. . . . 248 

Placer mining. Russian R. S. Botsford . . . . 325 

Ditto L. A. Perret 184, 356 

Platinum 54 

Ditto H. O. Watrous 326 

Poisoring by oxides of nitrogen 89 

Practical Least Squares, book review. O. M. Leland. . . . 198 

Practical Refrigeration, book review 

Compiled by the Editorial Staff of 'Power'. ... 22 

Premier Gold Mining Co 341 

Premium on gold S. J. Kidder. . . . 218 

Prices of commodities 34, 178 

Probert, F. H Research. ... Ill 

Prospector, the F. P. Davis. ... 115 

Plight of the J. T. Jones 115 

Prout, H. G Life of George Washington. 

book review 3 76 

Publisher's announcement 281 

Purington, C. W East Siberian littoral. ... 79 

Purvis. R. A Conditions in Russia. ... 82 

Quicksilver in 1921 196 

In southern Oregon A. E. Kellogg. . . . 411 

Mining in China 371 


Rand, economics of the F. Wartenweiler . . . . 367 

Mining on the Editorial. ... 181 

Read, T. T Wetting and amalgamation .... 324 

Reed. H. W.. obituary 206 

Relation of mining to development of State 

L. D. Ricketts. ... 7 

Re-location of mining claims Editorial. . . . 322 

Remington Typewriter Co 244 

Research w. E. Greenawalt. ... 391 

Ditto F. H. Probert 111 

Revised mining law 61 

Revision of mining law 200, 339 

Ditto C. M. Eye. . . . 323 

Rickard. T. A Farewell and Hail! .... 385 

Ditto Philip N. Moore .... 45 

Ditto Arthur Thacher. . . . 253 

Ricketts. L. D Relation of mining to 

development of State 7 

Ring. A. E Underground loading devices. . . . 355 

Risks of mining Editorial .... 109 

Robinson. C. S Elements of Fractional 

Distillation, book review 308 

Robinson ft Co.. Dwight P 72 

Robson, H. C Brick-making.... 186 

Roebling Son's Co., John A 245 

Round Mountain district 234 

Royston A. C. North .... 114 

Russia, conditions in R. A. Purvis. ... 82 

Russian placer mining R. S. Botsford. . . . 325 

Ditto L. A. Perret. . . .184, 3 56 

Russo-Asiatic Corporation 107 


Sacramento hill, Bisbee 131 

Sampling, errors latent in mine H. E. Black. ... 286 

Of mines J. Parke Channing. ... 220 

Santa Gertridus Co., company report 6 


Vol. 124 

Shepherd." G. H ." ."".'. ". . '.*. . . :■ .&ii'g'geft ^eld mines. . . . 

Shockley. W. H Definition of engineering. . . . 

Siebenthal. C. E Lead and zinc in 1921 .... 

Silica and the Silicates, book review. .J. A. Audley. . . . 

Silver, future of 

Silver-King Coalition Co 

Simon Silver-Lead Co 

Simons, Q., obituary •■ . 

Skinner. W. S Mining Manual and Mining 

Year Book 

Smith. E. S Iron and copper .... 

Srihnlein. M. G. F Cajon . . . . 

South Dakota, gold production in 1921 

Spain, copper in the Sierra Nevada. . . .C. De Kalb. . . . 

Spraying with atomized metal Editorial. . . . 

Stamp-mill, passing of the 


Star mine. Hecla-Bunker Hill contract to purchase. . . . 

Starnes, X. B Work ot the geological depart- 
ment at a porphyry copper mine — I. II . . . .361, 

Structural steel practice P. B. McDonald. . 

Superior & Boston Co., company report 

Surface-tension in flotation ....A. C. Halferdahl. . 

Switching Equipment for Power Control, book review 

S. Q. Hayes. . 

Synthetic gold Editorial . . 

Ditto R. H. Kingsbury. . 

Taggart, A. F Manual of Flotation Processes. 

book review 

Talmadge, S. B Metric weights and measures. . . . 

Technical paper, industry and the Editorial. . 

Testing Electrical Machinery, book review 

J. H. Morecroft and F. W. Hehre. . . . 

Text-book of Inorganic Chemistry, book review 

A. F. Holleman and H. C. Cooper. . . . 
Thacher. Arthur Editorial. . . . 

Ditto An interview. T. A. Packard . . . . 

Thawing in the North, cold-water Editorial. . . . 

Thermal requirements of chloridizing volatilization . . . 

H. R. Layng. . . . 

Thomas. J. A Second-hand equipment. . . . 

Thompson. R. \V.. obituary 

Thornton. E. A., obituary 

Traylor Engineering & Manufacturing Co 

Trust, methods of a Editorial. . 


In Colorado 

Turner, J. K Hornsilver mining district. . 

























Underground loading devices C. L. Colburn. . . . 

Ditto A. E. Ring .... 

Underhill. J Mineral Surveying, book review. . . . 


Use of metals Editorial .... 

Utah-Apex v. Utah Consolidated 

Utah Consolidated v. Utah Apex 

Utah, mining in V. C. Heikes .... 


Valuation of American Timberlands, book review 

K. W. Woodward .... 
Valuing partly exhausted mines. . .Morton Webber. . . 

Ventilation and human efficiency L. Hill. . . . 

Volatilization, thermal requirements of chloridizing. . . 

H. R. Layng. . . . 

Wage reduction in Utah 

W r ar minerals 

Minerals relief 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Wartenweiler, F 

Ditto Economics of the Rand .... 

Wasting coal Editorial .... 

Watrous. H. O Platinum .... 

Webber, Morton. .Valuing partly exhausted mines. . . . 
Weeks, W r . S Definition of engineering. . . . 

Ditto Magnetic prospecting. . . . 

Ditto Measurement of air. . . . 

West. W r . E.. obituary 

Westinghouse companies 

W r estinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co 

Westinghouse, George, Life of. book review 

H. G. Prout. . . . 
Wetting and amalgamation F. H. Mason. . . . 

Ditto T. T. Read .... 

W r hite, J. E Cyanide regeneration. . . . 

Williamsport Wire Rope Co 

Winning the Public, book review . . S. M. Kennedy .... 

W T olfe. W. S Graphical Analysis, book review. . , . 

Woodward, K. W Valuation of American 

Timberlands. book review 

W 7 ork and industrial progress A. W. Allen. . . . 

Workman's Compensation Act 

Yukon Gold Co. 


Zinc in cyanidation, recovering 

Ores, hydro-metallurgy of low-grade. M. Namba. . 
Stocks of 











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January 7, 1922 

Before You Purchase A Mill 

Demand Full Answers, Backed by Records, 
to the Following Questions: 

1. Has the mill recommended performed satisfac- 
torily the same or similar work previously? 

2. What is the factory cost? 

3. What is the cost delivered at the plant site? 

4. What will be the cost of erection? 

5. What floor space and head room will be required? 

6. What power — size of motor or engine — will be re- 
quired to start and operate the mill continuously? 

7. Can the mill be operated by ordinary labor? How 

8. What provision has been made to insure a satis- 
factory product at all times? 

9. What circulating load can be readily maintained 
if mill is to be operated in closed circuit? 

10. What provision is made for securing a uniform 
product if operated in open circuit? 

11. Can the mill be run continuously without stopping 
periodically to remove 'worn grinding media or 
inspect wearing parts? 


What will be the actual running time over a 
period of at least one year? 

13. What provision is there for changing the opera- 
tion to meet changes in grinding requirements? 

14. What will be the life of lining, based upon 
records under parallel operating conditions? 

15. What is the cost of a new lining? 

16. How long will it take to remove the old and in- 
stall the new lining? 

17. What will be the consumption of the grinding 
media per ton of ore ground? 

IS. What will be the scrap loss of the lining? 

19. What will be the scrap loss of the grinding 

20. What will be the total cost of grinding per ton of 
ore ground, including power, labor, repairs, de- 
lays, interest, and depreciation? 

21. What will be the cost of delays per year figured 
from loss in production due to shut-downs charge- 
able directly to the mill? 

22. Will the manufacturer extend adequate service — 
not merely promises — in case of need? 

When yon haveasked all of these questions <md have been sat- 
isfied on every point, then, and not until then, is it time to buy. 




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The Right Air Compressor 
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It is just as essential to produce air power at the least cost per cubic foot 
as it is to use this air efficiently after its production. 

If your operations call for only one "Jackhamer" drill there is an 
Ingersoll-Rand compressor suited for the work. If you need hundreds of 
drifters, stopers and " Jackhamers" with sharpeners, hoists and other air 
machinery, I-R compressors will meet this demand. 

Large or small, these compressors produce your air power efficiently and 
unfailingly, without the troubles and expense involved in making con- 
stant repairs. 

Like I-R drills and other mining tools, our compressors are built to serve 
faithfully and to help you produce the greatest tonnage with the least 

There are Ingersoll-Rand engineers near you and at your service. Mean- 
while, let us send you Bulletins describing our belt, steam or direct- 
connected electric driven air compressors. 


11 Broadway, 
New York 

165 Q.Victoria St. 
London, Eng., E. C. 4 

Offices Everywhere 


• laiiu,.' . 7. 1922 


The pumps must keep going! 

No matter what else happens, the mine pumps cannot be stopped. Your drilling 
crew works full time, or not at all, depending upon the demand tor tonnage, but the 
pumps must keep everlastingly at it. Should they fail, the work o£ past years and 
the hopes of the future may be lost. 

Where a machine plays such an important part it is folly to gamble. You must pro- 
tect yourself and others by installing a pump which you know to be reliable and 

Miners know Cameron Pumps — have learned to trust them because of sixty years of 
working with Cameron. Whether underground on the sump or shaft, or on the sur- 
face of the power house or mill, you can rely upon both Cameron Direct-Acting and 
Centrifugal Pumps. 

No matter what else stops, miners know that Cameron Pumps will keep going. 


General Offices: 11 Broadway, New York 








St. Louis 


El Paso 



New York 

New Orleana 

Los Angeles 


San Francisco 


Scran ton 

Salt Lake City 




Ino enroll -Rand 

^^T The A. S. Cameron St 

Steam Pump Works 


FOR 1922 

DFC Products will have even 

Assay Furnaces — Melting Furnaces — Oil Forges 

Crushers — Samplers — Pulverizers 

Crucibles — M uf f les — Scorif iers 

Fire Brick — Fire Clay Tile 

High Temperature 



Salt Lake |£^j lljil New York 

City !|gygj City 


Jannarj 7. 1922 


Traylor Equipment Is Feature Equipment 

The "Fleeting Roll" Feature Is Found 
Only In Traylor Heavy-Duty Crushing Rolls 

And Further — 

You will find that Traylor Rolls 
are heavier — contain more ma- 
terial — size for size — than others. 
Shafts are larger in diameter and 
all parts, with the exception of 
the renewable steel tires, are 
heavier. This answers the ques- 
tion as to why Traylor Rolls give 
a greater number of hours of con- 
tinuous service. 

Send for Bullelm PR-2 

TRAYLOR builds no class of equipment where features pay 
bigger dividends than in Traylor Heavy-Duty Crushing 

The "Fleeting Roll' feature — developed by Traylor engineers, 
was the outgrowth of a demand for better and more reliable 
type of crushing rolls. Only in very rare instances was an oper- 
ator able to get the tonnage from a set of roll-shells that, in 
all justice to the quality of the material in the shells, should 
have been passed through before they were sent to the scrap 

Now — with the "Fleeting Roll" mechanism — an integral part 
of Traylor Heavy-Duty Crushing Rolls — operators know that 
the fixed roll is shifted automatically and without fail — that 
roll-shells wear out normally and corrugating and flanging is 

Traylor Heavy-Duty 
Crushing Rolls 

Traylor Engineering and Manufacturing Co. 


NEW YORK: 30 Church St. CHICAGO: 1414 Fiiher Bldg. PITTSBURGH: 211 Fulton Bldg. 

LOS ANGELES: Citizen Nat, Bank Bldg. SPOKANE: Mohawk Block 

Truck and Tractor Division: Comwells, Bucks Co., Pa. 



January 7, 1922 


Qr IVllVl Simplified, Bali-Bearing 

Pan-motion Batea Amalgamator 

In the quartz mill, this one machine takes the place of 
all other amalgamating devices, including stationary and 
shaking plates, quick traps, etc. 

At the placer mine or on the dredge the SENN handles 
the fines from the nnder-currents, the concentrates from 
the jigs and the screened riffle concentrates when clean- 
ing up, recovering both the quick, the amalgam and the 
finest gold. 

The pulp is fed through the feed hopper, down into the 
amalgam bowl in the center of the deck. Here it is 
panned on top of the liquid mercury, which half fills the 
bowl. The heavier particles of clean gold are amalga- 
mated at once, while practically every particle is brought 
into intimate contact with the quick and is prepared for 
amalgamation on the deck plates. 

The continuous "panning motion" keeps all of the 
pulp loose and the weight of the fresh feed entering the 
feed hopper crowds out the material that already is in 
the amalgam bowl and spreads it over the deck. This 
crowding action continues until the pulp is finally 
crowded over the edge into the discharge launder. This 
discharge edge is more than 24 feet long. The pulp 
therefore is discharged in a very thin layer, and very 

No Gold is too fine 

to Amalgamate on 

the SENN 

Code Name, — "Bamal" 
8 Feet Diameter Silver Plated Copper Plates 

covering the batea top. 
2 ft. 6 in. High from Top of Foundations to 

Top of Feed Hopper. 
Total Floor Space: — 9 feet by 9 ft. 
Capacity: — 30 Tons (dry weight) of Crushed 

Ore or 75 Tons of Placer Sand per 24 

Water Required: — from 2 to 5 Tons per ton 

of solids. 
Power Required: — % Horse Power. 
Shipping Weight: — Domestic, 2600 pounds; 

Export, 3000 pounds, or 100 cu. ft. 
Heaviest Box : — Standard Packing, 450 Pounds. 

Can be specially packed to 300 pounds 

maximum, if specified with order. 

Also Made in 
25-ton Capacity 


Manufacturers of Oil Well and Mining Machinery 
1215 First National Bank Building, San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A. 

January 7. 1922 



In panel at right— three 
C-P Air Compressors at 
Durban, South Africa. 

Inasmuch ai obsolete air 
com pressors soon waste 
their replacement costs, 
why not install Chicago 
Pneumatics, all modem? 
Built in over 500 
and types 

C-P Class N-S02 Oil Engine Driven 
Compressor, tank -mounted, full-port- 
able type. Built in three capacities, 
144.212 and 309 cu. ft. per minute. 

C-P Class N-SCL Gasoline Engine 

Driven Air Compressor, tank-mounted. 

full-portable type. Capacities 144 and 

212 cu. ft. per minute. 

C-P Class N-SBE Electric Motor 

Dnven Air Compressor, truck-moun ted, 

full-portable type. Capacities 50 to 500 

cu. ft. per minute. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company 

Chicago Pneumatic Building • 6 East 44th Street ' NewYork 

Sales and* Service Branches all over the World 

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•Cuttalo •Cleveland El Paso Houston "New York •Portland «San Francisco Bombay Cadu Havana Lisbon - Kuan, -Paris Toronto 

C 04 



The Compressor with 


the Simplate Valve 



January 7, 1922 

Jheres Qctm wearjjuilt 

^nto GvenjJSewjoykJjeltina 

ana jackina Lompanu 

Conveyor fielt 


Conveyor Belting 

Elevator Belting 

Test Special Transmission Belting 

Indestructible Air Drill Hose 

Indestructible Water Hose 

Indestructible Steam Hose 

Acetylene Welding Hose 

Firo Superheat Sheet Packing 

Indestructible Sheet Packing 

Cobbs Piston Packing 

Pump Valves 

It's the plus wear that counts — the wear beyond the ordinary length 
of useful life you expect of a conveyor belt. Extra tonnage carried 
over and above what may be reasonably efficient service, is 
the true test. 

The thorough knowledge of mining conditions that enters into the 
planning of every New York Belting & Packing Company conveyor 
belt results in a type of wear-defying construction that comes through 
the test of heavy mining work with cost figures well on the credit 

The correct weight and kind of duck in the right 
number of plies, bonded with a tenacious rubber fric- 
tion and amply protected by a properly resistant rub- 
ber cover — these go to make up a con- 
veyoi belt possessing inherent quality. 

Our conveniently located branches en- 
able you to put your conveying problems 
up to our representatives for competent 
advice and solution. 


SALT LAKE CITY . . . .313 Felt Bldg. 

EL PASO Martin BIdg. 

DENVER 1635 17th St. 

SAN FRANCISCO . . . 519 Mission St. 






RiCKARO. Editor 

Associate Editors 

MiMm® ami 

■ KojSH Dutmh of On otatfeni 

Member A&iocUtcd Business Papcn, Inc. 


PubtUhnt at 1>£0 Marl <nei*co. 

by the Itrwey l\ibii*hmo Cmnpmty 


C.T. Hutchinson, manaacr 

E. H. LESLIE. 600 Fisher Boa.. Chicago 



101 'iniiinimiiiiiiiiiiiinii iimiiiiiimmiiiiiim! miiiiiiiiiimiiiimiiiimiiiiiiiini imiiiiiMiimmiiiiiiiiimiimiimiiiiiiimiiimiuiiiiiiiiimi 


Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 7, 1922 

$4 per Year- ' i Copy 






Retrospection and anticipation, Prospects for 
1922. Optimism in the copper-mining industry. 
Improvement in conditions. M. & S. P., Jan. 7, 


Adapting mining and metallurgical operations to 
local conditions. Work of the Burma Corporation. 
Consolidations to form super-enterprises. Pro- 
posed mergers of copper companies. Swollen con- 
solidations and their defects. Difficulty of ade- 
quate supervision and co-ordinated control. De- 
struction of character. The striving for mere big- 
ness. Failure to provide "pasturage for bulls". 
M. & S. P., Jan. 7, 1922. 


Anticipating and preparing for unemployment. 
The diamond industry'in South Africa. Dividends 
for the capitalist and insurance for the worker. A 
proposal from South Africa. M. & S. P., Jan. 7, 


Ubiquity of metals. Building construction. Do- 
mestic uses. Metals in daily life. Material basis 
of civilization. M. & S. P., Jan. 7, 1922. 


Iodine producers' association of Chile. Source of 
iodine. The objects of the association. Sale of 
the product. Control of prices and restriction of 
production. M. & S. P., Jan. 7, 1922. 



By L. D. Ricketts 7 

Statistics. Advance of Arizona. Introduction of 

the trough-converter. Progress. General pros- 
perity of the State. Recent history. Excessive 
freight-rates and lack of cheap water-power. M. 
& S. P., Jan. 7, 1922. 


By H. Mortimer-Lamb 10 

Effect of fall in price of metals, 
operations. Statistics. Coal and 
prospects. M. & S. P., Jan. 7, 1922. 

oil. Future 


By Arthur B. Parsons 11 

Value of output. Production record. Lack of sup- 
ply of water. Testing the ore. Flotation. Flow- 
sheet of the mill. Comparison of methods pro- 
posed. Results of practice. M. & S. P., Jan. 7, 


By C. T. Hutchinson 18 

Modern industrial development. Organized busi- 
ness. The 'loyalty' idea. Specialization. The 
super-organization. 'Passing the buck'. Buyer 
and seller. The attitude of modern business. Un- 
approachability of executives. Complexity of in- 
dustrial life. Reversion to simpler ways of former 
days. The three-point suspension upon which de- 
pends the stability of industry. M. & S. P., Jan. 7, 









Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining: and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. 

Branch Offices— Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg-.; New York. 31 Nassau St.. 
London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price. 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription rate in the United State*. 
Alaska. Hawaii. Philippines. Canada. Mexico, Canal Zone. Republic of Hon- 
duras Salvador, Panama. Nicaragua. Peru. Colombia. Bolivia. Dominican 
Republic. Cuba. Porto Rico, and Shanghai. China. 54: other countries. 5''- 

Cable address: Pertusola. 



January 7, 1922 

Massco Service 

It With An Order 

Remember that Massco Service makes it possible for you 
to obtain the best in mill, mine, and smelter and chemical 
and electrical equipment — try it with an order ! 

Remember that Massco Service brings its tried and tested 
lines within easy reach of every operator — try it with an 

Remember that you can save time and freight costs by 
using the conveniently located Massco branches — try it 
with an order! 

We invite correspondence and 
will gladly give quotations. 


Denver Salt Lake City El Paso 

New York Office: 
42 Broadway 

Pacific Coast Office: 
Mills Bldg., San Francisco 

January 7. 1922 


miiijiiimmiiiimti iiiiiiiiiiiiitiuuiiitiiiiiiiiiiim 



T.\" the latest bulletin of the Institution of Mining and 
■*■ Metallurgy, in London, we read a description of the 
ceremony attending the unveiling of the war memorial 
to those members and associates of the Institution who 
died on active service. The list numbers 126 out of a 
membership of about 2000. The unveiling of the me- 
morial by Field-Marshal Earl Haig was followed by a 
solemn silence of one minute, after which the Field- 
Marshal pronounced the words: "Their name liveth for 
evermore". The members of the British engineering 
piofession responded nobly to the call of duty in behalf 
of the great cause that became ours also. Gentlemen, 
we join with you in standing silently at the salute! 

HP HE dignity of Labor, with a capital L, shows itself in 
-*- various forms, some of which indicate a lack of that 
priceless possession, a sense of humor. The manager of a 
gold mine in Victoria, Australia, recently suspected that 
all the precious metal produced was not finding its way 
into the coffers of the company; so at a pre-determined 
date the men from the mine were searched and their 
houses were raided for ill-gotten gains. The result was 
that about 15%. of the miners were found with stolen 
specimens in their possession, and much gold was dis- 
covered in the houses near-by. Before the manager had 
time to do more than recover the purloined metal the men 
proclaimed a strike as a protest against the undignified 
treatment they had received. Such are conditions in 
Labor-ridden Australia. 

W7 HAT the so-called premium on gold means to a big 
™ enterprise in South Africa is shown by the annual 
report of the New Modderfontein, the premier gold mine 
of the world. During the financial year ended June 30, 
1921, the output was 1,083,000 tons yielding 9.741 dwt. 
per ton, or 527,477 ounces of fine gold. The extraction 
was 98% — a truly splendid metallurgical achievement. 
The gold was sold for 112.58 shillings per ounce, as 
against 102.25 shillings in the previous year, and as 
against the normal or pre-war price of 85 shillings per 
ounce. The working cost increased 1J shillings per ton 
milled, and the yield decreased 0.58 dwt. per ton, yet the 
working profit for the year showed an increase of 7 pence 
per ton. But the most interesting feature of the report 
is the statement that "the total profit for the year was 
£1,720,202 17s.4d., of which £751,427 was obtained from 
the increased price of our product above standard price". 

• • Editor 


Thus the discount on the paper pound, as measured in 
gold or in America]] dollars, brought an increase, in terms 
of paper currency, of 43% in the profit won by this gold- 
mining enterprise. 

/^ARBIDB lamps have one shortcoming — the likeli- 
^ hood of the burner clogging at an inopportune time. 
Messrs. J. B. Turja and J. W. Jacobson, of Hancock, in 
Michigan, have patented a device that is said to prevent 
this clogging entirely. It seems ridiculously simple. A 
short wire housed in a curved brass tube is operated by a 
push-button conveniently placed on the top of the lamp, 
where it can be reached by the thumb of the hand car- 
rying the lamp. The free end of the wire normally is 
held just behind the burner- tip by a spring beneath the 
button and within the tube, which is enlarged to accom- 
modate it. When the button is pressed or turned, the 
wire pushes the particle of obstructing matter out of the 
tip, the lamp continuing to burn in the meantime. This 
is the way the device works in theory and, it is claimed, 
in practice. The common method of cleaning the burner 
is to put out the light and insert one of a bunch of small 
wires that the miner carries in a small tube in his pocket ; 
necessarily this pushes the obstructing particle back into 
the burner, where it may cause trouble again. It is clear 
that a device of this kind, if practicable, will obviate at 
least one of the primary causes of the emphatic but genial 
profanity for which miners in general are notorious. 
Only those who work underground know the aggravation 
of being left in the dark. 

HYDRO-BI ECTBIC power development promises to 
be the outstanding feature of industrial progress 
during the next 25 years. This is the opinion of the 
Federal Power Commission, whose first annual report 
has just been issued. During the 16 months that fol- 
lowed the passage of the Federal Water Powers Act of 
1920 no less than 185 applications for preliminary per- 
mits and 85 applications for licenses to develop water- 
power were filed with the Commissioner. The resources 
under consideration totaled 11,060.000 primary and 
5,766,000 secondary horse-power; the consummation of 
all the projects would involve an expenditure of over two 
billion dollars. Among the plants that have been licensed 
and in connection with which the construction work is 
proceeding are two of over half a million horse-power 
apiece, for the Niagara Falls Power Company and for 


January 7, 1922 

the Southern California Edison Company, one of 110,000 
horse-power for the Alabama Power Company, and sev- 
eral of smaller capacities. The more extended applica- 
tion of electric power will involve an initial expenditure 
for metals that will do much to restore confidence in the 
mining industry. 

1V/ E have received several letters asking for a specific 
* * reference in our pages to the Government 's call for 
the production of war minerals. It will be found on 
page 319 of our issue of March 9, 1918, where we quoted 
from a circular issued by the late Franklin K. Lane, then 
Secretary of the Interior. The call was to save the ships 
needed for war purposes, by producing the needed min- 
eials at home and so decreasing the number of vessels 
occupied in the transport of minerals from foreign 
sources. The minerals specified by the Secretary of the 
Interior were manganese, flake graphite, tin, tungsten, 
antimony, pyrite, magnesite, potash, and nitrates. In 
our issue of December 29, 1917, on page 918, we discussed 
the production of war minerals and referred to the 
urgency of the national demand as indicated by the steps 
already taken by the Geological Survey and the Bureau 
of Mines, acting for the Government. 

TN a letter from the secretary of an organization with 
-*- which we happen to be out of sympathy, the writer 
states his inability to dissociate from himself personally 
the criticism that is aimed at his doings as an official. 
This is one of the misfortunes of an editor, who, of course, 
is impelled frequently to criticize public affairs with 
which his personal friends may be connected or identified. 
On the other hand, the editor learns early in his experi- 
ence to accept criticisms of his editorial utterances with- 
out going on the war-path against those who utter them 
and send them for publication in the paper with which 
he is identified. Frankly, life would be impossible if all 
of us were to take umbrage every time a friend is in dis- 
agreement with us on matters of public interest. The 
test of real friendship is to be able to disagree without 
quarreling; indeed, part of the pleasure of life is the 
frank ventilation of ideas and the exchange of thought 
between men of different minds. At this beginning of a 
New Year we send greetings to those whom we may have 
annoyed, unavoidably and inadvertently, during 1921 ; 
we wish them good luck, and we hope that in 1922 we may 
find issues upon which they and we can unite for the good 
of the mining profession and the mining industry. 

T\ENYER is the home of yet another process that 
*-* claims to free gold and all other metals from gangue 
or vein-matter, a 100% extraction of all 'values' being 
assured. Several of our subscribers have requested en- 
lightenment as to the details of operation of the Codding 
process, as it is called, which has received highly favor- 
able mention in various publications. We learn that the 
invention does not necessitate the use of either heat or 
acid; the metals are not dissolved. The ore is first 
ground to the desired fineness, then placed in 'tanks' 
and agitated with water, "or with the natural products 
of the earth as the ease requires. The agitation and the 

metals and the sulphides which comprise the ore make it 
a Chemical and Electrical Process. There is enougli 
electricity generated to produce the chemical and physi- 
cal change". These features, we learn, are all patented. 
"Should the ore carry only such values as are amenable 
to quicksilver amalgamation, the pulp is circulated from 
the agitating tank to a recently perfected amalgamator, 
in which the mass is permeated by gravity through a 
body of live quicksilver at the rate of 15 to 20 gallons 
per minute, or more, as desired." The interjected sta- 
tistics of capacity are interesting but unconvincing. 
"As the metallic values are liberated from the gangue, 
they are trapped by the quicksilver, so that at the end 
of the run the tailings show entire absence of such 
values . . . Simple or complex ores of every nature 
which have been treated by this process, during a period 
of years, have yielded perfectly satisfactory results . . . 
The maximum expense per ton treated with the process 
will not exceed $1 for simple or refractory ores . . . 
The solution [sic] does not saturate itself in any degree, 
so obviously if any extraction can be obtained, it is only 
a matter of sufficient time to effect a 100% extraction." 
From the above it will be observed that a feature of the 
process appears to be the somewhat bewhiskered idea of 
passing gold-ore pulp upward through mercury. The 
mass, we learn, "is permeated by gravity". In view of 
the density of quicksilver we believe that 'levity' is 
meant; and we are inclined to view the somewhat ex- 
travagant claims made by the interested parties as arous- 
ing reactions that belong to the same category. 

The New Year 

Let the dead past bury its dead ; never were we more 
willing to say farewell to the dying year and to welcome 
the new — which only goes to prove how blessedly short our 
memories are, for assuredly 1918 was better exchanged 
for 1919 than was 1921 for 1922. Be that as it may, we 
receive 1922 with a smile, believing confidently that better 
times are ahead. The past year has been marked by the 
collapse of the metal markets and the closing of the 
mines that are dependent upon those markets. The 
dawn of 1922 finds the metal markets strong and hope- 
ful, and from widely separated mining districts comes 
the news of a resumption of active operations. Copper 
felt more severely than any other metal the effects of the 
after-the-war collapse, therefore the revival of the cop- 
per mines is the most significant of the good tidings. In 
this connection we quote a statement made at New York 
on December 23 by Mr. John D. Ryan, of the Anaconda 
mining company: "For more than eighteen months I 
have been pessimistic over the immediate outlook, but I 
have now changed my view considerably. Business in 
this country has changed materially. Copper consump- 
tion in America has been 50% better in the last quarter 
than it was in the first half of 1921, and it may surprise 
the public to learn that the copper consumption of the 
world today is equal to that of the best pre-war year, 
1913. The outlook for 1922 is now very encouraging". 
Governor Harding of the Federal Reserve Board says, 
"the bells that ring in 1922 will usher in a new business 

January 7. 1922 


revival thai will develop in due course into a new era of 
prosperity for the United States". It' the country be 
prosperous the mining industry will flourish, for the use 
of metals is essential to comfort, transportation, and 
communication. What is more, we Bee signs of a general 
ption of the demand for the metals thai are pro 
duced in tin- United States; the atmosphere of the world 
lias oleared; storm-clouds linger on the distant hills; but 
the wind of unrest is dying down, and the rain of trouble 

as.-.l to rattle on the roof. A rainbow gives the 
promise of sunshine and peace; an air of hope, as of a 
a new dawn, braces our tired nerves. We face the future 
gladly. To those engaged in the mining and metallur- 
gical industries we send greeting and extend the hand of 
fellowship. Gentlemen, good luck to you in 1922, and 

Pasturage for Bulls 

A few days ago Mr. Charles Butters was telling us 
about his plans for developing and equipping a promis- 
ing mine, named the San Albino, in a remote part of 
Nicaragua. After describing the proposed plant, he 
stated that the scale of operations depended upon "pas- 
turage for bulls". In reply to questions he explained 
that the haulage of supplies and machinery was done 
by ox-teams and that they could not carry their own 
fodder, so that provision for grazing had to be made at 
the mine. In short, the scale and character of the mining 
and metallurgical operations had to be adapted to local 
conditions, or, to generalize, the strength of an industrial 
chain is measured by that of the weakest link. We are 
reminded of the experience of the Burma Corporation, 
which planned an industrial expansion on a large scale 
without paying sufficient attention to a basic factor, 
namely, an adequate supply of labor. Lacking that pre- 
requisite the magnitude of the scheme of technical de- 
velopment had to be reduced. The economic limit of 
operations was fixed by the amount of labor available 
in the locality. That was their "pasturage for bulls". 

Again, we recall the fact that thirty years ago a 40- 
stamp mill was regarded as the most satisfactory unit for 
that kind of metallurgical plant. It was the size that con- 
duced to economical operation because it required no 
more and no less labor and supervision than was within 
the capacity of a complete crew and a competent super- 
intendent. Any enlargement, of the plant entailed addi- 
tions to the force; anj' diminution permitted no decrease. 
Besides, the risk from fire was such that a 40-stamp mill 
was enough to put under one roof; it was deemed wise 
to divide 80 stamps under two housings. In later years, 
owing to the further development of labor-saving de- 
vices and the growing scale of mining operations, it was 
found that the size of the economic unit could be en- 
larged advantageously to 150 stamps. Meanwhile fire- 
proof construction had decreased the risk of a conflagra- 
tion. It matters not for the purpose of the present dis- 
cussion whether 40 stamps or 150, or even 300, be the 
best unit; the point we are making is that there is a 
limit beyond which mere size or capacity does not eon- 

fectual operation. This holds for the mine as well ; 
a mine can prodi tnough ore. for example, to supply a 

mill of given size; beyond that tonnage it 1 1 s Deces- 

sary to trespass upon the ore-reserve or to Lower the 

grade by including waste, s where in the economic 

prevision or calculation there is a critical point, typified 
by the "pasturage for bulls". For example, a few years 
ago the gentlemen who controlled the mining industry 
of the Rand thought it clever to form a number of big 
consolidations. The mining companies operating at 
Johannesburg, but directed from London, were large 
enterprises already; they owned extensive areas of ore- 
bearing ground and they were working on a scale that 
already taxed the resources of their managers. How- 
ever, it was decided to consolidate or agglomerate groups 
of five or six of the large mining companies into several 
super-enterprises. This enabled the controlling finan- 
ciers to unite some languishing company owning a de- 
cadent mine to two or three strong companies owning 
highly productive properties; in other words, a weak 
sister was partnered with sundry strong brothers ; a lame 
duck was made to flock with several golden geese ; a mis- 
take was covered and a failure was redeemed, at the 
expense of the public, which passively accepted the con- 
solidation under cover of alluring assurances that the 
combination of companies would create an investment 
exactly suited to the trust-funds of widows and orphans, 
and to the taste of sundry simple-minded people needing 
gilt-edged security. The idea was that a gilt-edged in- 
vestment could be made by combining a number of specu- 
lative ventures, the risk inherent in any one enterprise 
being decreased by spreading it among a number of simi- 
lar enterprises. This financial philosophy might have 
proved sound if only the promoters had not ignored the 
impoverishment of the ore in depth. Some of them were 
aware of the impoverishment because their engineers 
had told them of it, but a tacit agreement for silence on 
this critical factor led to the transfer of millions of 
pounds — not dollars — from the pockets of the many to 
the coffers of the few. The non-persistence of the ore 
(using that term in its economic sense) in the mines of 
the Central Rand was the 'pasturage for bulls' of the 
flamboyant calculations that bemused London ten years 
ago. In one sense the pasturage for 'bulls' on the Stock 
Exchange was more than ample for a while, the shares 
being pushed to quotations far beyond their intrinsic 
value, but in the end the pasturage became overgrown with 
bushes of bitter berries on which the 'bears' feasted rap- 
turously. The fashion for big holding companies, such as 
the Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa and the 
Rand Mines, Ltd., led to the promotion of undertakings to 
which the public was persuaded to accord the character of 
a financial trust, so safe as to be attractive at a return so 
small as to argue an 'investment', not a speculation. The 
market-value of these big consolidations has depreciated 
pitifully; they are a fiasco and a fizzle partly because in 
their manifold operations they transcended the scope of 
personal management. After all, a man's capacity for 
supervision is limited. The individual mine and the Sep- 


January 7, 1922 

a rate enterprise in South Africa, as elsewhere, was already 
large enough to occupy the entire time and to consume the 
whole energies of a resourceful manager, that is, he had 
as much as he could do to inform himself concerning the 
progress of operations and to keep in touch with develop- 
ments from day to day, so as to direct them intelligently 
and efficiently. Any expansion rendered it necessary for 
him to deputize his duties and to transfer responsibility 
to assistants. In this issue we publish a humorous article 
by Mr. C. T. Hutchinson in which he pokes fun at the 
modern habit of enlarging and expanding industrial 
enterprises to the point of disintegration. When an en- 
terprise is so vast that the controlling mind cannot cope 
with the duties involved — and it must be one mind, not 
many — it becomes the victim of its own bigness. Instead 
of being held and directed by the reins of an individual 
of distinct character and recognized responsibility it is 
tied to the loose ends of a vast departmental system the 
chief prerogative of which is 'to pass the buck'. This 
shifting of responsibility is demoralizing; so is the in- 
evitable effort of each department to justify itself by 
aggrandizing its scope and importance at the expense of 
the others. Solidarity is as necessary in large mining 
and metallurgical enterprises as w T as the pasturage for 
bulls at San Albino. To take another concrete example : 
a big mining and smelting company starts to operate a 
mine far from the seat of its major operations in order 
to secure a particular kind of ore for its smelter. It 
avails itself of its technical staff and sends one technician 
after another to this mine for the purpose of making in- 
vestigations, to be followed by suggestions for changes in 
plant and practice. Much of this is advantageous to the 
mine in question, but not all of it ; meanwhile the smaller 
undertaking is saddled with a large overhead expense; 
it calls away from their regular duties the members of 
the staff of the parent enterprise, not without harm 
to the principal operations. It were better to operate 
the small mine as a separate unit. As one more illustra- 
tion we mention the fact that during the closing days of 
1921 the financial press of New York repeated sundry 
rumors of big mergers of copper companies. It was said 
that the American Smelting & Refining Company is to 
combine with the Utah, Braden, Chile, and Kennecott 
companies, thereby creating an enormous copper-pro- 
ducing enterprise. If the purpose be to make an organi- 
zation for the joint marketing of the copper, we can 
understand the advantages that may accrue, but if it be 
for the purpose of placing one or more weak or decadent 
undertakings under the cloak of consolidation, we trust 
that the intention will be abandoned. The American 
Smelting company already has exceeded the capacity of 
those in control, more particularly its president ; it is by 
no means unique in this respect, for few indeed are the 
big consolidations that have justified themselves in effi- 
ciency or service, much as they may have provided pas- 
turage for the bulls on Wall Street. They have over- 
extended the abilities of their directing minds and have 
served mainly to stifle the legitimate competition that is 
essential to the proper discipline of a public corporation. 

Another rumor hinted that the Anaconda company is to 
absorb the Inspiration, Calumet & Arizona, and other 
mining companies in the South-West. It is true the 
Anaconda in the recent past has won a reputation for 
good management, but we venture to suggest that it also 
has spread its activities far enough. Even in Montana 
the operations of the Anaconda are so diverse and so 
scattered as to tax adequate supervision and co-ordinated 
control ; but the Anaconda has copper mines in South 
America, such as those operated by the Andes and 
Santiago companies. We can see no gain to anybody, 
either the shareholders or the public, in the proposed 
merger, the report of which we hope may prove a canard. 
On the other hand, the absorption of the American Brass 
Company by the Anaconda company, as recorded in these 
pages last week, is an entirely different matter, because 
it is perfectly logical for a mining and smelting company 
producing large quantities of copper and zinc to secure 
a means of fabricating and selling brass products. 

Swollen consolidations have another defect, and that is 
the destruction of character. Their overgrowth of ex- 
pansion weakens the morale of the administration by sub- 
stituting divided control for personal direction ; it lowers 
the morality of those responsible by adding to their num- 
ber. A board of directors usually has less sense of right 
than the average member of the board; sometimes its 
morality is that of the least moral of those present ; in 
any event, it is characteristic of boards and committees 
to pass the buck morally as it is the fashion among the 
departments of a big organization to shelve responsibili- 
ties when they prove inconvenient. This striving for 
mere bigness is the curse of the modern world and the 
bane of honest industry ; it is based on shallow thinking ; 
it exceeds the known limits of human capacity ; its fatal 
defect is the failure to provide "pasturage for bulls". 

Insurance of Employees 

In the annual report of the Department of Mines and 
Industries of South Africa, the Government Mining En- 
gineer, Sir Robert N. Kotze, comments on the need for 
anticipating and preparing for unemployment and dis- 
tress that may result from occasional or periodic inter- 
ruptions to industrial progress, with particular reference 
to diamond mining. As is well known, toward the end 
of 1920 there was a complete collapse of this important 
branch of South African industry, resulting in the clos- 
ing-down of most of the mines and a restriction of work 
of others. Although the diamond-selling syndicate main- 
tained at normal the price of stones that were sold, the 
market-value outside its sphere of influence was greatly 
affected. Prospecting for diamantiferous ground almost 
ceased. Large numbers of men were discharged from 
the mines, and swelled the ranks of the unemployed. In 
some cases the companies endeavored to mitigate hard- 
ship by grants and bonuses, but this only partly relieved 
the conditions. The general impression seems to be that 
an industry should be able to cope with the unemploy- 
ment resulting from slumps such as have occurred during 

January 7, 1922 


1 .-iit times; the country ns;i whole should nol be called 

upon to apply o remedy. It maj be contended, gays the 

report, thai the mil wner Buffers with the worker, but 

this is not entirely true, for he oan or should make pro- 
vision tor a rainy day by conserving part of the divi- 
dends received during years of prosperity. It is also 
patent that the probability of an occasional industrial 
collapse lias the tendency to prevent an undue apprecia- 
tion of thfl value of Stocks and shares during normal 
times: this is to the benefit of the purchaser of such a 
form of investment. For example. De Beers Preferred 
shares are now quoted al about CIO. Since 1905, the 
average dividend has been El Is. ">d. per share, or 10.7$ 
of £10; but for four years no dividend was paid, and 

the average dividend for the remaining 12 years was at 
the rate of 14.3% of £10. During the past few years the 
dividends have been at an even more substantial rate. It 
is clear, says Sir Robert, that the tendency is to take into 
account the probability that there will be years in which 
dividends will diminish or disappear; the value of shares 
is not based entirely on the fact that dividends have been 
paid in the past. On the other hand, during prosperous 
times the worker is not paid a proportionately higher 
v. age out of which he can build a reserve fund in anticipa- 
tion of the days when a falling market may lead to un- 
employment. We are inclined to agree that it is not un- 
reasonable to argue that his sense of security should be 
considered by his employer, preferably by the provision 
of an insurance fund, from which an allowance can be 
paid to him during periods of economic depression or 
when other occasion demands. There is much to be said 
in favor of the contention that such a method would 
alleviate some of the distress that results from unem- 
ployment. If the State were obliged to make the outlay, 
it is probable that it would.recoup itself, in part at least, 
from the profits of the industry in question. The subject 
is one of interest ; it supports the contention that men as 
well as machines represent capital expenditure, and that 
allowance for amortization and depreciation, as well as 
for interest, should be provided. 

The Use of Metals 

At a time when mining is just emerging from a period 
of acute depression, from a malaise the chief symptom 
of which is unreasoning pessimism, it may be desirable 
to remind ourselves of the extent to which the use of 
metals enters into our daily life. Most of us begin the 
day by arising from a bedstead made of brass, which is 
an alloy of copper and zinc. Our movements are aided 
by steel bed-springs. As we go to the bath we open a 
door by means of a brass knob — more copper and zinc. 
Inside the bath-room we are sorrounded by evidences of 
the fact that our comfort is dependent largely upon the 
service of metals. The word 'plumbing' signifies the use 
of lead, for plumbum is the Latin for lead, and its abbre- 
viation, Pb, is the chemical symbol of that modest metal. 
The fixtures are nickel-plated, that is, either brass, cast- 
iron, or wrought-iron coated with nickel, to prevent rust- 

ing. The bath-tub usually is made of sheet iron coated 
with an enamel that itself is the product of mining opera- 
tions; for it is a vitrified form of clay. Returning to the 

bedroom, we see a pin on the tl ■ and pick it up. .Most 

pins are made of tinned brass, but the cheaper kinds con- 
sist of tin-plated steel wire. A mete man hardly realizes 

how great is the i sumption of pins, except when he 

buys a shirt or prepares to wear one that has some from 
the laundry; but to womankiml the pill is the prime 
implement of their engineering; their idea of chaos, we 
are told, is "at inconvenient moments to come undone". 
It. is estimated that 10.875,000,000 pins were used in the 
United States in 191S. More than half of the factories 
established for the purpose are in Connecticut. Let us 
suppose that we are now ready for breakfast, having 
shaved with a steel razor by the aid of soap in a nickel- 
plated container. We go downstairs, passing over brass 
rods on the stairway and opening more doors with brass 
knobs. In the dining-room we find metals galore. On the 
table shines the silverware that kind friends gave us when 
we were married. The spoons and forks are of silver, 
alloyed with a little copper to harden the metal. The 
knives are made of steel or of silver-plated steel. The big 
tray is Sheffield ware, which is silver-plated copper. In the 
corner stands a lamp on a bronze pedestal. Bronze is an 
alloy of tin and copper. The light comes from a tungsten 
filament heated by the energy transmitted along a copper 
wire. The various fixtures are made either of brass, 
bronze, or nickel-plate, which together involve the use of 
copper, zinc, tin, nickel, and iron. A brass fender lies 
in front of the fire-place, and leaning against it are tongs 
and poker made of brass and iron. The comfort of the 
breakfast-table is aided by an electrical toaster, the coils 
in which may be made of german silver, an alloy of cop- 
per, zinc, and nickel. Afterward, if our observer hap- 
pens to be the lady of the house, she will go into the 
kitchen to consult the cook. There she sees metal on 
every side. The stove is made of iron, with nickel and 
enamel accessories. The pots and pans are made of tin- 
plated iron, enameled iron, copper, or aluminum. The 
glint of a copper kettle suggests cleanliness. Nickel- 
plated utensils are numerous. The plumbing bespeaks 
lead again. A well-ordered kitchen is scrupulously clean 
and is painted at frequent intervals. The white paint 
is made either of lead oxide or zinc oxide; its ingredients 
are produced from the ores of zinc and lead. That re- 
minds us that paint is used all over a house, especially 
on the roof, the various pigments being derived from 
metallic ores. The roof itself may consist of metal — 
copper, zinc, or various kinds of sheet-iron in the form 
of shingles or tiles. On the windows are brass rods and 
under the tables and heavy chairs are castors, made of 
soft iron and brass. The electric heater has a nickel- 
plated base and a copper reflector. Bronze and brass 
are to be seen in numerous ornaments and fixtures. Sil- 
ver and gold will be found in sundry treasured pos- 

It is now time to go to the office. At this season of 
the year we carry a steel-ribbed umbrella, which, if a 


January 7, 1922 

gift, is likely to show metals more precious than iron. 
The automobile is made of various steel alloys containing 
such metals as manganese, chrome, magnesium, tungsten, 
vanadium, and molybdenum, besides copper and alu- 
inum. The interor of the car may show brass, bronze, 
or nickel-plate. The buttons on the upholstery are made 
of lead. The rubber of the tires is prepared with zinc 
oxide. Copper wires are used for electric transmission 
both in the starting apparatus and for lighting and 
ignition. The suburban train exhibits the use of metals 
in many forms, from the copper wire that brings the 
electric energy, to the steel rails on which the train runs. 
Inside the car are fixtures made of various metals. Ar- 
riving at the terminal, our observer walks to his office 
and nearly stubs his toe against a galvanized-iron can for 
rejected newspapers — and in San Francisco such a con- 
tainer is a prime requisite. In his office he finds that 
his telephone receiver shows brass and nickel-plate; his 
filing-cases are made of steel ; so is his pen. Paper-clips 
of nickel-plated brass or iron are on his desk ; his ink- 
stand is made of brass ; his swivel chair moves on a steel 
pivot. We might proceed to mention such details as the 
steel eyelets in our shoes and the silver buckles that sup- 
port sundry garments, the gold watch and the steel 
pocket-knife, but to continue the catalogue would be 
tiresome. Each reader can add to the list. When he 
has done so, he will have fulfilled our purpose, which is 
to remind him that the material basis of our civilization 
is metallic, and therefore that the mining industry is 
essential to modern life. 

Methods of an Uncamouflaged Trust 

Details of a real and honest-to-goodness trust, which 
controls effectively the output and the price of a com- 
modity throughout almost the whole of the civilized 
world, are given in a recent issue of ' Commerce Reports ' ; 
we refer to the iodine producers' association of Chile. As 
a preliminary, it is necessary to correct a general mis- 
apprehension, encouraged by the misstatements of a 
large number of writers on chemistry, especially those 
whose books are of the popular type, that iodine is re- 
covered mainly from seaweed. Such is far from being 
the ease ; all the iodine consumed in this country is a by- 
product of the mining industry, being recovered from 
the agua vieja or mother liquor that ^results from the 
treatment of Chilean caliche. The imports of the ele- 
ment into this country from Chile amounted to 1,254,011 
pounds in 1919, valued, according to 'Mineral Industry', 
at $2,395,969; during 1920 the imports amounted to 
293.941 pounds, valued at $593,672. The Combinacion 
de Yodo, as the iodine, trust is called, has its headquarters 
at Iquique; it originated by virtue of a public deed in 
1894; its activities have been extended at intervals, as 
required by the articles of association. The combine is 
controlled by a set of drastic by-laws, the objects of the 
association, as set forth in these, being as follows: (1) 
To regulate the export of iodine; (2) to regulate the dis- 
tribution of the quota of each associate in the sales of 

the combination ; (3) to arrange for the sales of the iodine 
belonging to the associates, and for that purpose to enter 
into consignment contracts; (4) to enter into an agree- 
ment with producers of iodine for the sale and for the 
supply of the amounts needed to meet consumption, 
through the instrumentality of agents appointed for that 
purpose or in any other way that may be found con- 
venient; (5) to bring about in every possible way the 
consolidation of the combination, procuring the adhesion 
of new producers; and especially (6) to secure an in- 
crease in the consumption of iodine by means of propa- 
ganda, by offering rewards for the best studies suggesting 
new uses for iodine, or to inventors or to those who dis- 
cover some new application for this article. Every nitrate 
establishment belonging to an associate of the combination 
and actually manufacturing nitrate has the right, even 
if not equipped for the manufacture of iodine, to a quota 
in the monthly sales. This quota is determined in a man- 
ner prescribed in the statutes, each producer having the 
privilege of selecting either of the two following methods 
of computation : (a) by actual trial of the capacity of the 
establishment to produce iodine under specified condi- 
tions for a period of 30 days, or (6) by the decision of ex- 
perts. The statutes also give the combination the power 
to enter into a contract with a European firm, for periods 
not exceeding five years, for the consignment and dis- 
tribution of iodine, on the basis of 5%, commission on 
sales. One of the articles provides that the associated 
manufacturers shall pay a contribution not exceeding 
five shillings per quintal of iodine sold, to cover the cost 
of administration; this will be collected from the asso- 
ciates according to the monthly quota of each ; to increase 
or to decrease the contribution requires the assent of 
80% of the members. Another article of association 
provides for the establishment, in London of a consulta- 
tive body, known as the Iodine Sub-Committee. Five of 
the six members of this sub-committee must be persons 
that are interested in the nitrate industry, are members 
of the iodine combination, or are the directors or legal 
representatives of nitrate companies associated in the 
combination; the sixth must be a representative of the 
consignees. Members of the trust are prohibited from 
making, exporting, selling, transferring, or "otherwise 
negotiating" iodine, either in Chile or in any other coun- 
try, except as laid down in the by-laws. The Combinacion 
de Yodo is essentially a group the purpose of which is to 
control prices and restrict production. Only a small pro- 
portion of the iodine in Chilean caliche is recovered ; the 
remainder is deliberately wasted. An American operator 
who decided to manufacture iodine in Chile and to sell it 
outside the trust would find himself persona nan grata, 
and to an extent that would interfere with his continu- 
ance in legitimate business. If he returned to the United 
States to make iodine from our own resources, his product 
would be underbid by the imported article. There is no 
question of the cost of labor here as compared with the 
cost in Chile; the receipts to the nitrate operator from 
the sale of iodine constitute what is known locally as a 
llapa, which, by interpretation, means a gratuity. 

January ~. ''-'- 


Relation of Mining to the Development of the State 

By L. D. Ricketts 

'Statistics are tiresome things. I have often heard it 
said, if you are rash enough to introduce figures into an 
address yon kill its effect. At the same time I do not 
know how I can speak on the relation of mining to the 
i|>ment of the State without quoting some figures, 
but I shall be as brief as I can. 

I came to live in Arizona in 1890. My one regret is 
that I did not come earlier, for I have loved my life in 
Arizona. The mining camps at Clifton, Globe, Bisbee, 
and Jerome were already producing copper, some of them 
at a profit. Irrigation was well under way, chiefly in the. 
Salt River valley and iu the valley of the Gila about 
Solomonville. Two main lines of railway crossed the 
State, largely because Arizona happened to be in the way 
of getting from the Bast to California, and there were a 
few branch lines. Grazing was pretty well established. 
Miscellaneous business in the State was limited -in vol- 
ume. Since that time all of the chief industries of the 
State have advanced in a most remarkable way. 

In 1890 the population of Arizona, exclusive of 
Indians, was 58,000. In 1920 it was 301,000, an increase 
of 420%. 

In 1890 the copper production of Arizona was 35 mil- 
lion pounds. In 1920 it was 553 million pounds, or an 
increase of 1500%. 

In 1890 the acreage under irrigation was in round 
figures 66,000. In 1920 it was 467,000, or an increase of 

In 1890 there were about 1025 miles of railway in the 
State ; and in 1920 there were 2477 miles, or an increase 
of 145%. It should be remembered that the railroads 
built prior to 1890 were meant largely for transconti- 
nental business. Since that date almost all the extensions 
of railways have been for the development of local State 
traffic and no new transcontinental line has been built. 

In 1890 mining and metallurgical processes were most 
imperfect, the appliances for handling material were 
crude and inadequate. For such reasons the output of a 
man per day was exceedingly limited and it required ores 
containing 15% copper, which even then were becoming 
exhausted, to produce the metal on a profitable basis. In 
order to meet the increasing demand for copper, methods 
had to be devised to treat leaner ores in the existing mines 
and to make new mines out of the great outcrops of cop- 
per-bearing material that had long been known in the 
State, but which did not contain material that could be 
worked at a profit at that time. 

The miner and the metallurgist attacked these great 
problems with splendid courage and pluck, and their ef- 
forts met with great success. In 1890 only tiny blast- 

*An address delivered on December 15 at Phoenix before 
the Arizona State Industrial Conference. 

furnaces were in use in Arizona. Most of the mines 
smelted oxidized ores with great losses of copper. Jerome 
alone produced matte, but this had to be hauled over a 
great mountain range to Prescott and then shipped to 
Baltimore for further treatment. 

The first great advance was made by Dr. Douglas in 
1894 when he introduced at Bisbee the trough-converter, 
which was then in successful use at Butte. This enabled 
him to smelt his own sulphide ores to a matte with a much 
higher recovery of copper and with a much lower con- 
sumption of coke. About the same time Clifton began to 
construct small and crude concentrators, which later on 
were enlarged and greatly improved. In 1898 all-steel 
construction was introduced in new smelters and concen- 
trators in Arizona, and another great step was the intro- 
duction of the belt-conveyor for the local transportation 
of ore. In 1903 the Copper Queen introduced the large 
blast-furnace, electric haulage, mechanical feeding, and 
large slag-cars in the Copper Queen plant at Douglas. 
This was followed at Cananea in 1906 by the successful 
introduction of the reverberatory furnace, and the Ari- 
zona smelters rapidly followed suit — in some cases en- 
tirely supplanting the blast-furnace with reverberatories. 
In 1912- '13 experiments at Inspiration proved that flota- 
tion was applicable to many copper ores, and then came 
the development of new chemical methods for the treat- 
ment of oxidized copper ores with the successful intro- 
duction of acid leaching and electrolytic recovery of cop- 
per from solution in the great mine at Ajo. 

While this rapid progress was being made in metal- 
lurgy there was for a time less progress made in the min- 
ing methods, because the problem here was much more 
difficult. The first great advance was made by Louis S. 
Cates who developed in Utah and introduced at Ray his 
shrinkage system with such intelligence and success. His 
method has been extended to other districts. Later the 
so-called Ohio system, developed by Felix McDonald in 
Utah, was adopted at Inspiration and Mr. McDonald was 
employed to supervise it there. 

In 1890 I estimate about 140,000 tons of ore was 
treated with a yield of possibly 250 pounds of copper to 
the ton, and a production of 35 million pounds of copper. 
In 1920 I believe over 100 times the tonnage of ores was 
treated with a yield of not to exceed 30 pounds of copper, 
and this has been rendered possible through increases in 
the size of units, through great and radical improvements 
in processes and methods, and by the introduction of 
mechanical appliances for handling material in mines and 

It is these points that I wish to lay stress upon. In the 
early days we were only able to work rich ore because our 
methods were crude and our appliances inadequate and 
small. Through the improvements in process that I have 



January 7, 1922 

mentioned, and through the wonderful revolution in the 
methods of handling material, we have been able to em- 
ploy labor at higher rates, to meet the increased demands 
for labor from other industries, and to decrease the use 
of it to a large extent. "We have economized in labor and 
supplies. The efficiency of a man-day is tremendously in- 
creased, and it is for these reasons that the copper in- 
dustry of Arizona exists today. 

In 1890 the output of ore per man-day was certainly 
less than a ton. Today I have not the data for an accu- 
rate statement, but I believe the output per man-day is 
probably ten times as great. 

I now come to the relation of this growth to the gen- 
eral prosperity of the State. As I have said, in 1920 our 
copper output was 553 million pounds. During the cur- 
rent year we were feeling the beginning of the panic and 
the output was over 20% less than in 1917. I have no 
doubt that if there were the demand and copper mining 
were profitable Arizona could equal the figures of 1917, 
when the output was about 720 million pounds, and I 
have had collected for that year statistics showing ex- 
penditures of all the mines for certain of the major items. 
I have had furnished me the actual figures from all the 
important mines of the State but one, and of all the im- 
portant smelters of the State but one, and on these I have 
had to make an estimate of expenditures; I have been 
conservative, and the expenditures I have estimated on 
behalf of this one mine and smelter are below the average 
of the remaining mines and smelters of the State, and any 
element of error is, I am sure, small and on the safe side. 
My estimate shows that, exclusive of salaries paid from 
New York, which are comparatively unimportant, arid 
New York office expense, selling expense, interest charges, 
etc., the following sums of money were spent strictly by 
Arizona mines. I avoid fractions and give the figures in 
the nearest thousand : 

For labor $34,299,000 

For freight 17,786,000 

For refining 5,033,000 

For supplies at their source, including fuel-oil, 

coke, etc., and taxes 26,055,000 

A total of $83,173,000 

As I have said, New York charges are not included in 
the above, but we have in these figures I have given a cost 
of 11.5c. per pound. Now of this cost, how much was 
spent in Arizona? I estimate that about 50% of the 
freight is allotted in divisions to railroads in Arizona, in- 
cluding main lines and their branches. This may seem 
high, but it should be remembered that in that year our 
fuel-oil originated at Segundo, our lumber at San Pedro, 
and there was a large movement of strictly intra-state 
tonnages, including the ores between Bisbee and Douglas 
and Ray and Hayden. I assume 70% of the rates for 
operating expenses. If this is the case, of the above 83 
million dollars between 47 and 48 millions in actual gold 
coin were paid out in Arizona, and of this over 40 millions 
consisted of payroll and taxes alone. I have not included 
anything whatever for the purchase of mine supplies 
within the State, although the farmer and timbermen 

know they are considerable, nor have I included sales to 
employees of any kind. 

When we come to 1920, the production has dropped 
over 20%, but labor in 1920 was higher than in 1917; 
freight was tremendously higher ; refining and taxes were 
higher. While therefore the output of copper in 1920 
was about 553 million pounds, the amount of money spent 
was about the same. Labor was about 5 millions less, or 
about 29 millions instead of 34 millions. Refining was 
much more, and supplies, taxes, etc., much more. I esti- 
mate the cost of the items as enumerated for the year 
1917, without New York office expense, was a little over 
83 million dollars, or nearly 15c. per pound of copper. 

Remember, these costs do not include the Eastern office 
expenses. They include nothing for interest charges, for 
depreciation, or for the exhaustion of the mines. Since 
April of this year scarcely a mine has operated. Still 
the money spent by the mines during this year is consid- 
erable. In the Warren district alone I presume half a 
million dollars a month is being expended, and through- 
out the State possibly quadruple this sum. 

As you know, at the beginning of the year 1920 there 
was a large surplus of copper that had been nominally 
quoted at a high price, but could not be sold. At the end 
of the year still more copper was on hand. The surplus 
increased enormously and finally in April of this year 
the mines had all of their money locked up in copper and 
the copper could not be sold and we had to face a crisis 
and cease production ; and you know what has happened 
since. A large part of the copper has now been sold, but 
it has been sold at prices varying between lie. and 13c. 
per pound. The copper mines generally have acted in a 
conservative way. They will have a cash surplus and will 
be abundantly able to resume operations when the time 
comes to do so, but they have made a loss on the copper 
that they produced and had to sell at a sacrifice. 

This covers the substance of my address. I have given 
you some facts. It is with some hesitancy that I make a 
few remarks as to probabilities in the future. I have 
given you the facts as they stand. I am not pessimistic. 
We can and will economize, and while it may be that all 
of the mines cannot resume at present prices, I believe at 
least by next spring some of the mines will be in opera- 
tion, and I believe with care and economy that we can 
operate under the prices that prevail. I believe that the 
copper business of this State is going to be just as success- 
ful in the long run in the future as it has been in the 
past; and as I believe in copper, so do I believe in our 
other industries. All I have to say is that we must all 
work ; we must all pull together ; there can be no question 
of our gradually forging ahead with gradually increasing 

We are confronted with two serious difficulties. One, 
and the less important one, is excessive freight -rates. We 
must remember that it is perfectly natural that the rail- 
ways should wish to maintain as high rates as possible be- 
cause of their shareholders and employees; but if the 
rates are maintained, it will mean a curtailment of cop : 
per output. A great deal of our ore that should be profit- 
able will become unprofitable and the tonnage of profit- 

:. L922 


able ore in sight will be decreased. 1 believe that it is up 
to the shippers to show the railroads that rates should be 
materially reduced, and 1 believe that they will be re- 

The other and much more serious question is that of 
fuel. Several yean ago when the mining companies re* 
quested bids Crom California we were told by the large 
producers that they had no fuel-oil for Side, hut we were 
fortunate enough to make an advantageous contract for 
Mexican oiL I believe it is only a question now of a few 
years when this commodity will become so costly that we 
cannot afford to use it. We probably can get an inferior 
coal at high cost that will be sufficient for smelting pur- 
poses, but I hope we will not be obliged to use this coal 
for power. 

I have had the subject of power carefully canvassed. 
I find that the mines and smelters of the South-West, in- 
cluding northern Sonora. now use about 70,000 hp. in 
addition to the power they recover from waste heat, and 
my report shows that it is probable this demand will in- 
crease to over 100,000 hp. in the next four or five years. 
1 wish most urgently to bring to your attention the 
fact that Arizona needs cheap power and is faced with the 
most serious menace if it does not get it, and the only 
source of cheap power that I know is the Colorado river. 
It is a matter of indifference to me who develops this 
power, but I believe its immediate development is vital 
to the best interests of the State. I may further say, if 
fuel-oil is not available and if cheap power can be ob- 
tained in Arizona, I believe there will be an extension of 
leaching in contradistinction to smelting, and that the 
refining industry and the production of electrolytic cop- 
per in Arizona will become a great and important in- 
dustry. I have today able chemists at work trying to 
methods of leaching certain classes of mixed and 
sulphide ores in order to provide in the future for con- 
tingencies of which I speak. 

and then declined In August to 130 fr. ; present • 
tions are ISO Jr., with a decidedly improved demand, 
which is also reflected in the improvement of quotations 
on rolled rinc 1 172.50 Er. per 100 lulus and corrugated 
sheets (177.50 francs). 

Statistics of output in Belgium's main iron and steel 
branches from April through September make it appear 
that the low point in production was reached in July, 
since which time practically every division, with the ex- 
ception of pig-iron, has shown an advance, states a con- 
sular report. It is, in fact, reported that three additional 
blast-furnaces are about to be re-lighted. The September 
production of pig-iron was only 19% of the monthly 
average for 1913 (207,058 metric tons) and 43% of the 
1920 average (93,033 metric tons). Similarly, the pro- 
duction of raw steel was only 15% of the 1913 average 
and 31% of the mean monthly figure for 1920; and that 
of rough castings 60% of both the 1913 and the 1920 
monthly average, current production of rough castings 
having approximately reached the 1913 level. Spelter 
production has shown a shade of betterment since June, 
but not enough to justify any sanguine hopes of a re- 
sumption of business. Tonnage figures for the last six 
months are : April, 4320 ; May, 4360 ; June, 4370 ; July, 
4950; August, 5000; and September, 4990. Spelter 
prices until July remained steady at 145 fr. per 100 kilos. 

The geology of eastern Oregon can be summarized by 
stating that nearly the whole of that portion of the State 
is underlain by Tertiary lavas, states a bulletin of the 
Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology. Relatively small 
areas of Cretaceous and older strata occur in the Blue 
mountains; Tertiary freshwater sedimentary strata, com- 
monly more or less ashy in composition, overlie or locally 
underlie the lavas and form the surface formations in 
scattered areas. Tertiary strata of freshwater origin but 
chiefly non-tuffaceous in character and of great thickness 
occupy the valleys of Snake river and tributary streams 
in the Vale and Ontario region. Drilling for oil and gas 
has been done or is now being carried on in the Dalles 
region, west of Dufur, south of Burns, south of Klamath 
Falls and east of that city, and around Vale and Ontario. 
All the wells have gone down in Tertiary sediments. 
Many of them have struck small quantities of gas ; some, 
such as the Boyer well in Ontario, have encountered con- 
siderable quantities at high pressure which, however, de- 
creased rapidly. Traces of oil have also been reported in 
a number of these wells but no verifiable cases in which a 
notable quantity of crude petroleum was brought to the 
surface were discovered. Many reported seeps of oil were 
investigated, but no true seeps were found ; the reported 
oil-colors in every case turned out to be iron films. As 
to prospects for oil in commercial amounts, eastern Ore- 
gon cannot be regarded as impossible territory, but it is 
rather improbable territory. This judgment is based on 
the absence so far as known of typical oil seeps, the fresh- 
water origin of all the sedimentary strata except those 
in relatively small areas in the Blue mountains, the 
scarcity of the mother rocks of petroleum, the dominantly 
volcanic nature of the rocks underlying the sediments, 
and the failures to date. The chances of securing oil 
in the relatively small areas of considerably deformed 
marine strata in the Blue mountains cannot be appraised 
accurately on the basis of the brief examination made of 
them. An oil supply is probably not to be expected in 
them. The possibility of a commercial gas supply is 
somewhat better; considerable drilling has thus far en- 
countered, however, only one or two bodies of gas which 
in quantity approached a commercial supply. Gas occurs 
in small amounts at many points in the Tertiary strata, 
but it would appear that the thick sections in the On- 
tario-Vale region afford the best chances of encountering 
a commercial supply. It is to be recognized that even 
here, however, the likelihood of developing a large output 
does not seem good. In drilling test-holes in this region 
locations should be chosen on folds at some distance from 
the higher hills that surround the district. This is ad- 
visable, inasmuch as these hills are composed mainly of 
igneous rocks, and because the thickest sections of strata 
undoubtedly lie in general in the middle parts of the 



January 7, 1922 

Mining in British Columbia 
in 1921 

By H. Mortimer'Lamb 

In common with other mining countries, British Co- 
lurnhia has been affected adversely during the past year 
by the fall in the prices of the base metals, copper, zinc, 
and lead, consequent on the steady accumulation of 
stocks, in particular since the close of the War, and of the 
general depression in trade during the past two years. 
Copper's decline from an average market price of 17.45c. 
in 1920 to an average price of 12.41c. in 1921 means, 
roughly, a depreciation in marketable value of 29%. In 
the case of lead, the average price in 1920 was 7.96c, and 
in 1921, 4.53c, or a decrease in market value of 43%. 
The price of zinc fell from the average of 7.67c. in 1920, 
to 4.62c. in 1921, or a decline of nearly 40%. No less 
marked has been the decline, equivalent to 37%, in the 
price of silver ; and as, in British Columbia, this metal is 
produced mainly in connection with the mining of lead 
and copper, the effect of its depreciated value has been 
doubly inauspicious. In brief, it may be affirmed that such 
metal-mining operations as have been conducted during 
the past year have afforded but a narrow margin of 
profit; in certain instances they have been conducted at 
a heavy loss. Two companies only have carried on con- 
tinuous large-scale metal-mining operations during the 
year. These were the Consolidated Mining & Smelting 
Co. of Canada, operating the Sullivan zinc-lead mine in 
East Kootenay and copper-gold mines in Rossland, and 
the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co., 
operating copper mines at Anyox. To their activities 
may be attributed the fact that the metalliferous output 
for the year, in point of quantity, has been maintained 
at a level not pronouncedly below that of last year ; in- 
deed, there has been an actual gain in the production of 
lead and zinc. Measured however in terms of value, the 
production of silver, copper, lead, and zinc, it is esti- 
mated, will not be much more than half that of 1920. In 
other words, instead of a production of these metals 
valued at nearly $19,750,000, this year's output will not 
have a valuation much in excess of $11,000,000. In 1920 
the returns in respect of gold, from both placer and gold 
mining, gave a valuation in round figures of $2,700,000. 
The yield in 1921 probably will be rftther less. Coal and 
coke production is estimated to have been, this year, about 
85% of that of 1920 ; and generally speaking it may be 
added that the coal-mining industry of the Province has 
been on a rather more satisfactory basis than that of any 
other class of mining, notwithstanding the fact that wages 
remain high and there are other conditions militating 
against the expansion of the industry. Of these condi- 
tions on the Coast the most formidable is the competition 
with which operators are confronted by reason of the im- 
portation of fuel-oil from California to replace coal for 
use both on railways and in factories. It is estimated, for 
example, that last year the consumption in British Co- 
lumbia of fuel-oil was over 4,000,000 barrels, valued at 

$12,000,000, to the displacement of 1,200,000 tons of coal. 
The imported fuel-oil is merely a residuum or by-product 
from the Californian wells, the valuable gasoline content 
having first been extracted. Therefore it can be sold at a 
low price ; but having regard, as surely we should, to the 
more important consideration of the prosperity of our 
own industries, shared as this prosperity must be by the 
community as a whole, such advantages as the users of im- 
ported fuel-oil may derive might well be discounted, and 
a whole-hearted support given to the proposal that the 
duty on this foreign product be increased sufficiently to 
afford the coal mines of Vancouver Island the measure of 
protection that would enable them to combat successfully 
competition from this source. The disastrous effects on 
the coal industry consequent on the use of fuel-oil is 
emphasized by the statement that the present annual pro- 
duction of the Vancouver Island mines is nearly half a 
million tons less than it was ten years ago. 

In conclusion, an optimistic note may be sounded. Un- 
doubtedly the clouds are dispersing, if slowly, and 
brighter days are again dawning for the mining industry. 
World events are so shaping as to indicate an earlier re- 
adjustment of the complex and difficult post-war prob- 
lems of international commercial relationships than even 
the most sanguine had been inclined to expect. There 
must necessarily follow in due course a normal resump- 
tion of trade. The demand in Europe for metals has in 
no way diminished ; it is now probably greater than ever 
before, and self-interest impels those capable of satisfying 
that demand to find a way of removing the present ob- 
stacles to the marketing of their products in foreign coun- 
tries. Both at home and abroad there is less of unrest. 
and a gradual but notable restoration of confidence in the 
stability of the existing order ; and with the rapid decline 
in basic costs of production, industry will once again be 
afforded reasonable opportunity to prosper. 

In the Province of Quebec, Canada, there are six main 
centres of production of asbestos, and these localities in 
1920 yielded nearly 180,000 tons of asbestos fibre, as com- 
pared with about 24,000 tons produced by all the other 
countries of the world, states a bulletin of the Depart- 
ment of Colonization, Mines and Fisheries. Of these 
six centres five are situated on the line of the Quebec- 
Central railway, which connects Quebec with Sherbrooke, 
a distance of 143 miles. These five centres are East 
Broughton, 60 miles south to Quebec; Robertson, 71 
miles; Thetford, 76 miles; Black Lake, 80 miles; Col- 
eraine, 86 miles. For the distance of 26 miles between 
Coleraine and East Broughton the railway follows the 
general trend of the serpentine belt, most of the principal 
mines being situated within a few hundred feet of the 
main line; the asbestos deposits are therefore almost 
equidistant from Sherbrooke and from Quebec. At Sher- 
brooke the railway connects with the railroad system of 
the United States, and at Quebec is situated a harbor 
open to the largest ships during seven or eight months 
of the year. The sixth centre is near Danville, 80 miles 
south-west of Quebec, and 30 miles from Sherbrooke. 

January 7, 1922 



The California Rand Silver Mine— III 

Metallurgy — Concentration by Flotation 

By Arthur B. Parsons 

The gross value of the gold and silver contained in 
the ore shipped by the California Band company since 
June 1919, when the first consignment of 55.9 tons was 
sent to the Selby smelter of the American Smelters 
Securities Co. on San Francisco hay, is $2,878,946, 
as shown in the accompanying summary. These figures 
are taken from the official smelter returns and are calcu- 
lated on the basis of the market price of silver on the day 
settlement was made. The net return after deducting 

line of the Santa Fe railroad from Barstow to Johannes- 
burg. The rate is based on the net smelter return. 

Freight r:it.- 
Net return per ton per too 

Under $30 (8 

30lo 40 7 ;.o 

40" 80 !> Hi 

80 " 1">0 11.85 

150 " 200 13.00 

200 " 300 16.40 

Over 1000 32 60 

In addition there is a war-tax of 3% on the freight. 


the freight-charges paid to the railroad, the Government 
tax, and the deductions and charges made by the smelt- 
ing company is only $2,101,394. The difference is 
$777,552, or approximately $25 per ton, which may he 
considered as heing the average cost of marketing $100 
ore. This high cost results partly from the long haul 
and the prevailing high scale of freight-rates and partly 
from an unfavorable smelter contract. Ohviously the 
question of marketing the product was of prime impor- 
tance in determining the most suitable method of treat- 
ing the lower-grade ore of the mine. It will he inform- 
ing, therefore, to give some details regarding freight-rates 
and smelter-charges before starting the discussion of the 
metallurgic prohlems. The following schedule applies to 
shipments from the siding near the mine on the branch 

The freight to either of the plants in Salt Lake valley 
or to one of the smelters in Arizona would be higher than 
to Selby. However, if one of these smelters should offer 
sufficiently attractive charges, the difference in freight 
might be overcome. It seems probable that the California 
Rand company could at least induce the Selby smelter to 
make more liberal terms by negotiating with some other 
company to treat its ores. In any competition the Selby 
people, of course, would have the advantage because of 
the lower freight. Here follows a typical calculation of 
the settlement made by the smelter under the terms of the 
present contract. 

Silica. % 
Iron. % 


Analysts of the Ore 

. . . 0.29 Sulphur, t, 

. . .88.8 Arsenic. % 

. . .80.1 Antimony. 
... 4.8 




January 7, 1922 


Per ton 

Gold. 9 %<f t of assay at S20 per oz S 5.51 

Silver. 95To of assay at 99 %e. per oz ■ 88.05 


Arsenic and antimony, penalty on combined content of S2 

per unit 5 1.24 

Treatment, at S9 for S50 ore with 10% of the value in excess 

of S50. and up to S100 12.96 


Net value of ore delivered at smelter S79.36 

One consignment (No. 302) contained 61,968 lb., net 
dry weight, of exceptionally high-grade ore. It assayed 
1.4 oz. gold, 1336.1 oz. silver, 5.1% arsenic, and 5.8% 

Hinkley, 47 miles distant and at a much lower elevation. 
Pumping is out of the question even though a pipe-line 
of that length were feasible. The California Rand 
company owns some property about 5 miles east of the 
mine on which a water-shaft is now being sunk. At 130 
ft. this shaft developed only 1500 gal. per day ; however, 
it is expected to cut a known water-course at a depth of 
approximately 300 ft. Hope is entertained that a flow 
of some importance will result, but the actual supply, of 
course, is doubtful. The Randsburg Water Co. has 
some wells in the same vicinity, from which it supplies 
the town, but it has no appreciable excess to sell to the 



Month tons Gross-value 

1919 June 55.90 $2,465 

July 301.22 21,561 

August 707.55 148,753 

September 384.48 28,984 

October 648.36 30.518 

November 216. SI 36.S85 

December 656.57 84,536 

1920 January 1S7.19 24,262 

February 345.02 47,419 

March 343.18 92,183 

April 173.96 22,234 

May 649.88 70,615 

June 636.72 38,981 

July 323.96 22,268 

August 1,227.16 100,127 

September 1,132.54 101.844 

October 622.80 54,170 

November 2,034.61 156,638 

December 2,806.63 299,481 

1921 January 982.93 S2.601 

February S06.56 96,691 

March 1,321.45 136,531 

April 1,045.50 S9.283 

May 1,740.24 108,795 

June 1,587.02 119.585 

July 1,794.32 190,428 

August 1,556.11 175,813 

September 1,717.30 151,531 

October 1,839.24 130,937 

November 2,284.44 212,827 

Total 30,129.65 $2,878,946 

antimony. The following summarizes the deductions and 
charges per ton of ore : 

Penalty on arsenic and antimony S19.80 

Treatment 14.00 

5^ of silver 66.56 

5% of sold 2.3R 

Freight . 32.60 

Tax 1.00 

Total S136.32 

It has been proved to be not only possible, but prac- 
ticable, to make a flotation product containing approxi- 
mately 1300 oz. of silver per ton ; one of the metallurgic 
problems will be to determine the final economic advan- 
tage or disadvantage of doing so. 

One other factor in developing the best plan of metal- 
lurgical treatment is the lack of an ample supply of 
water near the mine. The nearest adequate supply is at 



. Net 





























































































































































$295,597 $8,857 $346, 09S 

P127.061 $2,101,394 

mining company. The only sure source is the railroad 
company's wells near Barstow. The Santa Fe company 
will supply the water without charge in order to get the 
resulting traffic, for the water must be hauled to the 
mine in tank-cars. The rate is $28 per car of 10,000 gal., 
and as the estimated requirements to mill 100 tons per 
day is 50,000 to 60,000 gal. the railroad will have a profit- 
able business; and the California Rand company, on the 
other hand, will be obliged to make every effort to con- 
serve water and to recover as much as is reasonably pos- 
sible from the mill-tailing. 

A third consideration, of an economic rather than of a 
distinctly metallurgic character, but one that has a bear- 
ing on the determination of the mill flow-sheet, is the 
royalty on the use of flotation. On account of the com- 

January 7, 1922 



parative smallnees of tlu>ir mine, the officials came t>> the 
conclusion that they could better afford t" pay the royv 
altiee demanded by the Minerals Separation company 
tluui to fight it ; accordingly they aigned a license conl ract 
iluii pro* ided two alternative methods of determining the 
royalty. These were: 1 1 a Ba1 rate of -'■' . on the value 
of the ore treated, or < 'J | 5c. per ounce of silver, and 50c. 
per ounce of gold recovered from any portion of tin- oiv 
that might be treated by flotation. This high royalty 
made it imperative to investigate alternative methods of 
treatment with a view to reducing to the minimum the 
amount of precious metal to be recovered by flotation. 

following metallurgical engineering firms made 
tests on the ore : Hamilton. Beauehamp. Woodworth, Inc., 
of San Francisco; General Engineering Co., of Salt 
Lake City; Colorado Iron Works, of Denver; the South- 
westi ru Engineering Co., of Los Angeles; and Minerals 

l'. Selective dotation, in whiob the endeavor »as made 

mi a small quantity of very high-grade silver con- 
centrate. The principal object was to lessen expenditure 
for freight, 

3. Table-concentration of ore crushed to 30-mesh, fol- 
low. ■,! by re grinding of the table-tailing and subsequent 
flotation. The principal object was to lessen the royalty 
on flotation. 

4. Selective flotation, as in (2), followed by concen- 
tration on tables to recover most of the pyrite with its 
associated gold, which would be dropped in the selective 

5. Selective flotation, as in (2), followed by cyanida- 
tion of flotation-tailing to extract most of the remaining 
gold and silver. 

6. 'Bulk' flotation, followed by eyanidation of the mid- 
dling and tailing combined. 


■fri /3SPW 

m H BS. ^g^gfe 

M^r .-jpfefl 

■ j! 





Separation company. The results of all their tests indi- 
cated that at least 96% of silver and 80% of the gold 
unquestionably could be recovered from the sulphide ore 
with a product of good grade and a satisfactory ratio of 
concentration. There is to be treated approximately 
10.000 tons of oxidized ore, which, of course, does not re- 
spond as satisfactorily to concentration by flotation. The 
main problem, however, is the treatment of the sulphide 
ore from the levels below 150 ft. ; in this the important 
ore-forming minerals are argentite (Ag,S), pyrargy- 
rite (Ag 3 S 3 Sb), proustite (Ag 3 S 3 As), and stephanite 
(Ag s S 4 Sb) ; besides these silver minerals there is the 
pyrite, with which most of the gold appears to be asso- 

The most comprehensive tests were made by the firm 
of Hamilton, Beauehamp, Woodworth, Inc. I shall dis- 
cuss sundry interesting features of their excellent report. 
Eight distinct processes or combinations of processes 
were tried. They were as follows: 

1. Straight flotation (Mr. Beauehamp calls it 'bulk' 
flotation) of the entire feed with a view to obtaining a 
satisfactory extraction of both gold and silver with a low 

7. Cyanidation of the raw ore. 

8. Concentration on tables followed by cyanidation of 
the tailing. 

The tests demonstrated that only the first three 
schemes need to be considered from the standpoint of 
'economic' realization, although some interesting results 
were obtained in the other tests. I shall refer to them 
by number. 

1. Straight flotation of sulphide ore only. 

Conditions of Test 

80 mesh 

Mechanical agitation 



( 4 mln. for concentrate 
I 11 min. for middliDg 

Pounds per ton 
of ore 

Water-gas tar ' . • 1*0 

Stove-oil 0.7 

Hardwood-creosote 0.2 

No. 5 pine-oil . . 0.1 

Sodium sulphide added in form of 10% solution 2.0 



Gold. Silver, 




Pulp dilution . . . 

Time of agitation. 


Assay . 







Heading . . . 

. .100.0 

S3. 10 



.. 7.6 



.. 8.4 







— Distri 









14 Ij 





January 7, 1922 













Analysis of Concentrate 

% 1- 

Arsenic 4.39 Iron 25.0 

Antimony 2.03 Insoluble 23.6 

'Eliminating' the middling, the following is the result: 

Product % 

Heading 100.0 

Concentrate 9.0 

Tailing 91.0 

Later I shall show the reasons that justify the conclu- 
sion that the return of the middling for re-treatment will 
not increase the precious-metal content of the tailing. 

Carrying out the calculation similar to that made on a 
previous page for the smelter returns on shipments of 
ore, it is found that the concentrate made would yield 
from the smelter $253.99 per ton. If from this be de- 
ducted $7.77 (2|% of $310.72, or the assay-value of the 
ore, for payment of flotation royalty), the net economic 
realization per ton of concentrate is $246.22. Then 

Assay-value of concentrate $310.72 

Economic realization 246.22 

Loss per ton of concentrate 64.50 

Percentage lost on content of concentrate 20.70 

The concentrate from one ton of ore contains gold and 
silver worth $27.96, of which 20.7% is spent for market- 
ing and for flotation royalty, leaving a net recovery of 
$22.18; or, based on the original ore, a net recovery of 
75.8%, The flotation royalty would be 64c. per ton of 
ore milled. 

2. Selective flotation of sulphide ore only. 

Conditions of Test 




Pulp dilution 
Time of agitation. 



Mechanical agitation 



Pound per ton 
of ore 

P. E. collector-oil 1.0 

Hardwood-creosote 0.3 

Product % 

Heading 100.0 

Concentrate . . 2.20 
Tailing 97.80 


Assay . 

Gold. Silver. 

$3.10 28.25 
50.64 1215.55 

2.48 2.17 

Content . 

Gold. Silver. 

Gold. Silver. 

SI. 114 




Analysis of Concentrate 

Arsenic 5.12 Antimony 

Combining Gold and Silver 

Weight, Combined Content 


Heading 100.0 

Concentrate 2.2 

Tailing 97.8 








The calculation of smelter returns on this concentrate 
shows that the net return after deducting freight, treat- 
ment, and penalties would be $1125.66 per ton. The flo- 
tation royalty would be 2.5% of $1261.64, or $31.54, 
leaving a net economic realization of $1094.12. 


Assay-value of concentrate $1261.64 

Economic realization 1094.12 

Loss per ton of concentrate 167.52 

Percentage lost on content of concentrate 13.28 

The concentrate from one ton of ore contains gold and 
silver worth $27.85, of which 13.28% is spent in market- 
ing and flotation royalty, leaving a net recovery of 
$24.15 ; or, based on the original ore, a net recovery of 

74.5%;. The flotation royalty would be 63c. per ton of 
ore milled. 

3. Concentrating on tables followed by flotation of the 
tailing. The ore, crushed to pass 30-mesh, was concen- 
trated on a quarter-size Deister-Overstrom concentrating 
table, making a finished product and a tailing. The tail- 
ing was re-ground and concentrated by flotation under 
the following conditions : 




Pulp dilution . . . 
Time of agitation 



Mechanical agitation 



15 min. 

Pounds per ton 
of ore 

P. E. collector-oil 1.0 

Hardwood-creosote 0.3 

No. 5 pine-oil 0.1 

Sodium sulphide 1.5 

The proportions and analyses of the heading, the two 
concentrates, and the tailing produced follow : 


Anti- Insolu- 

Weight, Gold, Silver, Arsenic, mony. Iron, ble. 

Product % oz. % % % % 

Heading 100.0 $4.77 26.88 

Table-concentrate ... 8.0 40.00 202.50 2.67 1.83 28.85 25.0 

Flotation concentrate 5.1 20.80 198.00 5.77 2.85 22.0 24.0 

Tailing 86.9 0.62 0.70 

Making the same calculations as before the following 
data are obtained. 

Assay-value of table-concentrate $241.73 

Economic realization 192.58 

Loss per ton of table-concentrate 49.15 

Percentage lost on content of table concentrate 13.28 

Obviously in the above no deduction need be made for 
flotation royalty. 

From the net recovery per ton of flotation concen- 
trate, $162.33, must be deducted the flotation royalty of 
5c. per ounce of silver and 50c. per ounce of gold re- 
covered by flotation. This amounts to $9.90 in this par- 
ticular instance, leaving the economic realization $152.43. 


Assay-value of flotation concentrate $218.16 

Economic realization 152.43 

Loss per ton of flotation concentrate 65.73 

Percentage lost on content of flotation concentrate.. 30.1 

Reduced to the basis of one ton of ore milled, the loss 
in marketing table-concentrate will be $3.92 and in mar- 
keting flotation concentrate $3.38, making a total of $7.30 
per ton, which on the heading assay, of $31.65, leaves a 
total net recovery of 76.93%. The flotation royalty is 
approximately 50c. per ton of ore milled. 

Summarizing the results of the three methods: 

Metallurgical Economic 

extraction, recovery. Difference, 
% % % 

96.65 75.8 20.85 

86.00 74.5 11.50 

96.60 76.9 19.70 

1. Straight flotation 

2. Selective flotation . . . 

3. Tabling and flotation. 

Before discussing these figures I shall state briefly the 
reason or reasons why each of the five alternative schemes 
proved impracticable. 

4. It was impossible to obtain a satisfactory tailing 
when concentrating the flotation tailing. The colloidal 
slime interfered with the efficient separation of the 
pyrite with which the gold is associated. 

5. A combined extraction of 49.1% of the gold and 
98.7% of the silver was obtained by cyaniding the tailing 
made by selective flotation as follows: 

January 7. 1922 



By flotation (in eoDoaatnte) , 

By cyanidation 



i Mr i. tu.n. 




:ti 7 

17 1 

a i 

Apparently tlic gold is not readily amenable to cya- 
nide; moreover the cost would be too high to justify 

6. The following figures show the results of a test in 
which bulk flotation was followed by cyanidation. 


By flotation . . 




Apparently it would be more economical to cany the 
flotation further and thereby avoid cyaniding. 

7. Cyanidation of the raw ore was not only expensive, 
but failed to extract the metals. 

8. Concentration preceding cyanidation indicated that 
cyanidation need not be considered seriously. 

It happens sometimes that the return of a middling to 
the head of a flotation circuit will produce a considerably 
richer tailing in actual operations than is indicated by 
tests on clean ore, although it has been demonstrated re- 
peatedly that the extraction obtained by properly con- 
ducted laboratory work can be duplicated or improved 
upon in a well-designed mill. A satisfactory method of 
determining the effect of re-treating middlings is the 
'cycle' test, which may be performed as follows: A 
sample of the ore is divided into five or more equal lots. 
The first lot is 'floated', under the conditions previously 
found to be most desirable, to make a concentrate, mid- 
dling, and tailing; the middling is added to the second 
lot and the flotation operation is repeated, the resulting 
middling being in turn added to the third lot of fresh 
ore for floating. This process is repeated until all the 
lots have been used, each tailing being reserved for 
assay. The results of such a series of tests conducted by 
Hamilton, Beauchamp & "Woodworth on California Rand 
sulphide ore are shown in the following table : 

Weight. Gold, Silver. Gold, 

Product % oz. 

Reading 100.00 $3.10 28.85 

Concentrate . . 12.08 23.56 200.16 

Gold, Silver. 

Middling .. 
Tailing No. 









The fact that the assays of tailings are virtually uni- 
form indicates that the return of middlings for re-treat- 
ment will have no ill effect on the extraction, and war- 
rants the 'elimination' of the middling and the averag- 
ing of the tailing assays as a basis for calculating the 

A number of pertinent facts were revealed in the 
course of testing. It was found that the ore, which is 
easily crushed, produces a high proportion of 'colloidal' 
slime. If the ore is ground to pass a 100-mesh screen the 
following are the requirements for settling or thickening. 

Final ratio Area jht ton of ore 

Water : solid per "I hr -i It 


2:1 1 l : 


A depth of 8 ft. in the settling-tank was ndequnti . h 
waa Found thai the extraction of gold, associated with 
the pyrite, was greatly improved by using sodium sul- 
phide or sodium carbonate in conjunction with oil* 
as those named in the tests already described. The 'drop 
ping' of the pyrite by the non-use of these additional 
reagents was the basis for the proposed selective flota- 
tion. However, the use of either sodium sulphide or 

Overflow . , 

too -ton Coarse ore Bin 


| 3' by I?' Hercules Blake-Type Crusher 

Vertical Bucket - elevator 

150-ton Fine-ore Bin 

Challenge Feeder 
\5'by 4' Hendy Ball-mill 

Trommel r 
%"mcsh L 

b' by 16' Dorr 
Duplex Classifiers 


M. 5. Flotation Machine 

'Ster-Overstromt V" 
Table L ) 

5'bylO 1 Hendy 
Ball -mill 

Concrete Concentrate- vats 
with falsa bottom and vacuum 


sodium carbonate had the effect of deflocculating the 
slime to such an extent that settling and the recovery of 
the water were almost impossible. Mr. Beauchamp, in 
an effort to prevent this, tried substitutes for the sodium 
salts, and demonstrated that calcium poly-sulphide, made 
by boiling lime with sulphur, would raise the pyrite suc- 
cessfully in the flotation cells without deflocculating the 
slime. All of Mr. Beauchamp 's tests were made with 
mechanical flotation apparatus. 

The General Engineering Co. made a series of tests 0:1 



January 7. 1922 

a composite sample consisting of 80% sulphide and 20% 
oxidized ore and one test on sulphide ore. In this test 
the ore was ground wet in a ball-mill, with lime in the 
proportion of 2 lb. per ton of ore; 96% of the product 
passed a 65-mesh screen. The ground ore was floated in 
a Callow rougher-cell followed by a cleaner using 0.35 
lb. of T. T. mixture (composed of i thio-carbonilide and 
J ortho-toluidine) and 0.1 lb. of aldol per ton of ore. 
The flotation tailing was concentrated on a Wilfley table. 
The summary of this test shows: 

- — Content — . Recovery, or loss 
Gold. Silver, 










Weight, Gold, Silver, Gold, Silver, 
Product % oz. oz. oz. oz. 
Flotation concen- 
trate 9.00 1.060 285.45 9.540 2569.05 

Table-concentrate.. 2.10 0.890 28.80 1.869 60.48 

Total concentrate. 11.10 1.028 236.89 11.409 2629.53 

Table-tailing 88.90 0.035 1.35 3.112 120.02 

Heading- 100.00 0.145 27.50 14.521 2749.55 100.00 100.00 

This shows a ratio of concentration of 9.01 : 1 if the 
two concentrates be combined, with an extraction of 
78.57% of the total gold content of the ore and 95.63% 
of the silver. 

An analysis of the concentrate obtained from one of 
the tests on a composite sample indicates the approxi- 
mate composition of the product that will probably be 
made in the new mill. This follows : 

Constituents % 

Copper 0.11 

Insoluble 30.6 

Zinc None 

Sulphur 30.8 

Arsenic 4.06 

Iron 28.5 

Antimony 1.62 

Gold, oz 1.280 

Silver, oz 255.30 

The General Engineering Co. made an estimate of the 
cost of milling that is interesting. The figures are based 
on a 100-ton plant using Callow cells, assuming that 
water can be supplied to the plant by gravity, and that 
power can be obtained at lc. per kilowatt-hour. 


Crusher, rolls, and elevator 30 hp. for 8 hr. 240 hp-hr. 

Roller-mill, feeder, and classifier 125 " " 24 " 3000 

Blower 20 " " 24 " 480 

Table and pump 5 " " 24 " 120 

Settling and filtering 15 " " 24 " 360 

Total 4200 

Power, cost per ton 50.294 

Labor at 3 scale of S4.50 per day 0.57 

Steel for rod-mill, 5 lb. per ton of ore at 6c. 0.30 

Miscellaneous repairs and incidentals 0.25 

Flotation reagents: 

0.35 lb. T.T 10.50c. 

0.10 lb. aldol 4.00 

2.0 lb. lime • 2.00 

License for reagents 3.00 

19.50c. or 0.195 

Total S1.609 

The most significant feature of these figures is the 
small cost of flotation reagents — only 19.5c. per ton of 
ore. The power required for flotation is, of course, small ; 
the estimated cost is about 2.7c. per ton of ore. 

The Minerals Separation company made a series of 
tests, the results of the final one being as follows : 

Weight. Gold. Silver. Iron. 

% oz. oz. % 

Heading 100.0 0.14 36.54 4.4 

Concentrate ....... 7.3 1.20 483.60 28.5 

Toiling 92.7 0.06 1.25 ':.:> 

Recovery, or loss 

Gold. Silver. 

% % 






Screen-Analysis of Feed 

On 80 mesh 2.0 

" 100 " 3.0 

" 150 - 3.0 

" 200 " 18.0 

Through 200 " T4.0 

The above data are part of the information that was 
available to M. N. Colman when he was engaged last 
July to design and supervise the erection of the concen- 
trating plant. Details of the plan of treatment are shown 
by the accompanying flow-sheet, in which it will be noted 
that straight or bulk flotation in a Minerals Separation 
machine has been selected. The reasons for this choice 
were outlined to me by Mr. Colman. The advantages of 
flotation had been proved conclusively. It had already 
been decided by the officials of the company that a license 
would be obtained from the Minerals Separation com- 
pany ; accordingly the possible advantage of the pneu- 
matic cell in saving 60c. per ton in royalties was not a 
factor to be considered. Moreover, sundry tests seemed 
to indicate that the smaller operating cost that would be 
obtained by using pneumatic cells would be approxi- 
mately offset by improved recovery of the gold and silver 
in a machine using mechanical agitation. The choice of 
the Minerals Separation machine in preference to some 
other device using mechanical agitation was based on the 
belief that it was more nearly fool-proof than others, and 
that there would be less likelihood of experiencing tem- 
porary difficulty when the plant started to work. One of 
the principal considerations was to build a plant and get 
it in regular and successful operation in the shortest pos- 
sible time. 

Reverting to the comparison between the results of 
the three schemes of concentration — (1) straight flota- 
tion, (2) selective flotation, and (3) tabling and flota- 
tion — it will be observed that there is little to choose be- 
tween them so far as the economic recoveries are con- 
cerned. The differences are so small that they might be 
accounted for by allowable discrepancies in the experi- 
mental work. 

The apparent advantages of the third method are due 
entirely to the lessened royalty arising from the fact 
that only a portion of the ore is given flotation treatment. 
Against this must be placed the more complicated flow- 
sheet, and additional equipment, which would include 
provision for further grinding, and additional classi- 
fication, and dewatering of the table-tailing before flota- 
tion; as well as, of course, the concentrating tables 
themselves. Moreover, if the extraction by tabling for 
any reason dropped appreciably, the flotation royalty 
calculated on the per-ounce-of-metal basis would increase 
rapidly. Mr. Colman concluded that the margin on 
which he had to work was not sufficient to justify the 
more complicated flow-sheet. 

Selective flotation offered numerous attractive fea- 
tures: simplicity of flow was combined with high eco- 
nomic recovery, and at the same time a tailing was made 
that contained 68% of the gold and 7% of the silver, or 
14% of the total precious metal in the original ore, which 
might be impounded and profitably re-treated at a later 
date. The construction of the plant is such that selective 

January 7. 1922 



flotation of this character can l"' performed if it should 
appear advisable, bat the intention is to use calcium 
sulphide and obtain the maximum recovery as out 
lined under the discussion of straight flotation. 

It will be noted tlmt two ball-mills arc provided and 
that Btage-cruahing will be practised. As a matter of 
fact tliis equipment is probably sufficient to grind 200 
tens through 80-meah. The apparent over-capacity will 
make it possible (a) to install tables for a preliminary 
table-treatment, if that should become advisable, with- 
out delay or inconvenience, or i h ! to double the capacity 
of the plant by merely adding a second flotation unit 
and the necessary thickening-tanks. 

Two Deister-Overstrom tables are to be used; one is a 
'pilot' to reveal the character of the feed at any given 
time for the guidance of the operator of the flotation 
department. Part of the feed will be by-passed to the 
table, the concentrate and tailing being returned to- 
gether. The second is styled a barometer because its 
function is to indicate the result of flotation. It is ex- 
pected that almost no silver minerals will appear on this 

The flotation machine is the new 18-cell M. S. type 
without separate compartments for frothing. It is pro- 
posed to use the first three compartments for agitation 
exclusively, and to start skimming froth at the fourth. 
Five compartments will make a finished concentrate, 
whereas the product from the final ten will be returned 
to the head of the cell. 

Both the General Engineering Co. and Hamilton. 
Beauchamp, Woodworth, Inc., recommended a revolving 
vacuum-filter, but the present plan is to dewater the 
concentrate in a Dorr thickener and to collect and dry 
it in a concrete tank having a false bottom and being con- 
nected with a vacuum-pump. For 10 tons of concentrate 
per day this arrangement should work satisfactorily. 

As I showed at the beginning of this article, the mar- 
keting of a 250-oz. concentrate is an expensive procedure, 
so that the concentration of 25-oz. ore in the ratio of 
10 : 1 is not an adequate solving of the economic problem. 
The only satisfactory shipping product appears to be 
bullion : and the reduction of the concentrate to bullion 
at the mine probably will be accomplished eventually. 
Among the methods suggested are (a) smelting in an 
electric furnace, (6) smelting in an oil-fired reverber- 
ators', and (c) chloride volatilization. It will cost ap- 
proximately $55 per ton to market 250-oz. concentrate 
with a moisture content of not less than 10%, and the 
probability of saving from $25 to $40 per ton by local 
treatment is sufficient to make thorough experimental 
work highly attractive. Incidentally, this problem is a 
factor that may strongly favor the selective scheme of 
flotation; it may be that a small quantity of very rich 
concentrate can be smelted far more cheaply than three 
times as much that assays only 250 oz. Mr. Colman is 
investigating the question thoroughly and a successful 
treatment is likely to be developed, with a consequent 
saving of several dollars per ton of ore. 

The photographs for the accompanying illustrations 

were taken at a later date than the photographs thai were 

reprodu I in the first article on the California Band 

mine, which consequently do nol show the mill. On page 

13 is shown No. 2 shaft, the mine-dumps, and the mill- 
site soon after the contractors, Cahill & Vensano of San 
Francisco, commenced construction work in September. 

The si ml photograph was taken in December, at'i 

plant had been finished. Early in the month the ma- 
chinery was 'turned over' for the first time, the smooth 
ness of mechanical operation speaking well for the work 
of the construction engineers. Treatment was commenced 
on December 15 on $10 ore. A recovery of more than 
90% of the silver was made and this will doubtless be 
improved as soon as operation is properly systematized. 
The heading will be increased to approximately $30, the 
grade of ore used in making the tests; this change will 
have a favorable influence on the recovery, and it is con- 
fidently expected that the results indicated by the test- 
work will be fully realized. 

Experiments by repeated impact tests show that too 
much emphasis is often laid on the advantage of high 
resistance to a single impact. L. Guillet, who writes in 
'Rev. Met.', states that failures are most often caused by 
the development of cracks from repeated stresses; the 
Stanton repeated-impact test was selected for comparison, 
and tensile and Brinell hardness tests were also made. 
In some instances the number of blows needed to cause 
rupture was found to rise with increasing values of the 
elastic limit, notwithstanding that the resilience had 
meanwhile dropped appreciably, in some cases as much as 
50%. The extent of the increased resistance to repeated 
impacts in these cases, however, varied considerably with 
the height of fall of the tup, and the frequency of the 
blows, it being most marked when the fall was small 
(about 1.3 in.) and the frequency low (60 blows per 
minute). The author concludes that it is far better to 
have a steel with moderate resilience and a high elastic 
limit, rather than high resilience and low elastic limit. 

The results of gas-producer tests with Alberta coals, 
according to a Canadian Department of Mines bulletin, 
show that it is possible to 'operate the producer for con- 
siderable periods with all the fuels tested, except one; 
but less than one-half can be recommended for continuous 
operation in this producer. In order that a fuel may be 
suitable for use under commercial conditions it must be 
of a character which will permit it to pass regularly 
through the producer without necessitating excessive 
poking; it must not pack, cake, or clinker in such a way 
as to form channels which will prevent the even access of 
air to all parts of the fuel (this requirement outweighs 
all others) ; the coal must be capable of yielding a good 
quality of gas continuously, which, if required for use in 
an internal-combustion engine, must be fairly free from 
tar and lampblack. This condition is of great impor- 
tance, unless the plant installed for generating a power- 
gas for burning in internal-combustion engines is large 
enough to warrant the installation of special scrubbers 
and tar extractors. 



January 7, 1922 

Co-ordination, Co-operation & Conference, Inc. 

By C. T. Hutchinson 

No great amount of thought is required to bring about 
a realization that our forefathers had the better of us in 
many important respects. George Washington never had 
to dodge a Ford in crossing the street to his place of busi- 
ness in the morning. "When Patrick Henry gave vent to 
his famous remarks about his preference for a quick 
demise if he could not exercise his God-given right to do 
as he pleased, he little dreamed of the coming of the 
Eighteenth amendment. 

Modern industrial development has brought in its 
wake new complexities. The mechanic has suffered; in 
fact, it is claimed that there are no more mechanics. The 
story goes that a man seeking work at the employment 
window at one of our iron works, in response to the query 
as to where he had worked and what he had done, replied, 
"I have been working in Detroit at the Ford factory, 
where I tightened the f-inch nuts on the right side of the 
chassis assembly". ¥e have no more machine-tool op- 
erators, only men who operate specific machines of cer- 
tain sizes. The planning room plus the jig and gauge 
department furnish the brains. The men merely go 
through the motions. 

The old-time merchant led a many-sided existence. He 
was a trader who imported goods and commodities of all 
kinds from Europe, and sent in exchange the products of 
the new world. He chartered ships, he financed explora- 
tion expeditions, he grub-staked trappers and adventur- 
ers of all sorts. He did a banking business as well; in 
fact, he was and had to be a versatile man, and was one 
of the great factors in blazing the trail of civilization. 

Since then the acorn has become a sturdy oak. As the 
oak grew it acquired branches, and more branches. Soon 
the foliage became so thick that no man could see through 
it. And so it is with the organization of our so-ealled big 
business.- No one man, and few groups of men, can see 
through them. From the individual the organization of 
business progressed as it expanded to the partnership, 
then the corporation, followed by .the merger of many 
corporations into what is called a 'Trust', with a big T. 
•John Smith, Blacksmith, has become Universal Steel, 
Ltd.. with ramifications extending all over the globe, 
with iron and coal mines, coke-ovens, railroads, blast- 
furnaces, rolling-mills, fabricating plants, and machine- 
shops. In addition there are the legal, political, financial, 
engineering, and sales forces, while the various phases of 
statistical, general, and cost accounting, all evolved from 
the labors of the simple clerk with his quill pen, form a 
vast and complicated network of sublimated pen-pushers. 

If it be good policy to keep one's right hand in ignor- 
ance of the activities of one's left, then modern organized 
business is efficient to the last degree, for nowadays even 
the fingers of both hands and the toes of both feet of the 

business corporation are housed separately behind ornate 
glass partitions where each may do its own little trick 
without knowledge of its relation to the doings of its little 
playmates. Instead of the antiquated book-keeper, we 
have the custodian of the bills-receivable ledger from A 
to D. Each old book of a set has been split into a multi- 
plicity of books, while have been added oodles of other 
books with fearsome names and of awe-inspiring impor- 
tance. Then, by means of the loose-leaf system, these 
books in turn can be kept on the homeopathic plan, by 
still further splitting into more and more parts. Since 
the books reflect the business that they are intended to 
record, a similar splitting into sub-divisions has taken 
place in the organization of the multitude of specialized- 
production departments, and supervision is correspond- 
ingly complicated. Machine-tools of the same class and 
within certain size-limits come under the supervision of 
straw bosses, whereas erection and assembly of parts are 
supervised by similar bosses in charge of sub-assemblies. 
So, up the line, one progresses from little bosses to bigger 
and bigger bosses, assistant foremen to foremen, then to 
group superintendents with their assistants, general 
superintendents with assistants, and assistants to assist- 
ants, and so on until we come to such haughty potentates 
as the various kinds of managers at or near the peak of 
the production end of the industrial structure. The en- 
gineering and accounting part of the work is similarly 
organized. It is the apotheosis of specialization. At the 
same time, down among the moiling and toiling privates 
of industry it is the quintessence of monotony. 

Eminent psychologists and profound students of so- 
called human engineering are acquiring a series of head- 
aches in the effort to counteract the inevitable result of 
this state of affairs. The psychology of the toiler is being 
studied exhaustively. The mental reaction from the na- 
ture of his work is obvious. Since he cannot experience 
the pride of the creator by drilling some hundreds of per- 
fectly round f-in. holes every working day, his fancy 
lightly turns from his work, with its absence of the im- 
aginative appeal, to thoughts of drilling fewer holes and 
dreams of exacting higher wages. 

Much money and effort are being expended to sell the 
'loyalty' idea to the countless thousands, as a substitute 
for the natural interest that results automatically from a 
job that requires thought, skill, and judgment. Thus we 
have with us such things as welfare work, locker-rooms, 
shower-baths, club-houses, baseball teams, and model cot- 
tages, but, like all substitutes, they are but substitutes 
after all. It is not at all unusual to find the machine-tool 
operator fussing with a home-made electric generator, a 
wireless set, or a gas-engine at his own little workshop in 
his cellar after so-called working hours, in order to satisfy 

January 7. 1922 



that craving to create something which is denied him by 
the specialisation of modern industry. 

A similar extension of the specialisation idea lias taken 
place in the marketing of goods. It is no longer a sales? 
man or two hut a great number of salesmen divided into 
groups, each group specializing upon the sale of a special- 
ised product of the manufacturer, similarly in the ad- 
vertising department there are advertising specialists 
whose efforts are concentrated upon the development of 
ideas pertaining to the needs of specific '-lasses of people 
for specific things. Specialization upon any one thing 
must inevitably mean concentration of all of one's mental 
effort upon that one tiling to the exclusion of all other 
things. The character of the work of the specialist in 
industry, and its tendency toward the creation of an at- 
mosphere of mental exelnsiveness, renders the worker 
oblivious to what is being done by other workers in the 
same establishment. In fact, it has brought about a de- 
tached feeling, a feeling of dissociation from personal re- 
sponsibility. When mistakes occur, as they sometimes do, 
regardless of the theoretical efficiency of the organization, 
it is almost impossible to pin the responsibility any more 
closely than upon a certain department. The individual 
worker does not care or know particularly whether 
things go wrong so long as it is not bis fault, and he de- 
velops great skill in the well-known indoor pastime of 
'passing the buck'. It has become increasingly evident 
that instead of creating a thoroughly homogeneous organ- 
ization of perfectly co-ordinated parts there is instead a 
heterogeneous mass ; in theory one, but practically an in- 
finite number of, independent little organizations within 
a greater organization, each little independent organiza- 
tion with its nose close to the grindstone of its own spe- 
cific task without knowledge or interest in the relation of 
that task to the whole. 

In the due course of human events a new word burst 
into the vocabularies of the super-organization managers. 
That word was 'co-ordination'. The world of industry is 
still striving mightily to bring about the result indicated 
by this verbiage. Co-ordination is the glue that purports 
to make a lot of little ones into one big one. Some prog- 
ress is being made, but the amount of progress that has 
been made compared to the amount that ought to be made 
is so small as to give emphasis to the fact that the lack of 
co-ordination between departments of big businesses is 
the greatest weakness in the super-business organization 
of today. As a 'first aid' toward the achievement of co- 
ordination, the inter-departmental conference has been 
devised. There is something about the word ' conference ' 
that carries with it a suggestion of dignity; it connotes 
momentous discussions between the great. There is an 
atmosphere of richly furnished rooms with mahogany 
tables, opulent arm-chairs, oil paintings of past industrial 
leaders on the wall, velvet carpets, Persian rugs, imported 
cigars, and soft-footed secretaries trotting in and out 
carrying papers, documents, and reports to the various 

The word 'conference' has been taken up by everybody, 
that is, everybody who has a particle of imaginative qual- 

ity. It seems that the smaller the business concern, the 
i 'e conferences they have. Sometimes when the busi- 
ness organisation consists of one man and his stenog 

rapher, he, too, is addicted to conferei s, if only with 

himself. In t he old days the bill-collector, whose prt 
Was, one might say, inopportune, would be greeted with 
the salutation, "The Old Man is out". How much more 
elegant it is to have the attendant at the counter say in- 
stead, "Mr. Blank is in conference and cannot be dis- 
turbed". It should be added, however, that due care 
must be exercised to see that Mr. Blank does not conduct 
his conference behind a transparent glass-door, through 
which the collector may have his delusions shattered by 
seeing the conferee with a cigar in his mouth illustrating 
to an admiring friend a new way of swinging a mashie. 
There is no doubt but that the original purpose of the 
creation of the super-organization was to lower the cost 
of production in order that more and better goods would 
find their way into the households of more people. This 
has been done to a considerable extent in spite of the 
obvious faults of the methods employed. 

Marketing methods have not progressed so rapidly as 
production methods, not that the actual distribution of 
the goods is particularly at fault but that the personal 
element of service is lacking in most cases. In the old 
days, one had dealings either with the boss himself or 
with someone else in a position of real authority. Now 
the consumer does not come within miles of anyone at the 
top. He meets a salesman who is greatly circumscribed 
hy regulations in the authority that he is permitted to 
assume. Any transaction that deviates ever so slightly 
from the conventional must travel upward along a slow 
and tortuous path from little boss to big boss, humbly 
asking approval on the way. 

Prices are made by the price department. The terms 
of sales are the joint efforts of the legal department, the 
credit department, and the director of sales, perhaps. 
The goods are shipped by the shipping department over 
routes dictated by the traffic department until they arrive 
at or near the warehouse of the district sales organiza- 
tion, where they are unpacked, inspected, inventoried, 
and held pending an order that must be 0. K.'d by an 
imposing collection of dignitaries before the goods are 
permitted to go to the consumer. The consumer, of 
course, must or ought to read carefully the voluminous 
contract that he must sign. The chances are that he does 
nothing of the sort. It is a curious thing that where a 
man will read most carefully a contract written in long- 
hand or type-written, there is an air of finality about a 
printed contract that carries with it an atmosphere of im- 
mutability. So the purchaser looks, perhaps, to see that 
his name and address are spelled right, he turns the pages 
over to glance at the various fill-ins, and then signs his 
name. Most conventional contracts authorized by big in- 
dustrial concerns are full of bugaboos and legal dodges 
prepared by attorneys skilled in circumlocution, whereby 
the company disclaims responsibility for almost every- 
thing. There is, of course, the time-honored strike clause, 
the one claiming immunity from such occurrences gen- 



January 7, 1922 

erally described as acts of God, the guarantee with a 
string on it wherein the seller agrees to replace at his ex- 
pense F.O.B. factor}' such part or parts as shall prove to 
have been defective when shipped, provided that they 
have been used for the purpose ordered, provided that 
they shall be returned to the factory for inspection within 
a certain time after date of contract, but providing that 
no claims for labor or damages will be allowed. If the 
transaction is not a cash-in-advance one, and few of them 
ever are. all sorts of dire things are provided to happen to 
the purchaser if his payments are not made in the manner 
and at the time specified, although the seller seldom 
agrees to use anything more than 'due diligence' in 
making shipment on the date specified. There is the con- 
ditional bill-of-sale clause, wherein title to the goods rests 
with the seller until all payments provided shall have 
been made, and there is that unctuous phrase of which the 
legal gentry are so fond, "Time is of the essence of this 

On the face of it, such contracts are holy terrors ; but. 
practically, it seldom works out that way. Big business is 
jealous of its reputation, and is prompt to acknowledge 
and to rectify faults if it be in the wrong, contract and 
legal technicalities to the contrary notwithstanding. Fre- 
quently it goes beyond what might reasonably be expected 
of it, even to the point of conceding claims that it knows 
are unjust. The customer is not always right, but he gets 
the benefit of the doubt nearly always. 

Most of our industrial leaders found out early in the 
game that the more lawyers they had messing around in 
the relation between buyer and seller, the worse off they 
were; thus the imposing two- or three-thousand word 
contracts have become dead letters in many respects. 
Branch managers are authorized to use their own dis- 
cretion and decide disputes upon their merits, knowing 
that in so doing the general-sales managers will fight their 
battles for them with the production department. A real 
structural defect in a piece of machinery that fails under 
normal working conditions is generally fairly obvious. 
On the other hand, there are certain types of buyer who 
consider that they have done something smart if they can 
bluff the manufacturer into making a replacement or 
effecting repairs free of charge, although necessitated by 
some fault of their own, while at the same time they 
would shudder at the mere suggestion that they might 
pick the manufacturer's pocket. If the lawyer as a class 
could be debarred from inserting his oar into the relation- 
ship between buyer and seller it would be easier to effect 
sales. The simplest kind of a contract form is the most 
effective, and, curiously enough, will stand in law just 
as well as a portentous document fairly bristling with 
ifs, ands, buts, whereases, aforesaids, and to-wits. 

The evolution of little business into big business may 
be likened to the transition from the log cabin to the 
Woolworth building. In the old days one could walk 
through the doorway and there was the boss sitting in 
front of him. Nowadays it is a great man indeed who can 
get within a mile of the boss of a big industrial institu- 
tion. As some one once said of E. H. Harriman, "he 

travels on a higher plane", and most of us who make up 
the sub-stratum of the industrial scheme of things get no 
more than the merest worm's eye view of the snow-capped 
peak of the higher altitudes. Consider the case of plain 
John Smith of Podunk. He is a prosperous dealer in, Jet 
us say. supplies. In his own home town he is quite a fel- 
low. Pie belongs to the Elks, has a credit rating of $50,000 
at the First National Bank, passes the plate at the First 
Presbyterian Church on Sunday, wears a frock-coat, and 
drives an automobile. He is on first-rate terms with the 
salesman who covers his territory and, in fact, has been 
persuaded by this self-same salesman that he is a pretty 
big fish. John Smith thereupon decides to take a little 
trip to New York, perhaps with his wife, where they can 
see the wheels go around in that big and wicked city. He 
drops a hint of his intention to the salesman of the big 
manufacturer, and the salesman, if he knows his business 
— and most of them do — advises his immediate superior 
that one of his hick customers is about to visit the big 
village, and gives him strong admonitions not to permit 
anyone to sell this hick the Aquarium, the Liberty 
statue, or tickets to Central Park, and to be sure to de- 
tail some one to take him and his wife to the Winter 
Garden, and possibly the Amsterdam Roof. John Smith 
thereupon proceeds to New York City and makes up his 
mind he is going to drop in upon the president of the 
manufacturing establishment with which he has been 
doing business for many years, just to make his ac- 
quaintance as the folks do down in good old Podunk. 
Here is where John Smith begins to get his first jolts. 
With the memory still in his mind of the size of his first 
breakfast check he braves the terrors of the Subway, and 
finally emerges breathless, somewhat dishevelled but tri- 
umphant, in lower Broadway, where, after discussing the 
matter with several Tammany policemen, he is directed 
to an imposing pile of steel and granite and is shoved 
into an express elevator that does not stop short of the 
30th story. After a hair-raising journey toward the 
clouds, during the course of which he plays the igno- 
minious role of a sardine pressed between a score or so 
of gum-chewing stenographers, brokers' clerks, and other 
malefactors, he gets out at the 35th story into an atmos- 
phere redolent of luxury. There before him is a beauti- 
ful lobby — mahogany furniture, Turkish rugs, potted 
plants with brass jardinieres. A uniformed attendant 
disentangles himself from a swivel-chair, reluctantly puts 
down the sporting sheet of the 'Times', and looks in- 
quiringly and with uplifted eyebrows at our friend 
Smith of Podunk, as if faintly inquiring as to ' How on 
earth did you get here?' The following dialogue then 
ensues : 

"And whom do you wish to see?" 

"Mr. Kilowatt Money Bags." 

"Mr. Kilowatt Money Bags?" 

"Yes, Mr. Kilowatt Money Bags." 

"Do you mean you want to see Mr. Kilowatt Money 
Bags, the President of this Company?" 

By this time Mr. Smith is getting a little warm. 

"Yes, I want to see Mr. Kilowatt Money Bags, the 

January 7. 1922 



President of tliis Company." 

"Do yon know Mr. Money Bags?" 

"No, 1 don't know Mr. Money Bags." 

"Oh! Have you an appointment?" 

"No, I have do appointment. I just arrived in town 
tliis morning from Podnnk." 

•■From Podnnk t What is Podunkt" 

•• Podnnk is a place." 

"Do people live there?" 

By tliis time Mr. Smith is boiling. 

"Yes, they live there. As a matter of l'aet. T am one 
of the people who live there and. for your further in- 
formation, I am in the supply business. I am a customer 
of Mr. Money Bags. In fact. I buy about $50,000 worth 
of goods from him every year. He seems to want my 
business and I wanted to see what he looks like. If he 
don't want to see me he can go to the devil." 

This last remark seems to shock the attendant. He 
offers the following : 

"Perhaps you would like to see Mr. Volt Meter?" 

"Who is he?" 

"He is the assistant to the assistant clerk who has 
charge of the waste-baskets on Monday, Wednesday, and 

By that time Mr. John Smith of Podnnk has gathered 
a lot of valuable information about the free and easy 
ways of big business. Incidentally, he has lost his tem- 
per, and Mr. Kilowatt Money Bags has lost a customer. 

This, however, is the modern idea. It pervades the 
entire general headquarters structure. The same ridicu- 
lous amount of swank is staged regularly by the little 
bit of organization that consists of about one and a half 
individuals. The executives follow the plan made famous 
by the ostrich. They stick their heads into the sand and 
hide away from those who would do business with them. 
It is the outer fringe of their organization only that 
comes into actual contact with those with whom the big 
company is doing business. In order to make it more 
imposing, new and strange titles have been invented to 
fit the greatness of these dignitaries. In the old part- 
nerships it was quite a thing to be a member of a firm 
in good standing. When the corporation came we had a 
president, a vice-president, a secretary, and a treasurer. 
Now the mere president is quite a distance below the actual 
throne. Over the president we have no less a personage 
than a chairman of the board of directors or, perhaps, 
a chairman of the executive committee. That is as far 
as we have been able to go to date, but there is no doubt 
that within the next half-century we may even have to 
refer to Burke's Peerage or the Almanach de Gotha to 
obtain suitable titles to measure up to the importance 
and dignity of the industrial leader of the future. The 
real, fed-hot democrat of an American has a genuine 
love for titles, the Constitution to the contrary notwith- 
standing, and the innumerable fraternal organizations 
supply that which the law of the land forbids. What is 
a paltry Duke or Earl compared to an Illustrious Poten- 
tate? What chance does a Baron or Count stand com- 
pared to a Grand Exalted Ruler? Solomon in all his 

glory w.-is not arrayed as even tin- humblest of supreme 
generalissimos, or eminent, grand somethings or other, 
in full regalia mounted on a prancing charger in the 

Fourth of July parade. Even tin- staid and dignified 
Family Club of San Francisco lias conferred the title of 
mother-in-law upon its titular head, while a fraternal or- 
ganization, known as the Bundle of Sticks, lias adopted 
the Rooseveltian appellation of the Big Stick tor the 
highest honor within its gift. 

It is an insignificant executive indeed who does not 
have a group of assistants in various capacities. Where- 
as the vice-president in the old days was supposed to be 
second to the president, we now have a whole flock of 
vice-presidents in charge of finance, sales, production, 
engineering, etc. Then we have assistants to the presi- 
dent, vice-presidents, and so on down the line. Again 
we have secretaries to these various scions of the indus- 
trial aristocracy, and worse yet, there is the secretary to 
the secretary to the president, rendering even greater 
the splendid isolation of the big boss himself. 

Industrial life is indeed complex ; in fact, as one might 
say, it is becoming 'complexer and complexer'. Per- 
haps the strange part of it all is that those who are 
playing major roles in the modern drama of business 
have had their sense of humor so atrophied by contact 
with money in large gobs that they don't know how 
funny the pomp and circumstance with which they sur- 
round themselves really are. They don't realize the 
sort of reaction an average man gets out of receiving 
what is obviously a circular letter designed for the pur- 
pose of selling him something — sent out in the name of 
a man high in the industrial world — that begins in the 
most familiar way with "My dear Mr. So and So", is 
signed with a rubber stamp, and bears every evidence 
on the face of it of a mimeograph job, not too good, with 
a fill-in at the top. This sort of a letter, together with 
the other one, is in many respects like the former except 
that at the bottom it carries a rubber-stamp communica- 
tion which conveys the pleasant information to the 
recipient that "This letter was dictated but not read by 
Mr. Great Man, who was called out of his office before 
having an opportunity of signing his mail". 

Is it possible to bring about a reversion to the simple 
ways of former days, or have the complexities of modern 
business life rendered impossible forever the old familiar- 
ity and cordial personal relationship in business dealings? 
Personal contact still exists, of course, but with the fringe 
rather than with the responsible heads of big business. 
All of this adds greatly to the burdens of the big lioss 
himself, whose information comes to him after passing 
through a multiplicity of hands, subject to emasculation 
by each to serve his own particular self-interest. The 
pulse of business has become a myriad of little pulses, 
setting in motion currents and counter-currents, the 
direction of which is difficult to trace and even more 
difficult to analyze. The hope for the future rests with 
Co-ordination, Co-operation & Conference, Inc., all of 
which working in harmony constitute the three-point 
suspension upon which depends the stability of industry. 



January 7, 1922 

Book Reviews 

Arihitects' and Builders' Handbook. By F. E. Kidder and 
T. Nolan. 1907 pp., ill. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 
For sale by the 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $7. 

This is the seventeenth edition of a well-known treatise, 
the name having been changed from "pocketbook" to "hand- 
book." The chapters of Part II have been revised to make 
the data agree with the latest research and practice, and two 
new chapters have been added. In Part III the sections on 
heating and ventilation have been re-written by Hudolf P. 
Miller. Numerous articles have been added on a variety of 
subjects. The handbook is compact and has been prepared 
in convenient form. It will retain its position as a standard 
reference work on building construction. 

Graphical Analysis. By W. S. Wolfe. 374 pp., ill. Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Co., New York. For sale by the 'Mining and 
Scientific Press'. Price, $4. 

This book is a development of notes and blue-prints pre- 
pared by the author and used in his classes at the University 
of Illinois, where he was formerly instructor in architectural 
engineering. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of stresses, 
rather than on design or the computation of loads, although 
one chapter is devoted to design and the determination of 
loads. A thorough mastery of the constructions and solu- 
tions presented in this book will give the student an excellent 
grasp of the subject. The contents are as follows: General 
methods. Centroids. Moments. Beams. Trusses. Moving 
loads. Masonry. Reinforced concrete. Design. Miscel- 
laneous problems. 

Practical Refrigeration. Compiled by the Editorial Staff 
of 'Power'. 283 pp., ill. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 
For sale by the 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $2. 

This volume of facts on the subject of refrigeration has 
been compiled from articles that have been written in 
'Power' and which were of particular value to engineers. A 
considerable amount of space has been given to the question 
of indicating the mechanical work of the ammonia com- 
pressor; it has been felt that a more general use of the in- 
dicator would do much to improve its efficiency. The con- 
tents of the book are as follows: I. Refrigerating and steam 
plant. II. Ammonia compressor. III. Use and care of the 
compressor. IV. Ammonia condenser. V. Evaporating sys- 
tems. VII. Insulation. IX. Carbon dioxide machine. Tests. 
Appendix. Tables. 

Fire Prevention and Fire Protection. By J. K. Freitag. 
103 8 pp., ill. John Wiley & Sons, New -York. For sale by 
'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $5. 

According to the statistics of the National Board of Fire 
Underwriters, our annual fire losses are still mounting 
steadily, for, instead of an annual loss of about $217,000,- 
000, as was true during the period from 1900 to 1909 (which 
included the Baltimore and San Franpisco conflagrations), 
the annual loss in the United States during the five-year 
period, 1915 to 1919, inclusive, was nearly $300,000,000. 
This steady increase shows conclusively that fire prevention 
and fire protection are still matters of serious economic 
importance. The author of this volume has endeavored to 
present, in a manner suitable for ready reference, the present 
status of the matter as applied to buildings, including many 
details of construction that should prove of value to archi- 
tects, construction engineers, and underwriters, and a dis- 
cussion of those broad preventive means and principles of 
scientific fire-protective design without which constructive 
details are often of little avail. The volume under con- 
sideration is a second edition, in which many revisions have 
been made to bring the subject-matter up to date, particu- 
larly in regard to approved design, construction, and equip- 
ment. Extensive additions have been made in the chapters 

dealing with theatres and garages. All references to com- 
parative costs have been omitted, other than in regard to 
mill buildings. The contents are as follows: Part I. Fire 
prevention and fire protection. Part II. Fire tests and ma- 
terials. Part III. Fire-resisting design. Part IV. Fire-re- 
sisting construction. Part V. Special structures and fea- 
tures. Part VI. Auxiliary equipment and safeguards. 

Silica and the Silicates. By J. A. Audley. 374 pp., ill. 
D. Van Nostrand Co., New York. For sale by the 'Mining 
and Scientific Press'. Price, $4.50. 

This is another of the series of volumes prepared and in 
preparation dealing with industrial chemistry. In the pres- 
ent case no author who writes in English appears to have 
attempted before to cover the same range of subjects within 
the limits of a single volume; the French treatise of Le 
Chatelier and the German book of W. & D. Asch are on 
entirely different lines. The subject has been treated from 
the chemical rather than from the engineering standpoint; 
the book contains a general survey of the industries con- 
cerned, showing how chemical principles have been applied 
and have affected manufacture. The influence of new in- 
ventions is also shown. A selected bibliography follows each 
section. Statistical information has only been introduced in 
so far as it illustrates the line of argument used. The con- 
tents of the book are as follows. Silica. Silicates. Lime, 
cement, and mortar. Ceramic industries. Glass and enam- 
els. Miscellaneous application of silicates. 

Deep- Well Drilling. By W. H. Jeffery. 5 31 pp., ill. Pub- 
lished by W. H. Jeffery Co., Toledo, Ohio. For sale by the 
'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $5. 

As stated in the preface, well-drilling is an ancient craft. 
Deep-well drilling, as practised today, began with the drill- 
ing of Drake's first oil well at Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 
18 5 9. The work of drilling deep wells in search for and 
in the development of petroleum deposits, stimulated by the 
development of the internal-combustion engine, has spread 
to many other parts of the world, and has developed into 
one of the foremost industries of the United States. The 
search for petroleum is destined to lead the driller to the 
uttermost parts of the world; several schools now offer 
courses in petroleum technology; the University of Cali- 
fornia has a course in well-drilling methods; it is to be 
hoped that some of our universities will add to their cur- 
ricula a complete course in deep-well engineering, for the 
drilling of a well 5000 ft. deep, or drilling in a foreign 
country in which the geologic formations are not familiar, 
are both engineering undertakings of considerable magni- 
tude. The author has undertaken in this volume to cover 
the process of well-drilling by the two methods now most 
generally used: the cable tool, and the hydraulic rotary 
drill. Subjects treated include the building of the derrick, 
drilling, handling the casing, fishing for lost tools, and the 
completion of the well according to the best practice of 
present-day expert drillers. Complete contents are as fol- 
lows: I. Geology. Origin of petroleum and natural gas, 
with bibliography. II. Standard or cable-tool system of 
drilling — rigs, derricks, specifications, and drilling outfits. 
III. Standard or cable-tool system of drilling — spudding, 
driving pipe, drilling, under-reaming, and bit-dressing. IV. 
Fishing for tools that are fast or lost in the hole. V. Rotary 
process for drilling. VI. Combination cable and rotary sys- 
tem of drilling. VII. Drilling by the hydraulic circulating 
system — use of mud-laden fluid. VIII. Casing methods — 
casing used in various fields, collapsing pressures, safe 
lengths of string, casing equipment. IX. Use of packers. 
X, Cementing casing — shutting off bottom water. XI. Shoot- 
ing wells. XII. Finishing the well — pumping equipment, 
setting screens, washing wells, shutting in gas wells. XIII. 
Cost of drilling wells in various localities. XIV. Strength 
of materials. XV. General information. XVI. State laws. 

January 7. 1922 




The Secretary of the Interior, in a notice to war minerals 
relief claimants, announces that motions for re-hearing on 
claims heretofore passed on or excluded must be submitted 
in writing to the War Minerals Relief Commission not later 
than February 15 next, plainly designating the claim and 
specifically stating the grounds upon which re-hearing is 
asked. If the claim, or part thereof, for which re-hearing is 
asked has heretofore been rejected on the ground that there 

with the Commissioner not later than February 15 will be 
granted and the claimant is advised to proceed with diligence 
to establish the claim by proof before the Commissioner. 





John Gillie, general manager of mines for the Anaconda 
Copper company, announced on December 29 that ore- 

Anaconda Hill, at Butte, Montana 

was no government request or demand, the written motion 
must be under oath setting forth: 

(1) The exact character of the "personal, written, or pub- 
lished request, demand, solicitation or appeal" which stimu- 
lated the claimant to produce or prepare to produce the 

(2) The government agency mentioned in the Act from 
which the request, demand, solicitation, or appeal came. 

(3) How or by whom the request, demand, solicitation, 
or appeal was communicated to the claimant. 

(4) The time and place of such communication. 

If the claim has been rejected or partly rejected on other 
grounds than the question of stimulation, the errors com- 
plained of should be stated in detail. As to claims hereto- 
fore excluded, if the claim is one which was mailed in time 
but not received In time by the commission so that no action 
has ever been taken on it, written request for a hearing filed 

production would be resumed on January 16 and that the 
number of employees would be substantially Increased 
starting with that date. He stated that the number of 
men to be employed and the scale of production had not 
been definitely determined, but indicated that there would 
be a gradual increase. The start will probably be made at 
the zinc mines, since it is announced that the company 
plans to produce from 6,000,000 to 7,000,000 lb. of zinc per 
month at the electrolytic refinery at Great Falls. 

Gillie says that his company expected to commence on 
January 16 to prepare to resume operations at several of 
its copper mines. The reduction works at Anaconda will 
also then commence preparations for resumption. 

At the same time the following announcement was made 
public by the managers of all of the companies operating at 

"To employees of the undersigned mine operators: 

"For the past nine months the properties of most of th»* 



January 7, 1922 

large producers of copper and zinc in the United States have 
been shut-down. 

"This was necessary on account of the very large stocks 
of these metals on hand and the lack of demand of market, 
making it impossible to sell the metals upon a fair basis. 

"The situation at this time is that while stocks have been 
materially reduced, the prices are still very low and the de- 
mand is not, and the probable consumption for a consider- 
able period does not promise to be, sufficient to absorb large 
production, and capacity production is one of the proper 
conditions for an economic operation. 

"It is obvious that any resumption of operations by the 
metal producers must be under curtailed production and 
more economical conditions, and, under these circumstances, 
the only possibility of continuing lies in co-operative effort 
between employers and employees. 

"Copper and zinc costs must be reduced to the point at 
least covering the cost of production. The cost of supplies 
is gradually coming down. The most important item is the 
payroll, and this applies with particular force to the Butte 

"It is proposed to start about the 16th of January to re- 
open some of the mines, and our aim is to arrive at a steady 
and continuous operation, which will inure to the benefit 
of employers and employees alike. 

"Therefore, taking effect on the morning of January 16, 
1922, a horizontal decrease of 50c. per shift will be put into 

Butte & Superior Mining Co., by Charles Booking. 

Tuolumne Copper Mining Co., by Paul Gow. 

Moulton Mining Co., by W. C. Siderfin. 

Elm Orlu Mining Co., by W. N. Rossberg. 

Timber Butte Milling Co., by W. N. Rossberg. 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co., by John Gillie. 

Davis-Daly Copper Co., by J. L. Bruce. 

East Butte Copper Mining Co., by P. P. Beaudin. 

North Butte Mining Co., by L. D. Frink. 

Butte Bullwhacker Mining Co., by H. A. Frank. 

Mines Operating Co., by H. A. Frank." 


E. E. Paxton has made a formal reply to the charges 
made by Henry Engels in a letter to the stockholders asking 
that their proxies for the annual meeting to be held on 
February 13 be given to Engels instead of to Paxton. The 
statement says in part: 

Power Contract: Most of the stockholders are familiar 
with our long controversy with the Great Western Power 
Co. in whose exclusive territory our mines are located. 
Two long hearings were held before the State Railroad 
Commission on the question of rates and service. Partial 
relief was granted by the Commission and the suit subse- 
quently brought in Court was compromised by our securing 
the lowest schedule of rates on the Great Western Power 
Co.'s system. 

Smelting Contract: We at all times have had, and now 
have, a satisfactory contract with the American Smelting & 
Refining Co. A few months ago we secured a special con- 
cession from them to help tide us over the extreme de- 
pression in the copper market. 

Shipping Contract: We have no such contract. The 
rates of the Western Pacific Railroad have been reduced on 
two different occasions from the high rates that were in 
effect in 1918. Everyone is familiar with the general ad- 
vance In freight-rates during that year. After much nego- 
tiation and a trip to Washington, the last increase of 25% 
was removed on our concentrates. These reductions have 
effected a saving in excess of $120,000, per annum. 

Auditing: Our accounts are regularly audited by Messrs. 

Klink, Bean & Co., whose certificates have been published 
in each of our annual reports, and their detailed statements 
may be inspected at any time at the office of the company. 

Mining Engineer: Mr. Engels apparently ignores the fact 
that the mining and milling operations are in charge of 
Robert A. Kinzie, mining engineer. The excellent mill re- 
sults attest the good work being done by him and the com- 
pany invites inspection of its property by any stockholder 
or reputable engineer. 

Bank Loan: The loan of $350,000 to this company by the 
Equitable Trust Co. of New York was for eighteen months 
from May 1, 1921, at 8%, which was the current rate of 
interest at that time. The security given by this company 
was $3 92,500 par value of stock of the Indian Valley Rail- 
road Co. No commissions whatever were paid in connection 
with this loan which was secured with the assistance of the 
Western Pacific Railroad. The condition was made that as 
long as we shipped a minimum of 1200 tons of concentrates 
each month we could draw a maximum of $35,000 per 
month from the funds on deposit. If we ceased shipments 
for two months, then the funds on deposit were to be paid 
back on account of the loan but no demand was to be made 
on the amount already drawn. There is no obligation what- 
ever that the company continue operations unless it desires 
to do so. By making this loan, the necessity for an assess- 
ment was avoided or the calling in of the remaining 'E' 
warrants at a time when conditions were unfavorable for 
so doing. 

Shutting Down: Shut-down costs would have been greater 
than any operating loss, and, in view of the large orebodies 
developed, the directors concluded to push development 
work, particularly commencing the construction of the 7500- 
ft. tuhnel, or No. 10 adit, which will strike the Engels mine 
ore 500 ft. below the present lowest workings. This tunnel 
is 25% completed and will obviate the pumping of water 
and hoisting of ore for many years to come and in many 
ways will reduce operating costs to a minimum. Present 
conditions have justified this policy. 

It is needless to state that during the past three years 
the copper-mining industry has experienced the most severe 
crisis in its history. Extreme high operating costs, shortage 
and inefficiency of labor, and low market price for copper 
combined to close down nearly all of the copper mines in 
the United States. Our justification for operating under 
these conditions is the large amount of development work 
that has been accomplished and the splendid condition of 
the property at this time. Furthermore, an excellent or- 
ganization has been held intact and the company is now, 
and has been, in position to take advantage of the rising 
market with increased output. 


Earnings of the American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co. have 
been gradually improving. The company avoided red-ink 
figures in the, last quarter, so far as actual operations, 
were concerned. Whether or not any final profits will be 
shown depends to what extent inventories of metals are 
further written down. There has been a really satisfactory 
improvement in the trade position of zinc. Surplus stocks 
have been reduced from 91,000 tons in July to 67,000 tons 
on the first of December and the indication is the current 
month will see another reduction. This has made for a 
materially better feeling in the trade. 

At its zinc-oxide plant at Columbus, Ohio, American Zinc 
has been getting splendid metallurgical results. While the. 
capacity of this new plant was originally expected to be 
7500 tons of zinc oxide annually, right now it is operating 
at only 50 % capacity and is producing at the rate of 6000 
tons per year. Output could be expanded to 12,000 tons 

January 7. H'l'l' 



of this tire and paint Ingredient should conditions In the 

automobile trade demand It. This Increase has been ao< i 

pUahed purely throogb recent metallurgical Improvements 
and the working out of problems of production. At Its M;is- 
cot mines in Tennessee the company has developed more ore 
than it has produced. There is developed In reserve to date 
sufficient ore to maintain capacity operations for many 
y.ars on present known tonnages. The Mascot ore while 
relatively low grade is absolutely lead-free, which is so 
necessary in the manufacture of zinc oxide. 


The first carload of lead concentrate from the Simon Sil- 
ver-Lead Mining Co.'s new mill, situated near Mina, Nevada, 
was delivered to the U. S. Smelter at Midvale. Utah, late In 
December. Zinc concentrate will go to the Harbor City plant 
near Los Angeles. A half interest in this zinc-oxide plant Is 
owned by Dern & Thomas and H. P. Kirk, of Salt Lake City, 
and the other half by the Simon Silver-Lead company. Re- 
cently a four-day shut-down was made necessary to make 
adjustments to the electric-power line and to install a larger 
motor for operation of the flotation machines. Installation 
of a larger motor remedied what was said to be the only 
error made in planning the flotation plant. In all other de- 
partments the mill is reputed to be giving great satisfaction. 
Operating at capacity, it Is estimated that the mill will have 
an output of 40 to 50 tons of concentrate per day. This 
product will be hauled to the railroad by the company's 
tractors with two trailers. The recently built road connect- 
ing the mine with the railroad is said to afford a good all- 
winter route for heavy hauling. Development work in the 
mine is to be extended in all directions, according to reports. 
Several discoveries of great significance have been reported 
as being made upon the fourth, sixth, and seventh levels, 
notably north and west. These developments, two of them 
made beyond the major faults, are of such importance that 
the management has started exploration of the new areas 
in anticipation of adding to the ore-reserves. 


Though it has been decided that the usual Preliminary 
Review and Estimate of the Mineral Production of British 
Columbia will not be issued this year, on the ground of 
economy, the following official estimate of the mineral pro- 
duction for 1921 has been made. The production for 1920 
is given for comparison. 

1920 . . 1921 . 

Quantity Value Quantity Value 

Gold, placer, oz 11.080 $221,600 J220.000 

Gold, lode, oz 120.048 2.481.392 108.000 2.191.020 

Silver, oz 3,377.849 3,235.980 2.550.000 1.535,865 

Copper, lb 44.887.676 7.832,899 30.000.000 3.720.000 

Lead, lb 39.331.218 3.816.115 43.000.000 1.754.400 

Zinc, lb 47.208.268 3.077.979 45.000,000 1.733.500 

Coal and coke, lonr tons 2.686.263 13.450.169 11.432.644 

Miscellaneous and build- 
ing material 2.426.950 1.976,460 

S35.543.084 824.553. 909 

Taken as a whole and considering the low prices of base 
metals ruling throughout the year, the production cannot 
lje considered as other than satisfactory. The gold output 
is disappointing, as it generally was expected that it would 
show an improvement on last year. The Rossland mines 
have produced more than 20,000 oz. over their production 
of last year. On the other hand, the Nickel Plate mine has 
produced nothing, and the Belmont-Surf Inlet mine shows 
a marked decrease; owing to labor trouble, the Premier 
mine, from which much was expected, has confined its 
attention mostly to construction and development work; it 
was only toward the end of the year that steady production 

commenced, and the great bulk of thos.. shlpmentl will 
obtain returns from the smelter too late to appear as 1921 
production. The decrease In the silver production may be 
attributed to the complete collapse of the Slocan and Alnn- 
worth districts, owing to there being no market for the out- 
put, and of the Dolly Varden mine, through financial diffi- 
culties. Except for a small production obtained na a by- 
product from the Rossland gold ores, the Granby has been 
the only company to produce copper during the year. The 
large lead and zinc production Is remarkable. 


DURING 1921 

Preliminary estimates, based on reports gathered from all 
sections of the State, place the gold output of California at 
$16,000,000 for 1921. a distinct gain over 1920, when the 
gold yield totaled $14,311,043. Yuba was apparently the 
leading gold county, due to activities of nine dredges in the 
Yuba River field. Nevada county ranked second, and Ama- 
dor third, with Calaveras and Sacramento close rivals for 
the fourth position. Statistics available indicate that the 
Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields, operating a fleet of gold 
dredges near Hammonton, was the leading gold producer of 
the State, with Natomas Consolidated, operating dredges in 
Butte and Sacramento counties probably holding second 

First place among the quartz-gold producers is disputed 
by the Empire mine, at Grass Valley, and the Calaveras Con- 
solidated, including the Morgan mine, near Carson Hill, 
Calaveras county. The Central Eureka, at Sutter Creek, 
Plymouth Consolidated, at Plymouth, North Star, at Grass 
Valley, and Argonaut, near Jackson, also ranked high in 
production of quartz-gold, with scores of lesser mines con- 
tributing important amounts of the yellow metal. 

Silver production in California passed the $2,000,000 
mark in 1921, the first time in the history of California that 
the output of the white metal ever exceeded $1,S60,000, the 
latter figure being registered in 1920. San Bernardino was 
the principal silver county, with the California Rand the 
leading mine. Appreciable amounts of the silver also came 
from the mines of Inyo, Plumas, Nevada, Amador, Calaveras, 
and Shasta counties. The revival of gold mining was par- 
ticularly notable in the final four months of the year, and 
the outlook is favorable for a decided increase in the gold 
output in 1922. Silver production is also expected to regis- 
ter a gain. 


The firm of Dudley & Orr of El Paso has taken a contract 
for constructing 47 miles of grading and culvert work on the 
new Chihuahua and Oriente railroad, from Lucero, on the 
Mexican Central, to properties of the Erupcion Mining com- 
pany and Ahumada Lead company, at whose expense the new 
line will be built and operated. J. C. Greenway, of Warren, 
Arizona, is president of the new railway organization and T. 
Hicklin of Ajo is chief engineer. D. Bruce Smith is general 
manager. Work is to be started within two weeks and is to 
be completed within 150 days. Operation is expected by 
next August. Traffic will amount to several hundred thou- 
sand tons of silver-lead ore,' to be transported for reduction 
at El Paso and Chihuahua. 


The first silver dollars of the new 1921 design were 
finished at the Philadelphia Mint on January 2, 1922. The 
coin, known as 'the peace dollar', has the head of liberty 
on one side and on the other a dove upon a mountain top, 
clutching an olive branch, struck by the rays of the sun, with 



January 7, 1922 

the word 'peace' beneath it. This is the first change in 
the design o£ the dollar since 1878, officials say, and will 
remain as the design o£ the dollar for 25 years, unless 
changed by legislation. About 500,000 of the new dollars 
probably will be coined with the date 19 21 and after that 
the dollar will carry the date of the year in which it is 
struck off. Efforts are being made to complete the coinage 
of at least a half million of the new dollars with the 1921 
date in order to avoid a scarcity of the coin which would 
result in a premium being placed upon them by collectors. 
There will be in all about 180,000,000 dollars of the new de- 
sign, officials say. Coinage of silver dollars ceased in 1904, 
when the silver purchases authorized by the Sherman Act 
had been completed, but it was resumed again in February 
1921 when the purchase of silver was begun under the Pitt- 
man Act to replace the dollars melted and sold to the British 
government during the War. 


A decrease in wages of 50 cents per shift was announced 
by nearly every metal-mining company in Utah on December 
81, to become effective January 16, 1922. This decrease will 
affect employees of the Utah Copper, Utah Consolidated, and 
Utah-Apex companies at Bingham, although none of these 
companies is operating at present. A year ago wages were 
reduced from 75 cents to $1 per shift in practically every 
mining and smelting camp in the West. On May 1, 1921, 
operators in Arizona and New Mexico made a further cut, 
and the present action on the part of Utah operators is to 
equalize wage-scales more uniformly as between Western 
mining districts. On December 29, Montana operators an- 
nounced a reduction of 50c. per shift, and the Nevada Con- 
solidated Copper Co. at Ely has announced a reduction, call- 
ing for a maximum cut of 50c. per shift. In a statement 
issued to Utah Copper Co. employees, R. C. Gemmell, gen- 
eral manager, states that the time is approaching when the 
exhaustion of surplus metal stocks should make it possible 
for the company to market some new output, and that plans 
to that end are under consideration, although no definite, or 
even approximate date for such action, or the rate of pro- 
duction, can be designated at this time. He states that an 
important factor requiring adjustment is that of production 
costs, which at the time of suspension were so high that 
there would be no reasonable margin between them and the 
prices at which copper is now selling or is likely to sell for 
some time to come. Costs must accordingly be lower before 
resumption to any extent can be undertaken. The largest 
item of cost is payroll, and looking to decreases in this, as 
well as in all other possible directions, a revised scale of 
wages, as an economic necessity, is proposed, which it is be- 
lieved will be acceptable to present and prospective em- 
ployees, especially in view of the fact that the cost of living 
has decreased materially since production was discontinued 
last April. The maximum cut to be made by the Utah Cop- 
per is 50c. per shift. 




In a letter to stockholders, John D. Ryan, chairman of 
the Anaconda Copper Co., elucidates the motives of the 
directors in proposing to acquire control of the American 
Brass Co. He says: 

"For several years past it has been increasingly apparent 
to the officers of the company that, in order to place the 
business of the company upon sound foundation, it would 
be necessary to acquire manufacturing and fabricating 
plants. It has been a growing conviction of the officers of 
the company that the large investment required to carry on 
the business of mining, smelting, and refining copper and 

zinc, was inadequately protected, and the business lacked a 
stabilizing influence so long as producers could not reach out 
to ultimate consumers of their product and take steps which 
it is believed must be taken if copper producers are to meet 
the competitive effort of the producers of other metals in 
marketing and distributing the same. 

"The initial result of this conviction was the establish- 
ment of the wire-mill at Great Falls. The results achieved 
have demonstrated the wisdom of this step. Since the be- 
ginning of the operations of the wire-mill at Great Falls, on 
June 9, 1918, to the end of the current year, with December 
estimated, the wire-mill has drawn into rods and copper 
wire a total of 166,000,000 lb. of copper, which has been 
distributed at a manufacturing net profit of $8 50,000; the 
total investment having been $1,057,730, reduced to $885,- 
000 after allowing for depreciation. When it became neces- 
sary last February to shut-down all mines of this company,. 
as did also most of the other large producers on the hemis- 
phere, necessity for acquiring such outlets for production 
was emphasized by the fact that the production of the wire- 
mill was sold ahead for many months, so that during prac- 
tically the entire period of the shut-down it has been able to 
continue manufacturing and sale of rods and wire at a sub- 
stantial manufacturing profit. 

"About this time the officers of the company undertook 
an intensive study of the manufacturing and fabricating 
situation in the United States. An enumeration of the va- 
rious plants engaged in such business, their geographical 
position with reference to facility for distribution, capacity 
for using metal, and general financial condition, was closely 
studied. Two propositions developed from this study: 

"First — There were engaged in the United States., in the 
business of manufacturing and fabricating copper products 
from raw material, about 32 concerns of sufficient impor- 
tance to be taken into consideration, and that the total 
capacity of these plants exceeded annually an output of 
1.800,000,000 lb. of copper. As this capacity was consider- 
ably more than twice as much as had ever been required by- 
the United States in pre-war years, and probably 80% more 
than has been required during the comparatively busy years, 
in the United States, of 1919 and 1920, respectively, and 
moreover, as it was found that a good many of the plants 
were well situated for distribution, modern in construction, 
and therefore could meet business requirements as well as 
plants which could be constructed, it became apparent that 
further building of plants would merely add to an already 
over-constructed mill capacity, and that an effort in this 
direction by your company would result in adding demoral- 
ization rather than stabilization to the situation. 

"Second — The other proposition that became apparent was 
that the American Brass Co. dominated the manufacturing 
and fabricating situation in copper and brass. 

"Having become convinced that the desirable course to 
pursue, in view of the above situation, was to endeavor to 
acquire a control of American Brass Co., rather than to- 
add demoralization to the situation by undertaking to be- 
come its competitor or to place this company in a position 
where it would be boycotted by other consumers and fabri- 
cators during the period of its attempt to build a fabricating 
business or through the acquisition of plants of more limited 
capacity, an experience which followed to some extent the 
entrance of this company into the wire business at Great 
Falls, it was decided to undertake negotiations along the 
foregoing line. 

"During the present year, because of the inability of this 
company to market its copper and zinc output, the necessity 
was forced upon it to suspend operations, which it is esti- 
mated will cost $6,000,000. During this same period the- 
plants of American Brass Co. have been operating upon a 
basis which, with the quota of this company of the sales of" 
the Copper Export Association, would have enabled this- 

January 7. 1928 



company to have produced 20,000.000 lb. of copper and at 
least 4.000,000 lb. of zinc per month during the entire period 
of the shut-down, without any accumulation of metal stocks. 
This would have enabled your company to have avoided the 
necessity for closing Its plants, and resulted in the saving of 
the above shut-down expense, and would have been a stabll- 
lilng factor to the entire copper industry." 


Jerome. — An extension till March 10 has been made to 
the period within which stock of the Jerome-Verde Copper 
Co. may be exchanged for certificates of the Jerome-Verde 
Development Co. Those shareholders who fall to exchange 
will be given cash for their holdings, this in accordance with 
an agreement entered into with the United Verde Extension 
Copper Co., which now controls the Jerome-Verde ground 

Frank A. Uarbutt. Some payments have been made by Cote, 
but In- did not succeed In completely financing the property. 
The mortgage has now been foreclosed and the property 

advertised for sale. Rich ore has been opened In the 

drifts on the 200-ft. level of the Nancy Lee. The finances 
of the company are In sufficiently good Bhape to carry 
through the present plan of development, which Is extensive. 
Prescott. — It Is announced that D. M. Locey has taken 
over the Crown King, Wlldflower, and Old Tiger mines in 
the Crown King district. The Crown King mine Is one of 
the oldest and best known In that section of Arizona. Oper- 
ations are to be commenced at once on the Crown King. 


Carrville. — John Lorenz has secured a lease on the Nash 
mine near the head of Coffee creek. The property is named 
for its original locator; at one time it produced much gold. 

■ '0 


Steam-Shovel Mining at the United Verde Mine at Jerome, Arizona 

and which is starting on its development from deep work- 
ings. Over 88 % of the stock has been exchanged already. 

Based upon circumstances of a late visit of Charles W. 
Clark, general manager, there is belief here that one of the 
first copper properties to resume production in Arizona will 
be the United Verde. Mr. Clark is sure that copper will go 
to 15c. by February and stated that he would be satisfied 
at 16c. Federal and State taxation and high freight-rates 
he considers the main factors against operation in the spring, 
though there is some hope of better freight-tariffs on metals. 

The R. & H. property has been absorbed by the Howard 

Silver Co., which has been operating adjoining property for 
two years past. Development is reported such that a mill 
is being considered. 

Kingman. — M. J. Kiley has been appointed receiver for 
the Schuylkill Mining Co., the mines of which are in the 
Chloride district. Several months ago Ralph Cole took over 
the properties for the total amount of the mortgage due 

Operations were discontinued because of the large boulders 
mixed with the gravel. It is understood that Lorenz will 
erect a wooden dredge to recover the gold. The first work 
■will be to repair the road to the mine. 

Genesee. — M. J. Calnan has purchased mining machinery 
that he will use to develop the Keystone group of claims, 
which he believes to be on the extension of the lode that 
passes through the Walker mine. Calnan has driven a 340- 
ft. adit from which he proposes to drive cross-cuts in both 

Grass Valley. — At the Alcalde mine the Bowery vein has 
been penetrated. There are good showings at various points. 

H. L. Ostrander, in charge of work at the Randolph 

mine, is developing the vein recently found. 

San Francisco. — The directors of the California Metal and 
Mineral Producers Association, on December 28, elected the 
following officers for the ensuing year: Edwin Higgins, presi- 
dent; W. J. Loring, first vice-president; P. C. Knapp, second 



January 7, 1922 

vice-pr;sident; W. G. Devereux, third vice-president; and 
Robert I. Kerr, secretary-treasurer. 


.4 una. — More activity is reported in progress in the Alma 
district than for many years past. Old mines with heavy 
production records, as well as prospects, are being re-opened 
and developed. 

Aspen. — The Park Tunnel company is making progress 
with its new tramway to move ore to the mill, now being 
remodeled and modernized with flotation and cyanidation 
units. Many thousands of tons of milling ore is blocked 
out, and it is expected that with favorable terms offered 
many lessees will make money furnishing this ore for the 
mill. The capacity of the plant will be increased to meet 
this demand. 

Boulder. — Increased activity is reported from the Caribou 
district and tonnage to the Boulder county mill at Cardinal 
is increasing accordingly. Operators in the Yellow Pine 
district report more men employed than for many years past, 
and advices from Salina state that the principal mines are 
shipping regularly and that new work is being started on 
sundry properties. 

Cripple Creek. — The Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining 
Co. is now cutting a station at 2100 ft. at the Vindicator 
No. 2 or main shaft, preparatory to cross-cutting west to 
the Lillie vein, that should be penetrated at a point about 
30 ft. west. The vein dipped through the shaft in sinking 
the last lift; it carried high gold content. Twenty sets of 
lessees are operating in the upper levels of the Vindicator 
and Golden Cycle mines and the large majority are mining 
and shipping a good grade of ore. The Roosevelt tunnel is 
being extended at both ends by the Vindicator company and 
of about 3000 ft. required to make connection one-half has 
been completed. Rapid work has been done by the tunnel 
crews. The crew at the Portland end progressed 15 ft. daily 
during the first part of December. 

The Ducey lessees on the Wilson of the Free Coinage 
group, Bull Hill, are mining two-ounce ore at the 125-ft. 
level of that old producer; they will have a shipment out 
by the middle of January. New machinery is being installed 
at the Victor mine, Bull Cliffs, to be operated by Math Korf 
of Cripple Creek and Eastern associates under a five-year 
lease. A long lease has also been secured on the properties 
of the Anona G. M. Co., formerly the Arvilla Tunnel & Min- 
ing Co., adjoining the Victor to the east. 

Golden. — The annual short course for prospectors and 
practical mining men, offered by the Colorado School of 
Mines, will start on February 6 and conclude on March 4, 
1922. A single fee of $10 is charged for the entire course, 
payable upon registration. All of the courses are of the most 
practical nature and compromise instruction relating to the 
common minerals, ores, and rocks; elementary chemistry, 
principles of ore dressing, assaying, and the more common 
metallurgical processes; methods of ualuing, buying, and 
selling ore; lode mining; location of mining claims; and 
petroleum engineering. They are given entirely by regular 
members of the faculty and consist of lectures, supplemented 
by practical laboratory demonstrations. Address all corre- 
spondence to The Registrar, Colorado School of Mines, 
Golden, Colorado. 

Silver Plume. — On the evening of December 26, the Bur- 
leigh mill of the Silver Plume Mining Co. was almost com- 
pletely destroyed by fire. The origin of the fire is not 
definitely known, but is supposed to have been caused by 
defective wiring. The mill had been shut-down for a few 
days for repairs, the repairing had just been completed, and 
the mill was to have started on the morning of the 2 7th. 
Firemen were able to save the blacksmith shop and the ma- 
chines in the machine-shop. The plant was formerly the 

property of the Tarkington Mines Co. and was part of the 
Dives-Pelican property. It has been handling about 100 
tons per day from the Pelican dumps, using flotation and 
table concentration. The loss was partly covered by in- 
surance, it is claimed. G. L. Cole is general manager for 
the company. 

Silverton. — A recent shipment of ore from the Slide mine, 
in the Stony Pass section, returned $30 gold and $140 silver; 
the ore was mined from the tunnel. Work has been dis- 
continued until spring. 


Coeur d'Alene. — The Hecla Mining company has some ore 
in the Wide West claim, which the Hecla recently acquired 
from the Federal Mining & Smelting Co. in the settlement 
the two companies made of the Marsh litigation. It is re- 
ported that 14 ft. of good ore is exposed at a depth of only 
150 ft. and it is believed that with greater depth the vein 
will increase in size and value. 

Progress at the rate of 300 ft. per month is being made 
in driving the tunnel to the Star mine. This tunnel will be 
14 miles long, 8 by 9 ft. in size, and is considered one of the 
engineering feats of the district. The enterprise was 
planned and is being carried on under the combined direc- 
tion of the Hecla Mining Co.'s engineers and those of the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan company. The cross-cut to tap the 
Star runs almost south from the Hecla shaft. Rapid progress 
in the tunnel is partly credited to the use of a mucking 
machine that loads a 24-ton car in three minutes. The 
mucker operates on a track and is handled entirely by com- 
pressed air. 

The Cedar Creek Mining & Developing Co. is developing 
properties on Granite creek. The main cross-cut is in about 
3000 ft. In the main drift there is now shown 15 in. of 
lead-silver mill-ore. From this drift a cross-cut was 
started, and after going 5 5 ft. ran into two stringers of rich 
ore. These have been followed and are found to run almost 
parallel with the other ore-shoot. The two stringers have 
merged and now show 22 in. of ore, some of which assays 
53% lead and 24 oz. silver. 

Talache. — The Bluebird company has shipped from its 
mine on Blacktail mountain 420 sacks of high-grade silver 
ore. The owners expect to ship regularly. 


Joplin. — Approximately 13,800 tons of zinc ore were pur- 
chased in the Tri-State district during the last week of De- 
cember, the price being $2 5 and $2 6. Lead ore was steady 
at $52.50. Production was about the same as for several 
weeks past. Shipments from the district were as follows: 

Oklahoma mines: Blende, 13,347,660 lb.; value, $166,- 
S25; lead, 1,680,940 lb.; value, $44,100; total value, $210,- 

Kansas mines: Blende, 1,410,690 lb.; value, $17,625; 
lead, 460,650 lb.; value, $12,075; total value, $29,700. 

Missouri mines: Blende, 1,259,690 lb.; value, $15,725% 

Total for the district: Blende, 16,018,040 lb.; value, 
$200,175; lead, 2,141,590 lb.; value, $56,175; total value, 

Springfield.— Development of a copper mine in Benton 
county, Arkansas, is being pushed rapidly, according to in- 
formation that has reached Springfield. The property is 
owned by the Page Mining & Smelting Co. of Ft. Smith, 
Arkansas, which company has leases on 570 acres, 11 miles 
east of Rogers. Assays of samples from various parts of the 
tract show, it is said, from 3 to 15% copper, with from $2 
to $5 in gold and silver per ton of ore. The company has 
bought a 150-ton concentrating mill. The land under the 
lease lies along the White river. 


Eureka. — The Eureka-Uncle Sam Mining Co. has acquired 

January 7. 1922 


the olil Il.tmtitirK mine, the negotiations belli*; oonducted by 
Frank T. Toi"|ii>y. The Hamburg shi|i]i>->! sensational!* rich 
ore iluriiiK the earl; days DurliiK the |»'rii»l (nun 1S80 to 
1894 the main shaft was sunk to a depth of ft. and drifts 
and croas-CUta were run on tour Intermediate levels. A 
large amount of medium-grade ore Is said to be exposed in 
the workings. 

Oitana. — The Pershing County Mines Co., developing 
property In the Arabia district, has made final payment on 
the option which it exercised to purchase the old Montezuma 
mine, the second of the mines worked in the early 'sixties 
■which this company has acquired. The Jersey mine, first 
taken over and developed by the company, has shown the 
ore not only to persist to depth but to Increase in richness. 
Prior to opening the mines about 3000 tons of slag and tail- 
ing from the old plants was shipped to I'tah. by the officials 
of the present company. Only the oxidized ores cropping at 
the surface have been extracted and reduced, and although 
much leached of silver, over $455,000 in silver alone was re- 
covered from near the surface of the Montezuma claim. To 
reduce the ores of the Montezuma and Jersey mines to 
bullion, before the advent of the railroad, the first silver- 
lead smelter successfully operated west of the Mississippi 
river was constructed in 1865. Litigation closed the mines 
in the early 'seventies and they have not yet been explored 
below the 9 5-ft. level. Glenn D. Cook is manager. 

Virginia City. — Concrete work being done by the United 
Comstock Alines Co. on American Flat is one-third complete 
and should be more than half finished by January 15. Rapid 
progress is made possible by the use of a 14 3-ft. tower which 
distributes 450 cu. yd. of concrete daily over a wide area. 
The largest single building is the cyanide plant, which is 
290 by 330 ft. and is four stories high. The milling plant is 
expected to cost approximately $2, 000, 000 when completed. 
Additional structures are: lodging-house, mess-hall, office, 
boiler plant, pump-station, blacksmith-shop, machine-shop, 
compressor plant, heating plant, and superintendent's resi- 


Goldboro. — Sam Hidalgo, and A. H. Reynolds and T. B. 
Bartlett, both of El Paso, are mining ore from the new gold 
district, north-west of the. Elephant Butte irrigation dam. 

Promising samples come from the 'Nigger Diggins', 

six miles west of Goldboro. The rock is high-grade silver 

Las Cruces. — High-grade shipping ore and mill-ore aver- 
aging 20 oz. silver over a width of 3 ft., not including four 
feet of horn-silver ore on the hanging side of the wall, which 
averages more than 50 oz. per ton, was opened on the 100-ft. 
level of the mine in Hidalgo county, according to an an- 
nouncement by C. W. Mitchell, president of the Volcano 
Mines Co. He now has three cars of this ore ready for 
shipment to the El Paso smelter. Driving on the 10 0-ft. 
level in the north drift continues with three shifts. On the 
200-ft. level he has opened ore that is 15 ft. wide. He is 
now sinking a winze on this orebody and have 15 tons of it 
on the dump. Timbering the shaft is under way from the 
200- to the 300-ft. level. The face of the north drift on the 
300-ft. level has the best showing in the mine. E. R. Ram- 
sey, representing the Doyle company of New York, is at the 
Volcano mine, making plans for a cyanide plant of 100 tons 
daily capacity. 

Lordsburg. — The Ruth property in the Lordsburg district 
has shown such improvement as to warrant continuing de- 
velopment. Frank G. Koerwer, manager, says that two 
drifts on the 60-ft. level show a width of 41 ft. of ore. 

Picher. — A syndicate composed of the Mathiessen & 
Hegeler Zinc Co. and William Wrigley, Jr., of Chicago, are 

reported to have virtually closed a deal for the purchase of 
the Uuncie, Blue Ribbon, and II nines at a price 

said to be approximately a halt-million dollars. The Muncle 
mine, just north of Treece, Kansas, at present Is operated by 
Frank Childress of Galena and associates, under lease. The 
mill and 40-acre lease Is controlled by S. C. Glover & Co., of 
Tulsa, Oklahoma, from whom Childress obtained the lease. 
Childress and R. L. Kldner of Kansas City have control of 
the Blue Ribbon mine property, which consists of a mill and 
40 acres at Picher, Oklahoma. The Homestead mine at 
Baster Springs, Kansas, recently has been developed into one 
of the big producers of the district. Kidner and Childress 
also are the principal owners in this property. 


Gold HIU. — The Gold Coin Quartz and Placer Association, 
a local concern organized In the early part of the year, is 

South- Western New Mexico 

d veloping mines in this vicinity. The association has been 
incorporated as the Gold Coin Mining Co. A. M. Knapp, of 
Medford, is at the head. The original Gold Coin group of 
mines, the Mohawk, the Alice, the Pearce groups, and the 
Red Ribbon have been acquired. In the Alice mine recent 
work on the vein has uncovered three ore-shoots of high- 
grade ore. The Gold Coin group is in the Jacksonville dis- 
trict; it is being further developed with a crew of 15 min- 
ers. This property has a contact vein approximately 15 ft. 
wide carrying gold. The Pearce group is rich placer ground 
on Poor Man's creek, four miles out from Jacksonville, con- 
sisting of 240 acres of virgin ground. 


Eureka. — The old Colorado mine has been closed down 
for some time past, except for a small amount of develop- 
ment which has been done on company account on the deeper 
levels. The results have not been favorable, and the work 
has been discontinued. Blocks of ground in the vicinity of 
old stopes have been leased, and numerous orebodies have 
been opened; the general result is that the mine, as a whole, 
is looking better than for many months past, according to 



January 7, 1922 

Hugh Trenholm, manager of mines for the Knight interests. 
At the Iron Blossom mine, prospecting has heen done on the 
1700 and 2200-ft. levels, but the results were disappointing 
and the work has been stopped. 

Ore shipments for the week ending December 24 totaled 
141 carloads, as compared with 156 for the previous week. 
The Tintic Standard shipped 42 cars; Chief Consolidated, 
38; Colorado, 12; Iron Blossom, 11; Victoria, 11; Eagle & 
Blue Bell, 8; Swansea, 4; Empire Mines, 4; Dragon, 3; 
Gemini, 2; Sunbeam, 2; Gold Chain, 1; Centennial-Eureka, 
1; Mammoth, 1. 

Marysvale. — An orebody of considerable promise has been 
opened up in the I. X. L. property, about 7 miles from here, 
according to George E. Hemphill, manager for the American 
Consolidated Mines Co., which recently acquired the mine. 
At a point about 125 ft. from the portal, ore was found. At 
first it was 16 in. wide; it has increased to 2 ft. Average 
assays give returns of 57 oz. silver, 25% lead, and $2 in gold. 
One grab-sample assayed $5 in gold, 139 oz. silver, and 30% 
lead. The first shipment will be ready within 30 days. The 
property has been equipped with up-to-date mining ma- 
chinery; it adjoins the Deer Trail mine, one of the largest 
gold-silver producers in the State. 

Milford. — Mining has been active during recent months in 
Beaver county. At the property of the Galena Mining Co., 
14 miles north-west of here, a tunnel is being driven to open 
up at depth a vein of high-grade ore, according to Frank L. 
Osborne, who is in charge of operations. Owing to the in- 
accessibility of the shaft, sinking has been discontinued. 
The tunnel has penetrated highly-mineralized vein matter, 
with bunches of 'steel' galena throughout the mass. Within 
another 100 ft., or about 440 ft. from the portal, Osborne 
believes the orebody will be struck. 

Edward Bardgley, who is in charge of the Silver Inde- 
pendence company, announces that the company intends to 
deepen the shaft from the 100 to the 200-£t. level, and then 
cross-cut back to the fissure, which, in the upper workings, 
produced considerable ore. The company is installing a 
compressor, gasoline-engine, hoist, and machine-drills for 
this development work. 

Park City. — It is reported that on the 1100 and 1500-ft. 
levels of the Ontario mine drifts are being run to prospect 
the eastern holdings of the company, with the expectation of 
cutting the rich Ontario vein that was cut by a porphyry 
dike, and which, undoubtedly, has been found recently in 

the Park-Utah property. Work has been suspended, 

temperoraily, in. the long drift at the Park-Utah property 
that will have its outlet ultimately in Deer valley. A raise 

is now being made to connect with the Hawkeye shaft. 

Ore shipments for the week ending December 24 totaled 
2602 tons, as compared with 2430 tons for the preceding 
week. The Judge allied companies shipped 1452 tons; 
Silver King Coalition, 662; Ontario, 448. 


Alice Ann. — The Esperanza mine, which lies at an eleva- 
tion of 800 ft. about one mile north of town, will ship ap- 
proximately 100 tons of ore in the course of a few weeks. 
D. Jeremierson, of Vancouver, and associates, are the present 
owners of the property and it is their intention, providing 
the first shipment is a success, to continue the work during 
the winter. 

Hazellon. — The Silver Standard mine, which has been 
closed for some 15 months, is to be re-opened at once; the 
mill will be thoroughly overhauled. Prior to the closing of 
the mine a new tunnel had been started to work the several 
orebodies more expeditiously, and in the driving of this a 
number of rich stringers were cut, the existence of which 
were not previously known. The tunnel has been driven 
1000 ft. and, besides the ri^h stringers, three veins have 

been cut. The objective of the tunnel, the No. 4 vein, is 
about 400 ft. from the present face. W. G. Norrie-Lowen- 
thal will again be in charge of the property. 

Kaslo. — O. C. Thompson, who is in charge of development 
work on the Utica mine, states that much has been done in 
putting the mine in shape for operation. New ore has been 
blocked out and a car has been loaded ready for shipment. 

Nelson. — W. G. Clark has developed a body of good ore 
at the Cody mine, in the Slocan district. There is a stringer 
of clean shipping ore and a good body of milling ore. Clark 
is making arrangements for the treating of the second-grade 

ore at a custom mill. The Consolidated M. & S. Co. has 

issued a circular letter to the independent operators, making 
the following amendment to schedule 'D'; "Settlement: Pay- 
ment will be made in full, shortly after sampling, to such 
shippers as select the spot settlement basis for lead. An 
advance payment will be made to those selecting the pooling 
system on the same basis as if they had selected the spot 
lead quotation, but less 25% of the net value of the lead. 
In this case there will be an adjustment when the lead value 
is finally ascertained in the operation of the pool". The new 
conditions that go into effect on January 1 have been made 
probably with a view to diverting a considerable amount of 
ore and concentrate to Trail that now is finding its way to 
the Bunker Hill & Sullivan smelter, at Kellogg. Owing to 
recent large sales the stock of lead is said to be below 
normal and the stock of spelter has been much reduced. 
The company now is in need of both lead and copper ores 
and concentrates. Recently Grant Hall and D. C. Coleman, 
of the C. P. R., and a number of well-known financial men 
visited the smelter. It is thought that the object of the 
visit may be in connection with the erection of the concen- 
rating plant at the Sullivan mine. 

Stewart. — Heavy snowfalls have stopped almost all min- 
ing activity in the Portland Canal district. Work continues, 
of course, on the Premier and such other properties as are 
well advanced in development and have made preparations 

for winter operations. The aerial tram to the Silverado 

group has been completed and a considerable quantity of 
high-grade ore is to be sacked and shipped. 

Vancouver. — The case brought by the Attorney-General 
of British Columbia against the general manager and engi- 
neer of the Britannia mine for criminal negligence in con- 
nection with the recent flood, when 36 people lost their 
lives, has been dismissed. 

Victoria. — The Union Oil Co., of California, has pur- 
chased a site covering two acres at Esquimalt, and will spend 
$35,000 in the erection of a storage plant for its various 

grades of oils. The Provincial government has leased 

one and a half acres of the old Indian reserve to the Shell 
Oil Co., which will proceed to erect a storage plant at once. 
The negotiations on behalf of the company were conducted 
by D. E. Fisher, divisional manager at Seattle. 

Chihuahua. — In the Urique district William Erritt, of 
Hutchinson, Kansas, has taken over the Santa Teresa group 
of silver-lead mines, which consists of eighteen claims. He 
is preparing to install machinery and sink shafts with a 

view to increasing ore production. It is announced by 

William White that large American financial interests have 
acquired the holdings of the Compafiia Minera La Esperanza. 
The mines of this company are situated in the western part 
of the State of Chihuahua. They are well developed and in 

times past were producers of rich ore. John Johnson, of 

Santa Rosa, has started extensive development work upon 
La Pizarra group of gold, silver, and lead mines. The prop- 
erty consists of six claims which are situated near Morelos. 

El Coronel mines, situated in the Galena district, were 

recently acquired by John Wells of Sabinal, Texas. He is 
preparing to start development of the property. 

Janum-v 7, 1922 



i'\ I.VIUO 

<ob*l(. — During January the precious metal mines of 
Northern Ontario will distribute a total of J1.044.6SO In 
dividends. The Nlplsslng Is the only silver mine on the list, 
and its disbursement, including a 3% bonus, will amount to 
$360,000. the dividends of the gold companies being as fol- 
lows: Holllnger. $246,000; Mclntyre, $182,014; Wrlght- 
Hargreaves, $137,500; Dome Mines, $119,166. 

Kirklmul Ijiko. — The shaft on the Sylvanlte is nearing a 
depth of 200 ft. The plan of operations is to sink to about 

400 ft. before carrying on any extensive lateral work. 

Exceptionally favorable results have recently been obtained 
at the 600-ft. level of the Lake Shore, where the extent and 
richness of the deposits appear greater than on the 400-ft. 
level. Development work is far ahead of milling require- 
ments, and a large tonnage of high-grade ore is being ac- 
cumulated in the stopes, pending an enlargement of the 
mill. The cost of all work Is being paid from current profits. 

At the Bldgood the vein which was 5 ft. wide on the 

300-ft. level is reported to show a width of 21 ft. at the 400- 
ft. level; mineralization Is well maintained. — — The shaft 
of the Wrlght-Hargreaves Is being sunk from its present 
depth of 400 ft. to deeper levels. Mill-heads are now aver- 
aging between $12 and $13 per ton, and the mill is treating 
over 170 tons daily. The orebodies have been found to 
widen with depth. 

Porcupine. — The Dome Mines is negotiating for the pur- 
chase of the Foley-O'Brien adjoining the Dome Extension 
property on the north-east. Considerable work was done on 
this location some years ago with little result but the geo- 
logical structure is regarded as favorable, as the porphyry 

rocks occurring on the Dome extend into the property. 

The shaft on the Porcupine Paymaster will be put down from 
the present 200-ft. level to a depth of 400 ft. At that point 
a cross-cut will be driven across the orebody 98 ft. wide and 

a drift run along the centre of the deposit. The Triplex 

has purchased a second-hand 20-stamp mill. It is stated that 
the 'paystreak' on the property has a width of 4 inches. 


Robert L. Jack, for many years Government Geologist in 
Queensland, and one of the leading economic geologists of 
the English-speaking world, died at Sydney, New South 
Wales, in November, at the age of 76. He was born in Scot- 
land and went to Queensland in 1872. 

Brant H. Engelke, 40 years of age, for a year past Chief 
Electrician to the United States Mining Co. at Bingham, 
Utah, was instantly killed on December 20 while in the act of 
repairing an electric wire. He had climbed to the top of a 
pole to make the repairs, when the pole fell, crushing 
Engelke to death. He came to Bingham from New York, 
four years ago, and became superintendent of the Silver 
Shield mine, which position he held until a year ago. He is 
survived by his wife and three children. 

Charles Frederick Jennings, general purchasing agent for 
all companies controlled by D. C. Jackling and associates, 
died at St. Marks' Hospital In Salt Lake City on December 
27, following an operation. He was horn at Laramie, Wy- 
oming, in 1873. In 1890 he was appointed storekeeper for 
the Union Pacific railway at Glenns Perry, Idaho. In 1907 
he was appointed purchasing agent for the Utah Copper Co. 
at Salt Lake City. Four years ago he was appointed general 
purchasing agent for that company and all other compnies 
under Mr. Jackling's general management. He was one of 
the most widely known purchasing agents in the West. He 
is survived by his wife, two sons, and three daughters. He 
leaves a large circle of friends, who deeply mourn his un- 
timely death. 


The E.hlor invites mcnilK-rt. of the profession to MDd particulars of Iheu* 
work and appointment* The Information is interestinc to our readers. 

R. Arthur Thomn» was in Silesia recently. 

C. A. Mitkc has returned from South America. 

A Henry Sinn, of Chrlstlanla, Norway, is In Paris. 

W. PeUew-Harvey has returned to London from Australia. 

Ralph S. ,1. Stokes has returned to Kimberley from 

Robert A. lSiyco is now at 8 Wellington street, East 

W. H. Johnston is with the Waihi company in New 

E. L. Jorgensen, of New York, is at Ilsenburg a Harz, in 

H. Hardy Smith has returned from Korea to Sydney, 

J. E. Bloom has moved from Brooklyn, New York, to San 

Afred de Ropp, Jr., of Wilmington, Delaware, is in San 

J. P. Porteus, of Lordsburg, New Mexico, was recently iD 
San Francisco. 

R. C. Gemmell spent a few days at Los Angeles and San 
Diego recently. 

William T. McDonald, of the Phelps Dodge Corporation, is 
at Los Angeles. 

Edwin T. Hodge has returned to Eugene, Oregon, from 
Vancouver, B. C. 

Ezra B. Rider has moved from Bisbee, Arizona, to Holly- 
wood, California. 

George A. Camphuls has returned to Arivaca, Arizona, 
from Los Angeles. 

G. Canning Barnard is leaving Etzatlan, Mexico, for South 
Africa, by way of England. 

S. J. Speak is president elect of the Institution of Mining 
and Metallurgy, in London. 

H. V. Burgard, formerly of Oakland, is making his home 
now at Hollywood, California. 

Franklin W. Smith has returned to Bisbee from London. 
He is starting for Mexico forthwith. 

R. G. Knickerbocker, metallurgical engineer, has returned 
from South Africa to Rolla, Missouri. 

A. J. Bandette has returned to Los Angeles from a pro- 
tracted tour of inspection in Colombia. 

Theodore Holliritisworth has moved from Newton Center, 
Massachusetts, to Glendaie, California. 

Dwight L. Sawyer, of Salt Lake City, has become geologist 
for the Minas de Matahambre, in Cuba. 

W. H. Wellman is now superintendent for the Metatas 
Mining Co., at Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Morton Webber was recently at Douglas, Arizona, and is 
now in Mexico, with W. T. Benson as assistant. 

J. A. McDougaU, of the mechanical department of the 
Phelps Dodge Corporation is now at Bisbee, Arizona. 

Arthur Moline, of the Bendigo Amalgamated Goldfields, 
has returned to Bendigo after journeys to the United States 
and South Africa. 

H. A. Tobelmann, recently metallurgist at the Ajo plant 
of the New Cornelia Copper Co., is now on the personal staff 
of George C. Beach, in New York. 

Charles W. Goodale has been awarded the gold medal of 
the Mining and Metallurgical Society of America, for "dis- 
tinguished service in increasing the safety of men in mining 
and metallurgical operations". It will be presented to him 
at a meeting of the society to be held in New York on 
January 10. 



January 7, 1922 


law 1 ) ^ 


San Francisco. January 3 

Aluminum-dust, cents per pound 65 

Aluminum sheets, cents per pound 60 

Antimony, cents per pound 6.25— 8.25 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound .14.75 — 15.25 

Lead, pig. cents per pound 4.95— 5.95 

Platinum, pure, per ounce $84 

Platinum, 10% iridium, per ounce $95 

Zinc, Blab, cents per pound *. . . 6.75— 7.75 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 9.50 — 10.00 


(By wire from New York) 
January 2. — Copper is quiet and strong-. Lead is inactive and steady. 
Zinc is dull but firm. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations for silver in the open market 
as disting-uished from the fixed price obtainable for metal produced, smelted, 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Pittman Act such silver will be purchased by the United States Mint at $1 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eighths of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 




ew York London 
cents pence 
64.75 . Holiday 
65.00 35.12 
65.00 35.13 
64.75 34.75 
64.63 34.63 

1920 1921 
132.77 65.95 
131.37 59.55 
125.70 56.08 
119.56 59.33 
103.69 59.90 
90.84 58.51 


ytic, in cents per I 

















New T 























erare we 

ek endinr 










ek endinr 











erage we 






f electro 




ces < 









1930 1921 
19.25 12.94 
19.05 12.84 
18.49 12.20 
19.23 12.50 
19.05 12.74 
19 00 12.83 


l cents per pound, 






. .20.82 

. .22.10 

. . 20.45 


>k endinr 



d is 





. .15.23 
■ 15.91 

quoted ii 





ork c 





srage we 

. 4.70 


. . 4.70 


. . 4.70 








1930 1921 
8.65 4.96 
8.88 4.54 
9.23 4.06 
8.78 4.32 
8.55 5.01 
8.43 4.57 


rk, in cents per pc 
1920 1921 
63.74 35.94 
59.87 33.16 
61.93 28.87 
63.17 30.36 
54.99 32.50 
48.33 29.39 

. 4.70 







2es in New Tc 


. 6.02 


. 7.12 





. 55.79 








Zinc is quoted as 
in cents per pound. 






1 Sunday 

2 Holiday 

spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery. 




June 6.91 





Monthly averages 

Averare week ending 



July . 
Aur- • 
Sept. . 
Oct. . 

Nov 8.12 

Dec 8.69 




. 5.18 

. 5.14 

. 5.31 

. 5.19 

. 5.23 

. 5.17 

5 09 

The primary market lor 
the largest producer. The 
quantity. Prices, in dollars 
Dec. 6 

" 13 


quicksilver is San Francisco. California beinr 
price is fixed in the open market, according to 
per flask of 75 pounds. 

I Deo. 20 52.00 

..46.00 '• 27 48.00 

..52.00 I Jan. 3 50.00 

Monthly averages 







Jan. . . 

. . .103.75 



July . . 

.. .100.00 



Feb. . . 

. . . 90.00 



Aur. '. . 

. . .103.00 



Mch. . . 

. . . 72.80 



. . .102.60 



... 73.12 



Oct. . . 

. . . 86.00 



May . . 

. . . S4.S0 



. , . 78.00 











Foreign trade figures of the United States in the calendar year 1921 show 
a heavy reduction in the stated value of the merchandise entering and 
leaving the country. In no single year in the history of our foreign trade, 
says the 'Trade Record' of the National City Bank of New York, have the 
official figures shown such a percentage of reduction. The total foreign 
trade of the country, imports and exports combined, stood at 13 % billion 
dollars in the calendar year 1920. the highest total ever reached, and 11 
months figures, ending with November 1921. justify the assertion that the 
total for the full year just ending will not exceed $7,000,000,000. and will 
probably fall a little below that total, as against 13% billion dollars one 
year earlier. 

The reduction in the total value of the merchandise entering and leaving 
the country in 1921 will be about 48%: in imports the reduction will be 
approximately 53% and in exports 45%. This falling off in the value of 
the foreign trade in 1921, when compared with 1920, extends to every great 
group of articles, both in imports and exports. Raw manufacturing ma- 
terial imported shows a falling off of about 53% in total value, foodstuffs 
63%, and manufactures 43%. these figures being, of course, in very round 
terms, the smaller reduction in manufactures being due to the fact that im- 
porters are bringing in large quantities of manufactures in anticipation of a 
higher tariff. On the export side, manufacturing material shows a fall of 
48%. foodstuffs 33%. and manufactures 51%. these figures as to exports 
being also necessarily in very round terms. 

Considering the trade of the country with the grand divisions, imports 
from Europe show a fall of 38%. from North America 54%, from South 
America 64%, and from Asia and Oceania 58%. Exports to Europe show a 
decline of 45%. to North America 40%, to South America 56%. and to Asia 
and Oceania 39%. 

The general causes of this tremendous decline in the value of every group 
of articles imported or exported and also a reduction in the trade with every 
grand division of the world, lie primarily in the fact that the prices per 
unit of quantity are, in most of the important articles, leas than half those 
of a year ago and that, in many instances, a given quantity of merchandise 
being now imported is valued at less than half that at the same date last 
year. Our biggest imports are. of course, in manufacturing materials — 
india rubber, hides and skins, wool, raw silk, raw cotton, fibres, and tin. 
The rubber imported in October 1921 entered at 14c. per pound, against 37c. 
in the same month of last year; cattle hides at 10 ^c. per pound, against 
22c; carding wool at 14c. per pound, against 40e. a year ago. The falling 
off in values of the principal articles exported is equally striking and an 
equally important factor in the causes of the decline, wheat, for example, 
exported in November going at $1.18 per bushel, as against $2.60 in No- 
vember of last year. 

Of course, adds the bank's statement, these big reductions in the values 
per unit of quantity of the articles imported and exported are not the only 
causes of the big falling off. for there are many actual reductions in quan- 
tities, and this is due to the decreased purchasing power of our own farm- 
ers and wage-earners and also to the big reduction in the imports of the 
countries to which our exports are sent. 


Foreign quotations on January 3 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 4.21 

Demand - 4.21 V. 

Franc, cents: Cable S.08 

Demand 8.10 

Lira, cents: Demand 4.30 

Mark, cent: - 0.58 

January 7, 1^2-J 


Eastern Metal Market 

New York, December 28. 

An optimistic tone pervades all tbe markets as the year 
draws to an end and tbe price-trend in nearly all of tbem is 
Arm to higher. 

Buying of copper has slackened but the volume of in- 
quiries is good. Prices are very firm. 

The tin market is temporarily inactive with prices slightly 
lower at firm unchanged prices. 

Demand for lead is quiet and steady at firm unchanged 

Buying of zinc is very light and prices are a little easier. 


Encouraging activity in pig-iron in several centres marks 
the end of the year. In steel, there is reduced demand, ac- 
counted for by deferring of deliveries until after January 1. 
The buying of pig-iron has been at the expense of prices, but 
so far as that goes the year-end shows an average for steel 
prices, not merely the lowest of the year but lower than at 
any time since January 1916. 

The new year is promising, says 'The Iron Age', at the out- 
set chiefly in continued activity in construction lines and also 
in a sustained demand for pipe and tin plate. By January 
15 a definite betterment in mill-operations is expected. 
Operations generally now average not over 30%. 

The composite price for finished steel is now 2.062c. per 
pound. The pig-iron figure, $18.68, is lower than any other 
for the year, with the sole exception of that ($18.51*) for 
August 9. These two figures are the lowest since September 


Actual business, as the year closes, is light but the volume 
of inquiry keeps up and the strength of the market is pro- 
nounced. Optimism prevails and prices, while unchanged, 
are decidedly firm. The chief feature is the prospect of a 
scarcity of metal developing, should the rate of demand keep 
up which has characterized recent weeks. Mining operations 
have not been over 40% of capacity for the greater part of 
the year and though preparations for more active mining are 
under way it will consume considerable time before the 
effect in output is appreciable. Prices are unchanged for 
electrolytic copper at 13.87ic, delivered, or 13.621c, New 
York or refinery, for early delivery with first quarter at 14c, 
delivered, or 13.75c. refinery. Some producers are out of 
the market at these levels. Foreign business continues in 
satisfactory volume. 


There has been almost an entire absence of business the 
past week, with dealers and consumers doing no buying. 
Sotne dealers have been making offerings at prices under the 
market, but their object has been clouded in doubt as no 
sales resulted, buyers not being eager to accept any offerings 
of any kind. The London market has been closed from 
Friday to Tuesday, inclusive. Spot Straits tin yesterday was 
quoted largely nominal at 32.75c, New York, having de- 
clined from 33c a week ago. Arrivals thus far this month 
have been 3635 tons with 4765 tons afloat. The London 
market on Friday was but slightly under the prices prevail- 
ing a week ago. — 


Demand continues fully equal to consumption and no 
weakness in the market is anywhere perceptible. Prices are 
firm at 4.70 to 4.75c, New York, and 4.35 to 4.40c, St. 
Louis, in tbe outside market, with the leading producer still 
quoting 4.70c, New York and St. Louis. Demand for 
January delivery is larger than normal at this time. It is 

quite generally expected that export business with Europe 
may develop early next year. 


Prime Western for early or 30-day delivery is slightly 
easier, due to light offerings of one or two weak holders, but 
the volume obtainable is small. This makes the market 
about 4.82Jc, St. Louis, or 5.17jc, New York, with first 
quarter about 4.95 to 5c, St. Louis, or 5.30 to 5.35c, New 
York. Producers are not pressing for sales, but are adopting 
a waiting attitude, some not selling at all except to regular 
customers. There are indications of exports to England 
developing, due partly to increased expansion there in gal- 
vanized-sheet making, particularly for export. 


In a very dull market prices are unchanged at 4.50c. New 
York, duty paid, for wholesale lots for early delivery. 


While the leading producer continues to quote virgin 
metal, 98 to 99% pure, in wholesale lots for early delivery 
at 19c f.o.b. plant, it is generally understood to be meeting 
the quotations of importers of 17 to 18c, New York, for the 
small business offered. 


Tungsten: No change is recorded and the market con- 
tinues inactive and nominal at $2 per unit and higher, de- 
pending on the grade of ore and the quantity and delivery. 

Molybdenum: Quotations continue nominal at 45 to 50c 
per pound of MoS, in regular concentrates containing 85% 

Manganese: No interest from consumers is reported and 
quotations remain nominal at 20c. per unit, seaboard. 

Chrome: Stocks are ample and there is therefore no de- 
mand from consumers. Nominal quotations are $20 to $2S 
per net ton, c.i.f. Atlantic ports, depending on the grade, etc. 


Ferro-manganese: Actual sales in the past week have been 
confined to carload lots at $58.35, seaboard. The inquiries 
last week of about 600 tons have not resulted in orders, so 
far as ascertainable. 

Spiegeleisen: Sales of small lots are reported at prevail- 
ing quotations of $26, furnace, for the 20% grade. In- 
quiry is light. 

Ferro-tungsten : There is no business reported and prices 
are nominal at 40 to 45c per pound of contained tungsten in 
the domestic alloy. The foreign product is quoted at 50c, 

Ferro-silicon : The 50% alloy is available at $55 to $5 7 
per ton. delivered, with moderate sales reported. Buyers are 
ordering small lots only as they need them. 

Ferro-ehrohiium : Standard American alloy is quoted ar 
11 to 14c. per pound, delivered, depending on the grade and- 
composition. There is no demand. 

Harry H. Smith, of Tulsa, Oklahoma, representing the 
Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association and the National As- 
sociation of Independent Oil Producers, asked the Senate 
Finance Committee to put a duty on crude and refined oil to 
protect the industry in this country. He said that many 
large deposits of oil in Mexico and South America would be 
developed in the next few years. At present the principal 
importations come from Mexico, where the cost of production 
is $1 per barrel less than here. He said that there were 
one million persons employed in producing oil in this coun- 
try and over $3,000,000,000 was invested. 



January 7, 1922 

Current Prices of Commodities 

The figures given on this page represent the regular cur- 
rent price, at the time of our going to press, to industrial 
buyers of standard commodities in small wholesale lots on 
San Francisco Bay. They should not he construed as being 
quotations nor as being either the lowest or the highest 
price; they are given rather as a guide by which to follow 
the trend of the market or to estimate the approximate cost 
of materials and supplies. 


Acid, sulphuric, com'l 86°. in drums, per 100 lb 1.00 to 1.50 

" " " " "carboys " 2.00 to 2.75 

C. P., 9-lb. bottles, in barrels, per pound 0.23% 

" " " bulk, in carboys, per pound 0.18% 

" muriatic, com'l. in carboys, per 100 lb 2.25 to 3.25 

" " C. P.. 6-lb. bottles, in barrels, per pound 0.28% 

" " " bulb, in carboys, per pound 0.22% 

" nitric, com'l, in carboys, per 100 lb 7.25 to 8.25 

" " C. P., 7 -lb. bottles, in barrels, per pound 0.38 

" *' " bulk, in carboys, per pound 0.27% 

Argols. gTound. in barrels, per pound 0.14 

Borax, cryst. and cone, bag's, per 100 lb 5.25 to 6.00 

powdered, in barrels " 5.50 to 6.50 

" glass, ground. 30 mesh, cases, tin lined, per 100 lb. 16.50 to 17.50 

Bone ash, 60 to 80 mesh, in barrels, per 100 lb 8.50 

Cyanide, sodium. 96 to 98%, 100-lb. drums, per pound 27 to 37 

Lead acetate, brown, broken casks, per 100 lb 16,00 

white •■ " " 19.00 

" " crystals, per pound 0.20 

" C. P., test., granulated, per 100 lb 17.50 

sheet, per 100 lb 14.50 

Litharge. C. P., silver-free, per 100 lb 15.50 

com'l. per 100 lb 12.50 

Manganese oxide, bulk, imported in barrels, per lb 0.08% 

Manganese di-oxide, bulk. Caucasian (85% MnO a , — %% Fe), in 

casks, per ton 60.00 

Potassium nitrate, double ref'd., smaU cryst., in barrels, per pound 0.14% 
" " " " granular " " 0.15 

" " " " powdered " 0.17% 

" carbonate, calcined, in barrel lots, per lb 0.09 to 0.12 

" permanganate, in drums, per pound 0.40 

Silica, powdered, in bags, per pound 0.03 

Soda, carbonate of (ash), in sacks, per 100 lb , 2.50 to 3.00 , 

in barrels " .3.00 to 3.50 

" bicarbonate of " " 2.75 to 3.50 

caustic, ground, 98% " " 5.25 to 6.00 

" " solid '* " " 4.30 to 4.75 


Armored copper cable, size 8, BXL 3. lead and armor. 100-ft. lots 

per 1000 ft 700.00 

Armored copper cable, size 8, BX 3, armor. 100-ft. lots, per 1000 ft. 375.00 

Conduit, galvanized iron, %-in., per 100 ft 10.35 

" " *' 2-in. " 32.55 

Copper wire, size 0. bare. 200 to 1000-lb. lots, per 100 lb 18.70 

" " " 10. triple-braid, weather-proof, coil lots, per 100 lb. 21.00 

" " " 14, single-braid, rubber-covered " per 1000 ft. 7.80 

Insulators, glass for telephone. No. 9 pony, per 1000 86.50 

power. No. 14. per 1000,. 103.00 

porcelain, 6600 v7. No.' 44, per 100 19.30 

Porcelain knobs. No. 5%. lOd. 'nailit'. per 1000.\> 26.40 

" " " solid, per 1000 20.20 

"3% " " 69.20 

tubes, 5/16 by 3-in. " 9.06 

% " 6-in. " 38.15 

Sockets, weather-proof, molded. No. 60.666, per 100 27.60 

Telephone wire, iron, size 12, half-mile lots, per 100 lb 8.75 


Blasting-caps, No. 6. in lots of 5000, per 1000 17.06 

" " electric, 6-ft., No. 6, in lots of 1000, per box of 100. 8.73 

Blasting-powder, "B" soda, in 100-keg lots, per keg of 25 lb 2.10 

Dynamite, nitro-glyeerine, 40%, in ton lots, per 100 lb 19.00 

*' gelatine " *' " 19.00 

*' ammonia " " *' 18.00 

Fuse, common, in case lots, per 1000 ft 7.22 

" waterproof, triple tape, in case lots, per 1000 ft 9.01 


Coal, Utah steam, S3. 50 at' mine, plus $7.25 freight to California 

terminal points, in carload lots, per ton 10.75 

Coal, blacksmith's, in carload lots, per ton 21.00 

" " in small lots, per ton 24.00 

Coke, in carload lots, per ton 25.00 

Fuel oil, per barrel 1.50 

Diesel oil, per gallon 0.06 

Distillate " *' 0.16% 

Gasoline " " 0.22% 


Anti-friction metal, per pound 0.16 

Babbitt, genuine " 0.42% 

Brass sheets, half-hard and soft, per pound 0.24% 

Drill-steel, hollow, first grade, in ton lots, per pound 0.18 

solid " " " 0.11 

Fish-plate bolts, % by 2-in.. per 100 lb 7.90 

Nails and spikes (20d to 60d base) . per keg 4.50 

Nuts, hot pressed, %-in., hexagonal, per 100 lb 9.45 

" cold punched " " 11.25 

Picks, mining, 5-lb., per dozen 12.00 

Shovels, carbon steel. No. 2. long handles, per dozen 15.00 

Track spikes, % by 4-in.. per 100 lb 4.65 


Bar steel, soft, per 100 lb ; 3.50 

Rails, steel. 16-lb„ per 100 lb 3.69 

Reinforcing-steel, per 100 lb 3.50 

Sheets, corrugated, galvanized iron. 26-gauge, per 100 lb 6.40 

" flat " " " " 6.30 

" flat, black iron " " 5.65 

Structural T's, channels, angles, and beams " 3.60 

A deduction of 15e. per 100 lb. is made on the above when 
purchased in carload lots. 

Bars, steel, square, cold-rolled, per 100 lb 6.25 

Pipe, wrought-iron. black, standard, 1%-in., per 100 ft 12.40 

" " galvanized " " 15.70 

" " black " 4-in. " 52.45 

" " " extra strong " " 95.25 

Shafting, cold-rolled (2V* to 3-in. base) " 4.90 


Discounts for delivery from Pacific Coast stocks are: cast-steel, 
22%%: extra strong cast-steel, 30%; plow-steel, 35%: blue-centre 
steel, 20%. The following- illustrations indicate the net price for 
each kind of rope, in standard. 6-strand, 19-wire, 1-in. rope. 

Blue-centre rope, per foot 0.40 

Cast-steel rope, per foot .24 

" " extra strong, per foot 0,26 

Plow-steel rope, per foot 0.28 


The figures given are subject to variation, depending upon the 
size and length. A charge for cartage iB also to be added. Prices 
are furnished by Van Arsdale. Harris Co. 
Fir, No. 2 clear and better, 1 to 2 in. thick, up to 16 in. wide. 

per thousand feet (M) 75.00 

Fir, common, base price, per M 28.00 

Fir. common, 6 by 6-in. up to 12 by 12-in.. per M 34.00 

Redwood, rough merchantable, 1 to 4 in. thick, per M 45.00 and 50.00 

" clear, 1 to 2 in. thick, up to 12 in. wide, per M "... 90.00 

Spruce, 'B' and better, 1 to 2 in. thick, up to 16 in. wide, per M. . . 80.00 

Sugar-pine. No. 1 and 2 clear, 2 in. thick, up to 16 in. wide, per M. 200.00 

White pine " " " " 150.00 

Air-hose, 1-in., 5-ply, plain, per foot 0.48 to 0.65 

Candles, 'Granite' mining, 6-16-40, 10-case lots, per case 6.10 

Carbide, in 100-lb cans, per can 7.75 

Cotton waste, best grade, per 100 lb 14.50 

Diamonds for drilling, according to size, per carat 50.00 to 75.00 

Manila rope, grade 1, per pound 0,17 

" *' " 2 (standard) . per pound 0.16 

Packing, flax, per pound 0.33 to 0.85 

" sheet " d.25 to 1.00 

" steam or water, first grade, per pound 0.90 

Silex lining, crated, per long ton 41.00 

Tube-mill pebbles. Danish, selected (in bags), per long ton 32.00 

Zinc-dust, in 250-lb. boxes, per 100 lb 9.50 

" sheet, 36 in. by 84 in., No. 9 gauge, in ton lots, per 100 lb. . . 13.50 

Fire-brick, clay, per 1000, in carload lots, Livermore Star Brand. . 55.75 

Fire-clay, in bags, per ton 18.00 

Lime, lump, in barrels, per barrel of 180 lb 2.65 

Portland cement, in bags, per barrel of 380 lb 3.94 

Allowance of 15c. for bags returned in good condition. 

Portland cement, in barrels, per barrel of 400 lb 4.54 

A deduction of 50c. per barrel is made on lime and cement 
when sold in carload lots. 

The following prices represent approximately what can be obtained for the 
products indicated delivered at points on San Francisco Bay. These, of 

course, vary widely with the grade and purity of the ores. The present 

stagnant condition of the market makes many of the quotations purely 

nominal: most of the ores can be purchased at these prices, but it should 

be understood that it is not easy for the producer to market them at this 
Antimony ore, approximately free of lead and arsenic, not less 

than 50% Sb, per % 60c. 

Asbestos (crysotile), according to length of fibre, per ton. . . .$20 to $2600 

Barite, white and free of iron (crudel, per ton 5 to 10 

Bismuth ore, not less than 20% Bi, per % Bi 10 to 15 

Feldspar, crude, lump, free of iron, per ton 5 to 10 

Fluorspar, 85% calcium fluoride, per ton 15 to 20 

Fuller's earth, ground to pass SO-mesh, per ton 5 to 10 

Graphite, powdered, per pound 3c. to 6c. 

Magnesite. calcined, per ton 25 to 36 

Manganese ore. less than 0.75% Fe; less than 6% Si0 2 , per ton 20 to 25 

Mica, according to size, clearness, and cleavage, per pound... 1 to 8 

Molybdenite, not less than 85%. free of copper, per % MoS 2 . 8 to 12 

Ochre, according to strength, crude, per ton 8 to 15 

Sulphur. 99.5% pure, only trace of As and Se. per ton 15 to 18 

Talc, ground, commercial, per ton 24 to 26 

Tin ore, not less than 60% Sn, per % Sn 4 to 6 

Tunarsten ore. not leaa than H5<W, WO* per % WO, 2.75 to 3.00 

Jtinuiirv 7. 1922 



'T V RUE economy 

-^ in power plant pip- 
ing installations depends 
upon the choice of materials, 
the factois involved being 
pressure, corrosion, conduc- 
tivity and safety. 


Power Plant Equipment 

insures proper design, correct fabrication, higher 
steam velocities by the use of smaller pipes; 
thus reducing the initial cost, lowering heat 
losses and insuring plant reliability and safety. 



























































NETT, Ltd. 

. ENG. 












W e are manufacturers of about 20.000 articleB. including valves, pipe fittings and steam specialties, made of brass, iron, ferrosteel cast steel 
and forged steel . in all sizes, for all pressures and all purposes, and are distributors through the trade of pipe, heating and plumbing materials. 



January 7, 1922 



*t-ir' ic=r7 

Screw Ends, Fig. 319 
Flange Endi, Fig. 318 

Screw Ends, Fig. 600 
Flange Ends, Fig. 638 

aM ericas BEST 


SINCE 1862 

The success of "Clip" Gate Valves is r the direct result of their durability 
and the resultant economies in maintenance demonstrated in thousands of 
installations. The simplicity of the design, the wide range of sizes and the 
material combinations available, peculiarly fits them for standardization 
on lines carrying pressures up to 100 pounds. 

Sizes % to 6 inches in Iron Body Bronze Mounted and in "All-Iron"; 
in two types, Inside Screw Rising Stem and Quick-opening Sliding Stem. 
The "All-iron" pattern is particularly adapted for use with fluids which 
attack bronze alloys. 

t r ~~ Lunkenheimer; Distributors situated in every commercial center carry 
Lunkenheimer Products in stock for immediate delivery. Specify Lunken- 
heimer "CLIP" Gate Valves and insist on getting what you specify. 

Write for catalog No. 58-CD. 




IN THE WORLD 5 16-34 



Jsnuarj 7. L922 








January 7, 1922 

year's subscription (either new or renewal) to the Mining and Scientific 
Press at prices effecting a substantial saving in the regular price. 

One Combination Only 
for Each Subscription 

Prices Subject to Change 
Without Notice 

Add $2 to Combination Rate for Subscriptions 
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A Manual of Flotation Processes 

181 Pages Illustrated Cloth 

This book, in part, counteracts the further spread ot 
false conceptions concerning flotation concentration, 
by setting forth some of the essential facts that con- 
tradict them. It describes the apparatus and meth- 
ods of testing that will aid investigators in their own 

Regular Price $3.00 

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Handbook for Field Geologists 


Third Edition, Thoroughly Revised and Enlarged 


116 Pages Illustrated Fabrikoid 

This book was written as a sequel to a wide experi- 
ence in geologic field work in the United States and 
abroad; it gives, in a convenient way, the data most 
useful to geologists. 

Regular Price $3.00 

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Both in Combination $6.00 

Prospector's Field Book and Guide 


Revised by M. W. von Bernewitz 

Flexible Fabrikoid 400 Pages Illustrated 

Discusses practical mineralogy, crystallography, the 
use of the blowpipe in prospecting, surveying and 
chemical tests in the field. The principal character- 
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world are briefly discussed; this in addition to gen- 
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Regular Price ." $3.00 

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Metallurgy of the Common Metals 

Cloth Binding 615 Pages 6x9 Dlustrated 

Radical changes and improvements in the metallurgy 
of the common metals have made necessary this Fifth 
Edition, which has been largely re-written to bring it 
in accord with the latest practice. Underlying princi- 
ples are clearly set forth, and at the same time the 
details of methods and of metallurgical equipment, 
and their cost, are given. 

Regular Price $ 7.00 

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Mining Engineers' 

2375 Pages Flexible Fabrikoid 

This book, which is profusely 
illustrated and contains many 
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that should be in the hands of 
every mining engineer and stu- 
dent. It gives in concise form 
the information that a mining 
engineer needs most in his daily 

Regular Price $ 7.00 

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Concentration by 

Compiled and Edited by 


Cloth Binding 692 Pages 

6x9 Illustrated 

This book Is a compilation of 
articles published in the MIN- 
during the years 1915 to 1920. 
The book therefore serves as a 
convenient compendium of the 
principal literature on the tech- 
nology of the process. 

Regular Price $ 7.00 

Subscription to M. & S. P.$ 4.00 
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Cloth Binding 

By T. 
178 Pages 

The ability to express oneself 
clearly, logically, and convinc- 
ingly is an indispensable adjunct 
to the work of every professional 
man. Engineers who are required 
to render written reports of work 
they have done — of projects in 
hand — to say nothing of general 
correspondence — will appreciate 
the value of this book. 

Regular Price $1.50 

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my subscription to the MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 

Please send me a copy of. 

Name . 

Company employed by. 

January 7. 1922 




Oliver Vacuum Pumps. 

Oliver Air Compressors. 

Oliver Centrifugal Pumps. 

Oliver Worm Gear 

Speed Reducers. 
Olivite Acid-Proof 

Centrifugal Pumps. 

The Oliver Filler protects the vital sur- 
face of the filtering medium from all 
wear. Lost time to renew filter cloth 
is prevented, and uniform filtering effi- 
ciency assured. 

Thorough cleansing of the filtering sur- 
face is secured on each revolution of 
the drum, by compressed air, which is 
applied to each section in succession, 





blowing the cake off onto the scraper. 

Wire windings — an exclusive Oliver 
feature — protect the filtering medium 
from contact with the scraper. 

Write us about your filtration prob- 
lems and let our experts demonstrate 
to you how the Oliver Filter will solve 
them. Our catalogue and full informa- 
tion on request. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 


501 Market St. 

iiiiiini inmi minimum limn mini iiniiiiiii mini nun 

1422-24 Aeolian Bldg. 

1 1 Southampton Row, W. C. 


illinium) i mi ml 


IT TlTH a deep seated and well founded 
' y conviction that this New Year will 
witness a brisk resumption of mining 
activities, we call attention to our complete 
stock of supplies for the assay office and 
chemical laboratory. 



Cement, Oil and Asphalt Testing Apparatus, 
One-stamp Mills — Cyanides — Zinc Shavings, 

Furnaces and Crucibles 
Crushers and Dies Grinders — Electric Heaters 

Justinian Caire Company 


Established in 1851 Under the Same Name 

The Calkins Company 



January 7, 1922 

Protection From Loss — 

You no longer have to send the originals of valuable docu- 
ments through the mails with the attendant risk of loss. 
PHOTOSTAT copies can be made in a few minutes at a cost 
of a few cents each, are perfect facsimiles which require no 
checking and are accepted as legal evidence in court. 
The PHOTOSTAT eliminates the mechanical drudgery of 
copying by typewriter or long hand. It is used for general 
office copying of such subjects as letters, telegrams, reports, 
graphs, charts, shipping lists, contracts, ledger pages, insur- 
ance records. The PHOTOSTAT copies are photographic 
facsimiles and so do not have to be read back for errors or 
checked with the original. You know they are right. An 
office boy or girl does this work on a PHOTOSTAT after two 
or three hours instruction, and does it in a few minutes and 
at the cost of a few cents per print. 

The PHOTOSTAT also saves many hours in the advertising 
department, where it is used to reduce illustrations to fin- 
ished size, to copy layouts, and to determine whether light 
or dark backgrounds are the more effective. (The original 
subject can be reproduced either with the same or with 
reversed black and white values.) 

Again the PHOTOSTAT does in a few minutes work that 
formerly took hours or even days of a tracer's time in the 
drafting room. It eliminates the necessity of tracing be- 
cause it copies both pencil sketches, drawings and blue 

The PHOTOSTAT Makes No Mistakes. 

(Ber. U. S. Pat. Off.) 

It makes photographic facsimiles directly on sensitized paper 
at original size, enlarged or reduced. 

The PHOTOSTAT is in daily use by hundreds of companies 
both in this country and abroad. 

Please ask us for "The PHOTOSTAT and What It Will Do" 



88 Broad Street, Boston 19 South LaSalle Street, Chicago 

7 Dey Street, New York City 5 North American Bldg., Philadelphia 

429 Monadnock Bldg.. San Francisco 601 McLachlen Bldg., Washington 
Executive Office: Providence, R. I. 

Alfred Herbert. Ltd.. 
Graham Brothers, 



Coventry, England; Paris; Milan; Brussels; 
Amsterdam; Calcutta; Yokohoma; Sydney. 

^llll)lltlltillllUt!lliltllllllltlltilllllllilllllllllllll]IUIIIIi|[il|]lllllllllllllllllllllillllllMllllfll)IIJIIIIIIIlll!INIIIIIIM Mill III II1IKII III IIIII1II1 


Are Not Affected by 

Muddy, Gritty Water 

The cylinder has large clearance and 
the plunger Is outside packed at the 
top. The suction and discharge valves 
are fitted with bronze taper seats and 
are easily exchanged by removing bon- 
nets. The Jack Head works altogether 
on the down stroke; the pump rod la 
made to weigh just half the amount of 
pressure exerted on the plunger so that 
the load is equal and uniform at all 
times whether on down or up stroke. 
In this way 

Balance Bob is Eliminated 

thereby increasing the efficiency and 
materially reducing cost of installation. 
These pumps are made with capacities 
of from 30 to 500 gallons per minute 
and for elevations up to 600 feet. 


Established 1850 
209 Fremont St. San Francisco, Gal. 



If your ore requires fine | 
grinding and you propose § 
to treat it by amalgama- 
tion, flotation, or any other 
process, investigate the 
Lane Mill. Its operating 
cost is low. One Com- 
| pany, treating over 50,000 tons a year which has been running Lane 
I Mills for six years, reports a total operating cost of 25.59 cents per ton 
| of ore milled. 

Send for Catalog No. 9 


| 106 W. Third St., Los Angeles, Calif. 


I Umi^i FHfrEuFS I 


E Chicago New York | 

= Salt Lake City WORKS: Hazleton. Pa. Los Angeles | 


nm rutii in ii riiiunintiujj m n m m m n i nui inn mm titinuvuf ui m n m m m niiiitiiiiiiitiini i luitntntn m miuutii mtimiiii ntntiiuiir 

- 'lllllll]lllllllllMI.'IMIlllLlllltlllMlllllllllllllllllFI»IIIIIIMllltllill)llllllllllllltll(lllllPIIPIIilllllll1lllllli:il-ll<'lllltllllllllllllllllllllllllllll^ 

| Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps j 

1 WORKS: MarysviUe, Cal. SALES OFFICE: 433 California St., San Francisco, Cal. | 
^■miliiiilliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiuiiiiiiiiii] iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiniiiii ■= 

January 7. 1922 



Put More Footage in Your Steel 

Do not handicap 
your drills or delay 
your runners by 
using improperly 
formed or poorly 
sharpened steel. 

Train your black- 
smith to put as 
much footage as 
possible into each 
steel he sends un- 

Sullivan Sharpener and Steel Heating Furnace 

Heat your steels in a Sullivan Pyrometer-controlled oil forge, to insure against burning; 
sharpen them by the all-hammer method in a Sullivan Drill Sharpener. Watch your 
footage per steel rise and your broken steel bill drop. 

Ask for Bulletins 1374, Forges; 1372-E, Sharpeners 


123 So. Michigan Ave., Chicago 

580 Market St.. San Francisco 


EUIII1I1IIIIIMIIIIM illinium wnii iiiMiiiiiiini 



Dates back to the very 1 

beginning of the art. § 

Since that time hun- | 

dreds of so called lm- | 

provements and de- | 

vices have been tested = 

by Siebe, Gorman & § 

Co., Ltd., and discard- \ 

ed as unsafe. The his- 1 

tory of breathing appa- \ 

ratus is interesting f 

and is something you | 

should know about be- 1 

fore purchasing. That 1 

Is what is safe and | 

what is unsafe and | 

why. | 

'Proto' is founded on | 
over thirty years of ex- | 
perience and embodies 1 
every refinement in | 
keeping with safety | 
that Is known to the § 
art. 'Proto' is the one | 
apparatus that will | 
withstand the acid test 1 
of safety and safety Is | 
the one primary con- | 
3lderation in the design | 
of breathing apparatus, § 

Learn Just why It is 1 
the safest apparatus. § 

Write Today. 


H. N. ELMER, General Agent for North America | 

Monadnock Block, Chicago, 111. | 








Hercules Pine Oil 

We desire to co-operate with flota- 
tion operators in determining what 
oils will insure them the largest net 

Efficient flotation can be had only 
with uniformity in every shipment of 
pine oil. We are prepared to fur- 
nish you with Hercules Pine Oil of 
absolute uniformity produced under 
strict chemical control. 

We invite correspondence from 
anyone interested and offer the ex- 
perience of our technical service 
men in helping- you solve your flota- 
tion problems. 

Naval Stores Division 

Wilmington Delaware 

( 120 

■e, ) 1012 
^ 1019 

20 Broadway, New York 
S. Michigan Ave. Chicago 
Chronicle Bide.. San Francisco 
1019 Kearna Bldt.. Salt Lake Ciiy. Olah 

Pine Oil 

Produced Under Gumiad Central 

3E3 1 

'-"uhimiil lit rniiMiiiiiuitu in mi ruiiiuiiiiii Hi IflM III II III II HI HI III II Hill HI III I HIUIIHia 



January 7, 1922 


Under this heading announcements may be made of new and 
second-hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. The co^t 
is 5 cents per word, including- address. Minimum charge one dollar 
per insertion. Remittances must accompany order. Copy must be 
received by Saturday for the following- week's issue. 

WANTED — To buy gasoline hoist suitable for 500-foot shaft: also air 
drills and compressor. What have you? Address Floyd Barnett, Box 742. 
Bakersfield. Cal. 1-7 

WANTED — Financial assistance for development of rich mining property 
in the great silver belt of the Randsburg mining district, variously estimated 
to be worth into the millions. Small investment to be used in development 
will acquire large interest; NOT A STOCK PROPOSITION. For full par- 
ticulars address Floyd Barnett. Box 74*3, Bakersfield. Cal. 1-7 

FOR SALE — Tanks of all kinds, 
and chemical plants. Address Opp. 7 

Special equipment for metallurgical 
'2. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-1-i 

FOR SALE — Two new 24" gauge locomotives, draw-bar pull 6770 lbs.: 
cylinders 10"xl4", with 3 pair coupled driving wheels, separate tender, 
equipped with steam brakes. Now crated for export in warehouse, San 
Francisco, ready for immediate delivery. Owners will accept any reason- 
able offer, and full information can be obtained by applying to Norman B. 
Livermore & Co., 1306 Merchants National Bank Bdg., San Francisco. Cal. 

WILL ENTERTAIN a good quartz-mining proposition of merit: prefer- 
ably in British Columbia. Address W. Cooke, 410 Credit Foncier Bdg.. 
Vancouver, B. C. 1-7 

OPPORTUNITY — Diamond drilling on a new basis of cost, saving you 
one-half to one-quarter over present methods. Guaranteed work with best 
up to the minute equipment, efficient and experienced help. Long ex- 
perienced and enthusiastic customers. Write for information. H. D. Staley. 
229 Lick Bdg., San Francisco. tf 


iimiiiMmmmmmiiiiimiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiniimimiiiiii uiiiiitimiiiuiir.' 



| Accuracy ^' g n 8 c 4 e Reliability 
I Booklet 13122 


= 123 So. Michigan Ave., Chicago 

| 580 Market St., San Francisco 

atiRiitmiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini i i iiiiniiiiiiiiiui i in muuti 



lllilllltlllll[lllllllltllllllllllllllllllMlllltlllllllllllllllllNlllllllllllllllllllllilli. : 


If you use cap lamps or small hand | 

lamps in your mines equip them with = 

my latest carbide lamp burner. It is = 

the only burner that can really be = 

placed in a lamp with the fingers; no = 

cement; just twist it in with the fingers. = 

that's ill. Take it out when you wish = 

to clean it. Send for a trial order = 

Every one guaranteed. S5.00 per him- = 

dred, | 

L. E. POLHEMUS CO.. Miami, Arizona. I 

Miner's Lumps and Supplies = 

±;f in imitii hi urn in in ii tiiiiiiii iiiimiii unit n iimmniii i utii utii mi ii ru uiutiiih iiiiiiii iif hi miiiiiiiuiiii iiitnuiiuuuuini iiuiitiiiihc 


From Old Hickory Powder Plant 


= 8 — 14-in. Worthington. Class B. double suction, 8500 G.P.M. at = 

= 152-ft. head, at 1170 R.P.M.. direct connected to 300 hp. = 

= G. E., 3 phase, 60 cycle, '2-200 volt motors. | 

I 4 — 14-in. Ailis-Chalmers, Type S. 7500 G.P.M. at 130-ft. head, at I 

E 1760 R.P.M., direct connected to 300 hp. General Electric, 3 = 

phase, 60 cycle, 2200 volt motors. = 

1 2 — 10-in. Ailis-Chalmers, Type S. 3750 G.P.M. at 130-ft. head, at = 

5 1765 RJ?.M., direct connected to 150 hp. Westinghouse. 3 = 

= phase, 60 cycle, 2200 volt motors. = 


C — 10-in. Ailis-Chalmers, Type S. 8500 G.P.M. at 90-ft. head, 
direct connected to Type L, 300 hp., 2000 R.P.M., G. E. Curtis 
steam turbine. 

(5 — 14-in. Ailis-Chalmers. Type S. 6500 G.P.M. at 150-ft. head. 
8100 G.P.M. at 90-ft. head, direct connected to 300 hp., 2000 
R.P.M., G. E. Curtis steam turbine. 


5 — 14-in. and 20x7^x18 "Worthington compound duplex out- 
side packed plung-er pot valve, 400 G.P.M. at 300 lb. pressure. 

8 — 25 and 38x4% x 24 Worthington tandem compound duplex, 
outside packed. 3600 lb. pressure. 150 G.P.M. at 20 R.P.M. 

1 — 20 x 12 x 16 
1500 G.P.M.. 

Worthington duplex 
100 lb. pressure. 

Underwriters fire pump, 

200 — New and used simplex and duplex, steam driven. Worthington 
pumps, 4^x3%x4. 534x£%xo. 6x4x6. 7^x4Vjxl0, 6x2^x6. 

100 — New and used belted 

and 6" centrifugal 




Used and New. Tested and Guaranteed. 


233 Howard Street 

San Francisco. Cat. 



| 2~3 Pages Fabrikoid Binding Price S3.00 1 

| Including: A Guide to the Sight Recognition ol Oue Hundred and I 

E Iwenty Common or Important Minerals. I 

| For Sale by | 


| 420 Market St.. San Francisco 1 

aiiuiiliinmiitiiimim i iiiiiiiiimiminni mi i i m mi iiiiiiiuiiiiin niiimiiiii! 





niiMMmillllllimiimiimmmmillill nilllllllliui iiiiiiiiimiiimiiiiiimiiiiiliriiriiiiiiiiiiiimimiiimiiiiiiiiiiii* 









January 7. 1922 






i ^ 



The cost of advertising for positions wanted is C cents per word. 
Including address. Minimum charge 50 cents per insertion. Replies 
forwarded without extra chanre. Remittance* must accompanv 
order. Copy must be received Saturday morning for the following 
week's Issue. 

MINING ENGINEER, single, desires position as aasayer or mine surveyor; 

technical graduate; 13 years experieo i I and Mexico; beat references 

u PW 778, Mining and Sctentifli P i-m 

kGER OR superintendent; technical graduate; 17 years expert- 
ence, development and operation ol mining properties: 10 yeare with lar e 

company In Mexico; desire better future than presenl eo s can offer: 

age 40, married. Address PW ??l. Mining I Scientific Pre L-28 

ACCOUNTANT with practical experience in mine accounting, audits and 

wants position: go anywhere. Alfred Kkmow, 173'-! Santee St.. 

Los Angeles, Cat ;?-4 

KXi'RElKNCED MINER, understands Spanish well, wants employment as 
contractor or shift boss in Mexico: references. Address PW 768, Mining 
.Miii Scientific Press. 1-7 

and Spanish, wants employment; best references. A. M. Madison. Box 271. 
Eag-lo Pass. Texas. 1-7 

REVERBERATORY MANAGEMENT wanted by one that knows from 
practical experience how to get results and make improvements when 
needed. Record : fireman and skimmer seven years, foreman ten years, 
superintendent ten years: speak Spanish. Address PW 765. Mining and 
Scientific Press. 1-11 

ELECTRICIAN AND MACHINIST — Installation, repair and operation of 
hydro-electric and other machinery; motor winding, lathe work and general 
allround maintenance. Anywhere in Western United States. Age 31, single. 
Address PW 756. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-21 

MIXING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circulation rep- 
resenlative in every mining community in the world. Replies will be held 
confidential if desired. Address The Manager. Minine and Scientific Preso 


Announcements in this column are secured through the co-opera- 
tion of many of the largest mining companies In the fjnited States, 
Advertisements under thla beading will be Inserted two times with- 
out charge. Additional insertions charged at the rate of 2c. per 
word, including address. 

JMMiiiimiMm : i ' mmiiuiimiiiii 

iiinmiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiu 

SURVEYOR, experienced in underground and Bttrf ace work; I 

graduate preferred but not essential; salary SI 75; mine located In Mexico: 
state experience and references. A [dress PA 770 Mlnlni and Si 
Press. 1-7 


| Elsol Dry Concentrator J 

| Handles All Dry Ores Successfully 

2 sizes — 2 to 4 tons per hour. 

| We can make te»t run on your ore. Write for Bulletin I 

I 423 Wesley Roberts Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. | 


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| Flotation Oils 

Six Standard Pure Oils From Pine 

I FLORIDA WOOD PRODUCTS CO., Jacksonville, Florida 


1 — 6' Huntington Mill 

1 — 6' Trent Monadnock Chilian Mill 

2 — 5' Trent Calumet Mills 

1 — 5' Allis-Chalmers Huntington Mill 

1 — 3J' Allis-Chalmers Huntington Mill 

1 — 13" Symons Disc Crusher 

1 — 3*x5 American Pulverizer 


4 — 5'x22' Tube Mills, steel lined 

1 — 5'x22' Tube Mill, silex lined 

1 — 6'xl2' Allis-Chalmers Tube Mill, silex lined 

1 — 5'xl6' Tube Mill, silex lined 

1 — 5'xl4' Tube Mill, silex lined 


1 — 8'x6' Gates Ball Mill, manganese lining 

1 — 6'x6' Allis-Chalmers Ball Mill, helical gear 

1 — 51'x6' Standard Ball Mill 

1 — 6'xl6" Hardinge Conical Ball Mill 

1 — 8'x4' Krupp Ball Mill 

1 — 4'x3' Standard Ball Mill 

All the above mills are in our Denver stock and are 
for immediate shipment. 

We are Western Representatives tor Nashville In- 
dustrial Corporation, handling The Old Hickory Pow- 
der Plant at Jacksonville, Tennessee. 

Full information, prices, photographs, etc., can be 
furnished by us. 






A 1 lie-Chalmers Co. Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co § 

Milwaukee. Wib. Denver, Colo. 

Harron. Riekard & McCone, San Francisco = 
Frank R. Perrot, Sydney and Perth. Australia | 




The Book That Made Agricola Famous' 



Translated from the First Latin Edition with Bio- 
graphical Introduction, Annotations and Appen- 
dices upon the Development of Mining Meth- 
ods, Metallurgical Processes, Geology, 
Mineralogy, and Mining Law from 
the Earliest Times to the 
Sixteenth Century. 


637 Pages Cloth 8?i v 13 Inches 






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January 7, 1922 

RATES: One-half Inch, $25 per year, subscription included. Combination rate with 
The Mining; Magazine (London), one-half inch In each, $40 per year, subscription Included 


618-28 D. S Nat'l Bank Bdg\, Denver. Colo. 
No professional work undertaken 

BEATTY, A. Chester 

25 Broad St., New York 
No professional work entertained 
Cable: Granitic 

BROWNE, Spencer C. 

2 Rector Street, New York 
Cable : Spenbrowne. New York 

ADDIOKS, Lawrence 

51 Maiden Lane. New York City 
Cable: Galie. New York 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, Woodworth, Inc. 


Specialty: Flotation 

419 Embarcadero, San Francisco 

Burch, Hershey & White 
BTJRCH, Albert 


Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable: Burch Usual Codes 



Examination, valuation and development of 

mines in Bolivia 

Casilla 176, Oruro, Bolivia 

BEDFORD, Robert H. 

Grass Valley, California 

BURCH, H. Kenyon 


Phelps Dodge Corporation, 

Copper Queen Branch 

Bisbee. Arizona 

ALDREDGE, Walter H. 

41 East 42nd St., New York 


% Chile Exploration Co. 
120 Broadway, New York 


71 Broadway, New York 

ARNOLD, Ralph 


639 South Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

42 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Ralfamoil Code: Bentley's 





120 Broadway, 

New York City 


648 Mills Bdg., San Francisco, Cal. 

B. C. Austin G. E. Gamble W. V. Wilson 


316 Kohl Ed?.. San Francisco 

Cable: Austin Usual Codes 


Specialty: Smoke and Other Industrial Injury 
to Vegetation. 14 years experience in America 
and Europe. 2525 Hilgard Ave., Berkeley. Cal. 


Pres. General Engineering Co. 


Room 3022, No. 120 Broadway, New York 

159 Pierpont St.. Salt Lake City. Utah. U.S.A 

BALL, Sydney H. 


42 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Alhastere Rogers. Mayer & Ball 









1607. 14 Wall Street. New 


Cable : Mukeba 

CAMPBELL, J. Morrow 


Messrs. Steel Bros. & Co., Ltd., 

Rangoon. Burma 

BANCROFT, Howland 



Panama City. Republic of Panama 

Cable : Howban Code : Bedford McNeill 





Room 2083. No. 50 



New York 


U. S. A 


702 Pacific Finance Bdg:., Los Angeles 

BANKS, Charles A. 


612 Pacific Bdg.. Hastings St. W., 

Vancouver. B. C. 

Cable: Bankca Code: Bedford McNeill 





Time Standards in Mining 

Butte. Montana 

CHANCE & CO., H. M. 



839 Drexel Bdg., Philadelphia 


Burlingame, California 

BRAYTON, Corey C. 

2937 Magnolia Ave.. Berkeley, Cal. 


61 Broadway. New York 



614 Pender St. W., Vancouver. B. C. 

Cable: Alamorg Code : Bedford McNeil] 

BRODLE, Walter M. 

47 Cedar St., New York 

CHASE, Charles A. 

825-826 Cooper Bdg., Denver 
Liberty Bell G. M. Co., Telluride, 


BEAM, A. Mills 



807 Central Savings Bank Bdg.. 

Denver. Colorado 

BROWN, R. Gllman 


Pinners Hall. London. E.C. 2 

Cable : Argeby Usual Codes 

CHASE, E. E. and R. L. 


207 Colorado Nat. Bk. Bdg., 

Denver. Colo. 

January 7, 1922 




COHKX, Samuel W. 

Dominion Express Bdg . Montreal. Canada 





Inn u ranee 







McNeill 1908 

<: ami., Rudolf 

804 Equitable Bdir , Denver. Colo 

COLLBRAN, Arthur H. 

Seoul. Korea 


John V. N Dorr. President 



Denver New York London. EC. 

GARREY, George H. 



Bullitt Bdg.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

COLLINS, Edwin James 


Mine Examinations and Manag-ement 

10081009 Torrey Bdg.. Duluth. Minn 


704 Lonsdale Bdg.. Duluth. Minn. 

GEPPERT, Richard M. 


% Mining Magazine. 

Salisbury House. London. E C 

COLLINS, George E. 

Mine Examinations and Management 
307 Boston Bdg.. Denver 
Cable: Colomac 

DWIGHT, Arthur 8. 


29 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Sinterer 

Code: McNeill: Miners & Smelters 

GIBSON, Arthur 


Placer Mining and Magnetometric Determina 

tions of Mineral Concentrations in the Held 

300 Halght St., San Francisco. Cal 



Cable: "Glencolina" Vancouver, B. C. 

EDE, J. A. 

La Salle, Illinois 








Hobart Bdg.. 582 
San Francisco 

Market St.. 
Bedford McNeill 

COLLINS, Henry P. 

66 Finsbury Pavement. London. E.C. 

EYE, Clyde M. 

1006 Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco, Cal. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Cable: Eyecon Code : Western Union 

David X. Greenberg Frank A. Humphrey 


Kingman. Arizona 

Mine Reports and Examinations 



Cable: Collins. Peking Peking. China 

FARISH, George E. 


First National Bank Bdg., San Francisco 

25 Broad St.. New York 


Old National Bank Bdg.. .Spokane. Wash. 

CRANSTON, Robert E. 


1213 Hobart Bdg.. 582 Market St. 

S a ?, Fr 5hasco 2 Rector St.. New York 

Cable: Recrans Code: McNeill 1908 

PARISH, John B. 

Office. 68 Sutter St.. San Francisco 
Residence, San Mateo, Cal. 
Cable: Farish 

HALL, R. G. 

Complex OreB 
Address and Cable: Namtu. Burma 

Codes: Broomhall's. A. B. C. McNeills 

DARLING, Harry W. 


Box 489, Timmins, Porcupine District. 

Ontario. Canada 






Room 1410. 







Specialty: Cyaniding Gold and Silver Ores 

419 The Embarcadero. San Francieco 



618 North Third Avenue 

Phoenix. Arizona 



1st National Bank Bdg.. Denver 

1409. 170 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Calflshoil Usual Codes 

HANSON, Henry 

Specialty. Gold and Silver Ores 
Plant Design and Construction 
Hobart Bdg,. San Francisco. Cal 




909-917 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 


Eureka, Utah 

HAWXHURST, Robert, Jr. 

234 Holbrook Building. 
58 Sutter St., San Francisco. Cal. 
Cable: Hawxhurst 







Montreal and Winnipeg. 


DEL MAR, Algernon 


Specialty, Mill Operation and Construction 

1424 Aloha St., Lob Angeles 

FOWLER, Samuel S. 


Nelson. British Columbia 
Cable : Fowler Usual Codes 

Burch. Hershey & White 
HERSHEY, Oscar H. 


Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco 

Cable : Hershey Code : McNhi 1 1 

DENNIS, Clifford 

Crocker Bdg. 
Cable: Sinned 


San Francisco 




Mine and Metallurgical Plant Design and 


1209 Hobart Bdg-.. San Francisco 

HILLS, Victor G. 

312 McPhee Bdg., Denver. Colo. 



January 7, 1922 




Edwin T 


of Geology, 


and Mining Engineer 
University of Oregon, 

JENKS, Arthur W. 


1560 Le Roy Ave., Berkeley, Cal. 
Cable : Jenksville 

Bewick, Moreing & Co. 


62. London Wall, London, E.C., a 

Cable: Ringlo Usual Codee 


1, London Wall Buildings. London, E.C.2 

Usual Codes 



Goldfleld Consolidated Mines Exploration Co. 

Crocker Bdg/., San Pranciaeo, Cal. 

LOREVG, Frank C. 

Sun Life Bdg.. Toronto, Ontario, Canada 



Cable: Manhoff 2 Rector St. 

New York 

KEENE, Amor F. 

233 Broadway. New York 
Cable : Kamor, New York 


614 Crocker Bdtr.. San FranciBCO, Cal. 

London Address: % Bewick. Moreing &. Co., 

62. London Wall. London 

Cable : Wantoness Usual Codes 


228 Perry St.. Oakland. Cal. 
Cable: Siberhof 

HOOVER, Theodore J. 

1, London Wall Bdg., London. E.C. 
Mills Bldg.. San Francisco 
Cable: Mildaloo 


H. L. 






5 Peoples 

Gas Bdg 

, Chicago 

E. H. Kennard E. C. Bierce 



Mill Design and Construction. Filtration 

Hollingsworth Bdg.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

KIXZIE, Robert A. 

First National Bank Bdg., San Francisco 

KXRBY, Edmund B. 


918 Security Bdg.. St. Louis 

Specialty: The expert examination of mines 

and metallurgical enterprises 


Avenida Isabela La Catolica, Num. 25. 
Mexico City 
Cable : Lucke, Mexico City 



Diamond Drilling and Shaft Sinking 


Manufacturers of Diamond Drills and Supplies 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bd?.. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Cable : Longco Code : McNeill 

HOSKIN, Arthur J. 


Mining. Metallurgy, Geology, Oil Shale 


1215 York St.. Denver, Colo. 






Bdtr.. Salt Lake City. 


LUNT, Horace F. 

State Commissioner of Mines for Colorado 

State Bureau of Mines, Denver. Colo. 

No professional work undertaken 


Casilla No. 1507, Lima. Peru 
Telegrams and Cables: Howie, Lima 

Bentley'B Code 


C. B 





MacDONALD, Bernard 


Calle Colegio No. 3 

Parral, Chihuahua. Mexico 

P.O. Address, Apto. 54 Code: Bedford McNeill 

HOYIiE, Charles 

Apartado 8, El Oro. Mexico 

L. D. Huntoon G. D. Van Arsdale 


115 Broadway. New York Los Angeles. Cal. 



Treatment of Gold 

and Silver Concentrates 

Angels Camp, Cal. 


L. A. 



Hore Bdg. 

Seattle. Wash. 



% Institution of Mininr and Metallurgy. 


MAJOR, Chas. Edward 

P.O. Box 474, Prescott. Arizona 

HURST, George L. 


Gold Dredging: and Hydraulic Engineering 

544 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 


H. Vllman 


Cocbabamba. Bolivia 

Code: McNeill 1908 



Buenaventura. Colombia. 

South America 


485 California St., San Francisco 
Cable: Haruston 

LEVDLEY, Curtis, Jr. 

604 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal. 


Non-Ferrous Metallurgy 
42 Broadway. New York 





Room 3700. 120 Broadway, 

New York 

LINTON, Robert 

120 Broadway 
Union Arcade, 

New York City 
Pittsburgh. Pa. 
Code : Bedford McNeill 



% Burma Mines, Ltd., 

Jamshedpur. India 



Reports and Appraisals of Oil, Coal and 

Mineral Lands 

MiSBOUla, Montana 


Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper and As- 
sociated Metals. 29 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Ricloy Code: McNeill 

McCarthy, e. t. 

10 Austin Friara. London 

JANIN, Charles 


716 Eohl Bdg 







LOCKE, Augustus 

788 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. Cal. 






Rakka Mines P 


District. Singhbhum, 


Nagpur. India 

January T, 1922 






Design of Metallurgical Plant* 

Warren. Arizona 

NOWLAXD, Ralph C. 

Hobart Bdr.. 



In charre Exploration 


of D 

Jack, tog 


Editor. Mlninr and Scientific Preu 
No professional work undertaken 

MEI.N, William Wallace 

43 Exchange Place. New York 
Cable: Mem. New York 

PAYNE, Henry M. 


Machinery Club. 50 Church St.. New York 

Cable: Macepayne Usual Codes 


26 Broadway, New York 



Mine Examination and Management 

University Club, Bucarelh 35. 

Mexico City. Mexico 

PERKINS, Walter 


62. London Wall. 






BITTER, A. EUenne 

Colorado Springs. Colo. 

MERCER, John W. 


General Manager South American Mines Co 

Mills Bdr.. Broad St.. New York 

I'KRRET, Leon A. 


Platinum and Gold Placer Mining 

30 years practical work in Siberia 

100 Bluff. Yokohama. Japan 

ROBERTS, Milnor 


The Pacific Northwest' 

British Columbia and Alaska 

University Station. Seattle. Wash. 


Charles W Merrill. Pres. 

Merrill Zinc Dust Precipitation Process 

Crowe Vacuum Precipitation Process 

San Francisco. Cal. 


Avenida Juarez 83. Mexico City, Mexico 
Cable: Keringpic 



% Logan & Bryan, 

630 So. Spring St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

Code McNeln 

MILLS, Edwin W. 


1 Nan Chih Tze. Peking. China 

TelegTams: Millmann. Peking Usual Codes 

PLATE, H. Robinson 


Examination, Development and Management 

Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal 

BOGERS, Edwin M. 


32 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Emrog Code: McNeill 

MINARD, Frederick H. 


41 East 42nd St., New York City 

Cable: Frednard Code: McNeill 

MITKE, Chas. A. 


Mine Ventilation — Mining Methods 

Bisbee. Arizona 


1057 Monadnock Bdg.. San Francisco 
Cabie : Fredmor Cable : McNeill 


Seeley W. 



203 Pacific Mutual Life Bdg., 

Los Angeles, Cal. 





1024 Mills Bdg. 

San Francisco 

425 Flynn 

Ames Bdg., 

Muskogee, Oklahoma 



Ipoh. Perak, Federated Malay States 

Cable: Munro Code: McNeill 

NEILL, James W. 


351 California St.. San Francisco, Cal. 
Pasadena. Cal. Salt Lake City. Utah 

NEWBERRY, Andrew W. 

Room 330. No. 2 Rector St.. New York City 
Cable: Awnbry, New York 

Code: Bedford McNeill 


Union League Club. San Francisco, Cal. 

Howard Poillon C. H. 


42 Broadway. New York 






Casilla 489. 


de Chile 

Cable: Rivapo. Santiago. Chile 

Code: McNeill 


Colombian Corporation, Limited. 
Apartado 172. Medellin. Colombia 


Frank H. 



of California, 








5 Sodomsky 



Cable : Fedora 

RICE, John A. 

414 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

Robert H. Richards Charlea E. Locke 



Tests for design of Flow Sheets 

69 Massachusetts Ave.. Cambridge. Mass. 


42 Broadway. New York 

RICKARD, Forbes 

Equitable Building, Denver 

ROGERS, John C. 

Examination and Exploration of Mining Prop- 
erties with a view to Purchase 
Copper Cliff. Ontario Code : Bedford McNeill 

Allen H. Rogers Lucius W. Mayer 

Sydney H. Ball 



42 Broadway, New York 
201 Devonshire St., Boston, Masa. 

Cable: Alb. asters 

ROYER, Frank W. 


1212 Hollinrsworth Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Cable: Royo Code: McNeill 


Consulting Metallurgist. Ore Smelting Con- 
tracts Investigated. Smelting and Milling of 
Cooper and Lead Ores. Design and Construc- 
tion 120 Broadway. New York 


Reports. Consultation and Management. Spe- 
cialty, Manganese. Stow Bedon. Norfolk Eng 
Codes: A. B. C, 5th Ed.: Bedford McNeil] 

SAUNDERS, T. Skewes 


University Club. Bucareli 35. 

Mexico City. Mexico 

SEARS, Stanley C. 


Reports. Consultation and Management 

705 Walker Bank Bdg.. Salt Lake^Chty. Ut^ah 

SHALEB, Millard K. 

66 Rue de Colonies. 
Brussels, Belgium 



January 7, 1922 




Amos, Quebec, Canada 

Ftmdirion de Lob Arcos, Toluca, Mex. 

P. O. Box 160, Cobalt. Ontario 







Locust St 






WHITMORE, Claude C. 



3216 Bayard St., Butte, Montana 





1006 Hobart Bdg. 






% A. 

Chester Beatty, 

25 Broad St. 



Code: Bedford McNeill 

J. H. Devereux W. B. Devereui. Jr. 


120 Broadway. N. T. 7, Victoria Ave., London 
Cable : Kenreux Code : Bedford McNeill 

SMITH, Howard D. 


60 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Diorite Code: Western Union 



Mills Bdr., San Francisco 

Cable: Latite Codes: McNeUl-Broomhall 


Continental Bank Bdg ., Salt Lake City, Utah 

Franklin W. Smith Ralph A. Zieaemer 


Blsbee, Ariz. Code: McNeill 


Goldfleld. Nevada 

WISEMAN, Philip 


1203 Pacific Mutual Bdg:., Los Angeles 

Cable: Filwieeman Codes: W. U. 

: McNeill 


214 O'Neill Bdg.. Phoenix. Arts. 

TURNER, Scott 

1611 Bank of Hamilton Bdg.. 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 


Examination and Exploration of Mining Prop- 
erties with View to Financing 
Kingman. Arizona 


814 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 


S34 Confederation Life Bdg., Toronto, Canada 
208 Salisbury House, London, B.C., 2, England 

WOLF, Harry J. 


42 Broadway, New York 

Cable : Minewolf Code : Bedford McNeill 

STEVENS, Arthur W. 

Pioneerville, Idaho 


43 Exchange Place, New York 

WRIGHT, Charles Will 

125, Via del Tritone, Rome. Italy 

Code: Bentley'i 

STEVENS, Blarney 

20 NaSBau St., New York City 


14 Copthall Aye., London. B.C., 
And Peking, China 
Cable: Natchekoo, London 

WRIGHT, Louis A. 


% The Engineers' Club 

32 West 40th St., New York 

Codes: Bed. McN. & Bentley's Complete Phrase 


Vancouver Block. Vancouver, B. C. 

WEBBER, Morton 

165 Broadway, New York 

WROTH, James S. 


Room 827, 2 Rector St.. New York 

ST1NES, Norman C. 

4. Moorgate Street. London. B.C.. 2 
Codes: McNeill (both Editions) and Bentley's 
Cable: Nurmstinen, London 




1313 Alaska Bdg., Seattle. Wash. 

STRAUSS, Lester W. 


Casilla 514, Valparaiso, Chile, 8. A. 

Cable : Lestra-Valparaiso Code : McNeill 

TALMAGE, Sterling B. 

Geologic Maps. Examinations. Reports 
315 Judge Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 

TAYLOR, G. Cleveland 


U. S. Mineral Surveyor 

Jfrop. Redding Assay Office 

321 Butte St.. Redding. Cal. 

TAYS, Eugene A. H. 


Box 549, Nogales. Arizona 

Specialties: Professional Work in Mexico: 

Mexican Mining Law 

WEEKES, Frederic R. 

233 Broadway. New York 

WESTERVELT, William Young 


522 Fifth Ave., New York 

Cable: Casewest Code : Broomhall's 

WHITE, Charles H. 

788 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 


Bothin Bdg., Santa Barbara, California 

Burch, Hershey & White 
WHITE, Lloyd C. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

WHITMAN, Alfred R. 


Underground Programmes. Orebody Problems 

43 Exchange Place. New York 

Haileybury. Ontario (Cobalt District) 

Pone Yeatman Edwin S. Berry 



Examination. Development and Management 

of Properties 

Room 1604. 166 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Code: 

Tkona Bedford McNeill 



Offices and Laboratory 
Story Bdg., Los Angeles, California, U. S. A. 

Examinations and Reports on ai: ft ..eral 

Deposits, Formations and Process: 

of Extraction 

20 years experience in the Western States. 

Pacific Coast States. U. S. A., Mexico 

and Central America 

ZEIGLER, Victor 


Examination of oil lands and mineral deposits 

Geologic and structural maps 

415 Empire Bdg., Denver. Colo. 

January 7. L92? 



Miniiiilii li 


Unwatering Troubles Minimized 


Single stage 
direct connected 
Byron Jackson 

to those in suc- 
cessful opera- 
tion in the Old 
c/llvarado and 
■ ;er mines. 

The Byron Jackson Iron Works is now offering a single 
stage, unwatering pump for use on heads up to 250'. 

This pump is designed without diffusion or guide vanes, 
thus eliminating the part of a centrifugal pump that 
wears out most quickly, and limiting the wearing parts 
to the runner and to the shaft proper. 

The pump is split vertically to permit of quickly re- 
moving runner and shaft without disturbing any of the 
piping or having to tear down the frame construction. 


Wherever water is to be lifted 
412 Sharon Building - SAN FRANCISCO 


-iiiiiiiiiiimiimuiiiiiimiuiiiiiinimiMuii iiiimi n n iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMliiliillllliliiiliiiiiiiiillliillillilllillllliilllllitllilliU £ii!lTllllllllllllllliiinn iiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiimmiiiii 

Modern Electric Hoisting | 1 Powell Valves 


All Types of Mine Hoist* 

OUR cylindro-conical drums reduce the size of motor, | 

"Slso'powef - cdn8umplion7'as "this type of drum takes § 

the load off the motor during the starting period. j 

For relatively, short lifts and rapid hoisting it is imperative | 

that your hoist be designed for your particular conditions. 1 

This will not only reduce the size of motor necessary to { 

operate the hoist, but will save upwards .of 20 per cent in | 

your power consumption. | 

When writing lor particulars, specify the tonnage required in seven hours, = 

ueiAlil ol car, weight of material, and TDetfhl of cages. § 



Double Extra Heavy 
Hydraulic Bronze Composition 

Unequalled for 
Severe Service 

Globe, Angle, Cross, 
Gate or Check Pat- 
terns for controlling 
at high pressure 
steam, water, oil, 
gas or Chemical 

1000 and 2000 
pounds working 



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January 7, 1922 


Assayers, Chemists and Metallurgists 


Flotation and Cyanide Teats 

1008 South Hill St., Lob Angeles, Cal. 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F. 


(Successor to Bettles & Bardwell) 

168 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake City, Utah 

Ore Shippers' Agent 

J. M. CALLOW, President 



169 Pierpont Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants 



The 4th edition of our Ore Testing 1 Bulletin is now ready for mailing. We shall be pleased to 

send it to you upon request 

New York Office. 120 Broadway, Room 3032. C. E. Chaffin, Local Manager 

Australian Agent: F. H. Jackson, 22 Carrington St., Wynward Square. Sydney. N. S. W„ Australia 



Technical and Chemical Analysis of Ores 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials 

233 W. First St.. Los AngeleB. Cal. 


Chemical, electro-chemical, metallurgical and 

electro-metallurgical investigations and 

reports. Processes developed 

804 Atlas Bdg., San Francisco 





Flotation of Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals 

Tests made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 6 Terns 


Laboratory and Office, 419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco 
Telephone: Sutter 6266 Cable address: Hambeau Codes: West. Union; Bed. McNeill 


Shippers' Representatives 
Box BB. Douglas, Arizona 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc. 


Independent samplers at the port of New York 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street. New York 



El Paso, Texas 

Umpire and Controls a Specialty 


Telephone. Kearny 6961 


Sampling or Ores at Smelters 

63 Stevenson St. 

San Francisco 

FROST, Oscar J. 


1310-12 17th Ave., 
P. O. Box 145. Denver, Colo. 

SMITH, EMERY & CO. Ore Testing PlantB at both addresses 

Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills 
651 Howard Street. San Francisco 245 South Los Angeles Street. Los Angeles 

GIBSON, Walter L. 

Successor to 

824 Washington St.. Oakland, Cal. 
Phone 8929 
Umpire assays and supervision of sampling. 
Working tests of ores, analysis. Investiga- 
tions of metallurgical and technical processes. 
Professor L. Falkenau, General Manager and 
Consulting Specialist. 


An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full degrees, low cost, flue climate, new 
equipment, accessible to mines and smelters Write for catalogue. 

E. H. WELLS. President, Socorro. New Mexico 

IRVING & CO., James 


Mines Examined 

702 South Spring St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



Fresno. Cal. 

HANKS, Abbott A. 


Established 1866 

624 Sacramento St., San Francisco 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision of 
Sampling at Smelters 

Bureau of Inspection and Testing 



Successors to 

Geo. A. James Co. 



We Specialize on Chemical and Metallurgical 


Laboratory: 28 Belden Place. San Francisco 



Oils, Hydrocarbons and Oil Shale Analysis 

169 South West Temple Street, 

Salt Lake City. Utah 




(Established 1895) 

120 N. Main St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

PITKIN, Inc., Lucius 

Weiffhers. Samplers and Assayers of Ores of 
all Descriptions 
47 Fulton St.. New York 
Cable: Niktip 

KK'HAKDS <£ SOX, J. \V. 


1118 Nineteenth St.. Denver 

Ore Shippers' Airent. Write for terms 

Representatives at all Colorado smelters 


Established 1878 


1750 Arapohoe St.. Denver, Colo. 

P. O. Box 1318 



of the Mining and Scientific Press 

carries a complete line of Tech- 

nical Books on all subjects allied 

to the mining field. 

Write for Catalog 

January '■ 1922 




Built in All Tpyes for Mine Haulage 



SPEED — Giving Capacity 

STRENGTH — An Assurance Against 

PROPER DESIGN — Both of the Com- 

plete Hoist and Every Individual 


S INSURING ECONOMY in your mine 


96 Liberty St., New York 

Los Angeles Seattle Chicago 

Philadelphia Pittsburgh London, Eng. 
N. B. Livermore & Co., San Francisco 

jinpii nun imiiimimmmimiiimiiimiiiiiii 


Over 3000 Different Types and Sizes 

Bulletins on Request 



MANY mine operators are transporting 
their ore and mine waste at a very 
low cost with a 


If you are interested in economical trans- 
portation we would be glad to give you 
full particulars. 

Established 1857 


St. Louis, Mo. 

New York Chicago Denver Ssa Franciico 


JMI IUUI1II II lllltM II lllll II III 11 Mill 11 II III II II I M Mil lllltlltil ii III II II I II II til II II ill II II III II III II lllll II III II II III II III II II 11(1111111 II I II II II I II II 

1 OF 


I SINCE 1898 


120 TO 3300 B.H.P, 

600 TO 3000 S.H.P 



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General Naval Stores Co.., 90 West Street, New York | 


Special Problems in Ore Treatment 


29 Broadway 

Cable Address: Sinterer 


New York City = 




January 7, 1922 


Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers art here Listed 
Addresses will be found on the Sixth followinq Page •-• 
If you do not find what you wantcommunicate with Mining and Scientific Press Service 

Acetylene Generators 

Bui lard, E. D. 

Aftercoolers, Air 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Go. 


Chalmers & Williams 
Dorr Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Air Pipe 

Ames Co., W. B. 

Air Receivers 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Amalgamating Plates 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
San Francisco Plating Works 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

ABBayers' and Chemists* Supplies 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 

Braun Corporation 


Caire Co., Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

(See Index to Advertisers) 


Braun Corporation 

Balances and Weights 

Braun Corporation 


Caire Co., Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Thompson Balance Co. 

Balls for Ball-Mills 
Chalmers & Williams 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Hardin ge Co. 
Los Angeles Foundry Co. 

Ball-Mills (See 'Mills*) 


Garratt & Co.. W. T. 

Belting and Lacing 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 

Main Belting Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

New York Belting & Packing Co. 

Pioneer Rubber Mills 

D. S. Rubber Co. 

Blasting Accessories 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nnrdberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Blowing Engines 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 


Mine & Smelter Supply Co 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Bonks, Technical 

Mining and Scientific Press 

Brick, Fire 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Harbison-Walker Refractories Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Brlqnettlng Machinery 
Traylor Eng. &. Mfg. Co. 


Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Burners, Oil 

Braun Corporation 


Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Powell Co.. Wm. 

Cables, Wire 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 
Williamsport Wire Rope Co. 


Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Carbide Flare Lights 

Bullard. E. D. 

Carbons, Borts, and Diamonds 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co, 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Ottumwa Iron Works 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Western Wheeled Scraper Co. 


Cement-Gun Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Barrett Co. 

Braun Corporation 


Caire Co^ Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

Hercules Powder Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co. 

Chilean Mills (see 'Mills') 
Chisel Blanks 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Chrome Brick 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Deister Machine Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dorr Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Clutches, Friction (see 'Transmis- 
sion Machinery') 
Coal Pulverizing Equipment 

Hardinge Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Cement -Gun Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Compressor Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach Corp 

Compressors, Gasoline Extraction 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Compressors, Mine Car 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Deister Concentrator Co. 
Deleter Machine Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Elsol Concentrating Co. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp 

Concentrators, Dry 

Elsol Concentrating Co. 

Dump Cars, V-Shaped and Mining 
Koppel Industrial Car & Equip. Co. 

Condensers, Low Level Jet 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Condensers, Surface 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Contractors, Core Drilling 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Conveyors, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Main Belting Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

New York Belting & Packing Co. 

Pioneer Rubber Mills 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

TJ. S. Rubber Co. 

Couplings, Air Hose 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Cleveland Rock Drill Co, 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Braun Corporation 
Braun-Knech t-Heimann-Co. 
Caire Co., Justinian 
Calkins Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bacon, Inc., Earle C. 

Braun Corporation 

Braun -Knecht-Heimann-Co . 

Caire Co., Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Elsol Concentrating Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Crushers, Jaw 

Buchanan Co.. Inc., C. G. 

Braun Corporation 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


American Cyanamid Co 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co. 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 

Dorr Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Dorr Co. 

General Engineering Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Oo. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Ruggles-Coles Eng. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Drafting Materials 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Dragline Excavators 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Dredges and Accessories 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Drill Makers and Sharpeners 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Air and Steam 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 
Cochise Machino Co. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthofl* Mfg. & Sup. Co 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Core 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Dobbins Core Drill Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Diamond 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Fuller-Lebigh Co. 
Ruggles-Coles Eng. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Dryers, Rotary 

Ruggles-Coles Eng. Co. 


Du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

Electrical Supplies 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Oo. 

Electric Tools, Portable 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Elevators, Bucket 

Buchanan Co., Inc.. C. G. 

Employment Bureau 

Business Men's Clearing House 

Engineers (Designing and Contract- 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Engines, Internal Combustion 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buseh-Sulzer Bros. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

(Continued on page 34) 

January 7. L922 


W ♦ 





Accompanying picture shows 
Cochise Rock Hammer operating in 
Sycamore Canyon Quarry, California. 

The foreman says, "We like Cochise 
Drills because they give us the least 
trouble and they are fast drillers." 

You never know a drill until you 
try it. If you once try COCHISE, 
you will always have them. 

Cochise Machine Co. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 





is in use the world over on every kind of § 

rock or placer ground. Uses a shot-bit, 1 

giving a grinding edge that 1 

fairly eats through the ground. | 

Booklet 16 tell all about 
the Dobbins Drill. Wrile 
for it. mentioning tht; 
character of your ground. 

Dobbins Core Drill Co., Inc. | 

147 W. 42nd St.. New York City | 


San Francisco and Los Angeles 5 

Sail Lake. Utah 



Send for Illustrated Catalogue 

American Steel &*Wire 

Chicago -Newltbrk Company 



The DORR COMPANY, Engineera 

New York Denver London Mexico City 

Equipment for the mechanical washing, removal, recovery, 

classification or treatment of finely divided solids 

suspended in liquids. 



THE | 



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Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

nil I'm mi ii ir. 





nimimiMiiiiNimiimiimmiiimiiimiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiimiimmmimiim immimiimiimmiim iimiinimiimmiimimii 



January 7, 1922 


miiiiiiiimmiimmmmmin iimiiiimiimmiiiiiit inillllllllltlltlllllllll Illllllltllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll lllllilltllllllll MiiimMiiiiil'iliitimmiimmmfiiiiiJiiimmiiinmmiiiiimii 

Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 

Holt Manufacturing- Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp 

Engines, Oil 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Ingersoll-RaDd Co. 

Worthington Pump & Macn. Corp 

Engines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Morse Bros. Maehy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Worthington Pump & Macn. Corp. 


Du Pont Powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 


Chalmers & WilliamB 

Colorado Iron Works 

Merrill Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

United Filters Corp. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Filter Bags 

Filter Fabrics Co. 
Filter Cloths 

Filter Fabrics Co. 
Filter Cloth, Metallic 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Tyler Co., W. S. 

United Filters Corp. 

Filter Presses 
Merrill Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Uuited Filters Corp. 

Fire Extinguishers 

Bullard, E. D. 
First Aid Equipment 

Braun Corporation 
Braun-Knech t -Heimann-Co. 
Bullard, E. D. 

Flotation Apparatus 

Braun Corporation 
Braun-Knech t-Heimann-Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Flow Meters 

General Electric Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Frogs and Switches (see 'Railway 


Cambria Steel Co. 

Furnaces, Assay (see 'Assayers* and 
Chemists' .Supplies') 

Furnaces, Oil 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Furnaces, Roasting and Smelting 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
D wight & Lloyd Sintering Co., Inc. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Westinghouee Elec. & Mfg. Co. 


American Steel Foundries 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Fawcus Machine Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Geurs, Herringbone 

Fawcus Machine Co. 

Generators, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfe Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic (see 'Hydraulic . 
Mining Machinery') 

Graphite TroductB 

Bartlcy Crucible Co.. Jonathan 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 

Grinders, Laboratory 

Braun Corporation 


Caire Co., Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Grinding Machinery 

Hardin ge Co. 

Grinders, Portable, Air and Electric 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Grinding Wheels 

New York Belting & Packing Co. 

Hammers, Pneumatic 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 

Heaters, Feed Water 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Hoists, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Ottumwa Iron Works 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Hoists, Oil and Distillate 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Hoists, Portable Air Turbine 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Hoists, Steam or Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
. Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Ottumwa Iron Works 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 

Cochise Machine Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

New York Belting & Packing Co. 

Pioneer Rubber Mills 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

U. S. Rubber Co. 

Hydraulic Mining Machinery 
Aldrich Pump Co. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Works 
Garratt & Co., W. T. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Hydrocyanic Acid, Liquid 
American Cyanamid Co. 

Industrial Railways, Portable 

Koppel Industrial Car & Equip. Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 

Powell Co., Wm. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg Co. 
Ruggles-Colea Eng. Co. 

Laboratory Supplies (see 'Assayers' 

and Chemists' Supplies') 
Lamp Guards 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 
Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Lamps, Miners' 

Bullard. E. D. 
lining for Ball-Mills 

Chalmers & Williams 
Fuller-Lehigh Co. 
Hardinge Co. 
Los Angeles Foundry Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Linings for Tube Mills 

Fuller-Lehigh Co. 
Locomotives, Electric 

General Electric Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Steam 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 
Simpson Co., A. H. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co. 
Powell Co., Wm. 

Machinery, Used 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Nevada Engineering & Supply Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Magnesia Brick 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Co. 
Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Smelters Securities Co. 
American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. Co. 
Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
International Smelting Co. 
U. S. Smelting, Ref. & Min. Co. 
Wildberg Bros. 

Mills — Bail. Pebble and Tube 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hardinge Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Grinding 

Fuller-Lehigh Co. 
Mills, Stamp 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Mine Doors 

American Mine Door Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 
Nodullzers, Ore 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Office Supplies 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 
Oil and Grease Cups (see 'Lubri- 
Oil Flotation 

Barrett Co. 

Florida Wood Products Co. 

General Naval Stores 

Hercules Powder Co. 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co. 
Oil, Pine 

Barrett Co. 

Florida Wood Products Co. 

General Naval Stores 

Hercules Powder Co. 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co. 
Ore-Buyers (Bee 'Metal Buyers and 

Ore Feeders 

Buchanan Co.. Inc.. C. G. 

Ore Testing Equipment 

General Engineering Co. 
Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting 

Bullard, E. D. 
Oxygen Apparatus 

Bullard. E. D. 

Siebe, Gorman Co., Ltd. 

Packing . 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
New York Belting & Packing Co 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
U. S. Rubber Co. 

Paints, Metal Protective 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Paints, Preservative 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 
Du Pont de Nemours & Co. 
Filter Fabrics Co. 


Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Hardinge Co. 

Perforated Metals 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pipe Fittings 

American Steel Foundries 
Garratt & Co.. W. T. 
Lunkenheimer Co. 
Merrill Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Powell Co., Wm. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Pipe, Cast Iron 

Pacific Pipe Co. 
Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Works 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Pipe, Standard Wrought 

National Tube Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 
Pipe, Wood 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Placer Mining Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

American Spiral Pipe Works 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Yuba Mfg. Co. 
Pneumatic Tools 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co. 
Prospecting Supplies 

Braun Corporation 


Cochise Machine Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dobbins Core Drill Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Union Construction Co. 
Pulleys, Magnetic 

Buchanan Co., Inc., C. G. 
Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers (see 

'Transmission Machinery') 
Pulverized Coal Installations 

Fuller-Lehigh Co. 
Pumps, Air Lift 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Prescott Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Traylor Eng, & Mfg. Co. 
Pumps, Centrifugal 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Byron Jackson Iron Works 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

Frenier & Sons 

Garratt & Co., W. T. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Krogh Pump & Machinery Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Prescott Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Yuba Mfg. Co. 

(Continued on page 36) 

J ii unary 7, lli'J'J 



A a property of the Federal Mining and Smelting Co. 
Arrow points to Dorr Tanks which were installed by us. 


National Quality Tanks are built according 
to the following specifications: 

Staves and Bottoms 

Douglas Fir or California Red- 
wood High Grade Tank Stock. 


Round mild steel, cut in sections. 
Fitted with button head on one 
end, and 6 inches of cold rolled 
thread on the other. 


Special, straight pull, National 


AU tanks are carefully packed for 
shipment, either by rail or water, 
so that they will arrive at destina- 
tion in good condition. Complete 
instructions for erection are 
packed in the dowel box. 



Kenton Station 

minim illinium ■ iiimih 

I Here is Your Copy 

I of our new 48-page bulletin, No. 17, 

| PELTON Water Wheels 
(Impulse Turbines) and 
Reaction Turbines 

If You Want to Reduce 
Power Costs 

I by developing water-power now 
I going to waste, or by increasing the 
I efficiency of your present hydraulic 
| plant, 

You Need This Bulletin 

Use the form below 

Hydraulic Engineers 

| 1986 Harrison Street 86 West Street 

| San Francisco New York 

Please send your Bulletin No. 17 to 
1 Name j 

| Position | 

| Company 

1 Address 

i j 




January 7, 1922 


iimiiimiliimimimmmim iiimiijiiiiimmm nitiit mmm n mjmiimiiimiiiimmiimimiiiimmiiiiiiiJiimimiiiimiimmmiim [iimiiimmimiiiiiiiimiiiiiiJiitmiiiiiiiiii iimiiitiimmiiiimimiii mmm i iminmmiiimn 

Pumps. Reciprocating 
Aldrieh Pump Co. 
Al lie -Chalmers Mfsj. Co. 
Hendrie & BolthoS Htg. & Sap. Co. 
Ingrereoll-Rand Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Macny. & Supply Co. 
Preecott Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfr- Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Pumps. Vacuum 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 


Atkins, Eroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation 

Braun -Kn ech t -Heimann-Co. 

Bullard. E. D. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Railway Supplies and Equipment 
American Mine Door Co. 

American Steel Foundries 

General Electric Co. 

Weetinrhouse Elec. & Mtg. Co. 
Boadbulldlnc Material 

Koppcl Industrial Car & Equip. Co. 
Rock Drills 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 

Cochise Machine Co. 

General Electric Co. 
Roller Bearings 

Hyatt Boiler Bearing Co. 
Rolls, Crushing 

Bacon, Inc.! Earle C. 

Buchanan Co.. Inc., C. G. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Fuller-Lehigh Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mlg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Roll Shells 

Cambria Steel Co. 
Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Simpson Co.. A H 

Williamsport Wire Rope Co. 
Rubber Boots and Shoes 

U. S. Rubber Co. 
Rubber Goods, Mechanical 

New York Belting & Packing Co. 
Safety Appliances 

Bullard. E. D. 

Siebe. Gorman Co., Ltd. 


Braun Corporation 
Braun -Knech t-Heimann-Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Saw Mill Machinery 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Prescott Co. 

AlUs-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Steel Foundries 
Braun Corporation 
Braun -Knech t-Heimann-Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Stimpson Equipment Co. 
Traylor Eng. &. Mlg. Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 
Screens. Mining, Etc. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co.. W. S. 
Screens, Revolving 

Buchanan Co.. Inc., C. G. 
Screens, Boiled Slot 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co.. W. S. 
Screens, Wire 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 

Buchanan Co.. Inc.. C. G. 
Separators, Inclined Vibrating Screen 

Tyler Co.. W. S. 
Shafting (see 'Transmission 

Shoes and Dies 

Denver Engineering Works 
Shovels, Electric and Steam 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Thew Shovel Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Hardin ge Co. 
Silica Brick 

Harbison -Walker Refractories Co. 
Smelters and Refiners 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. Co. 
International Smelting Co. 
U. S. Smelting. Ref. & Min. Co. 
Wildberg Bros. 
Smelting Machinery 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co. 
Greenawalt Sintering Apparatus 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

American Spiral Pipe Works 

American Steel Foundries 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Steel, Drill 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Cochise Machine Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Steei, Tool 

Cambria Steel Co. 
Surveying Instruments 

Braun Corporation 

Braun -Knecht -Heimann-Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

American Mine Door Co. 
Tanks, Steel 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 
Tanks, Wood 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Telephone Systems 

Stromberg-Carlson Telephone Mfg. 

Telephones, Iron Clad 

Stromberg-Carlson Telephone Mfg. 

Testing Sieves and Testing Sieve 
Tyler Co., W. S. 
Thickeners, Pulp 

Colorado Iron Works 

Dorr Co. 

.National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Tools, Blacksmith 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Holt Manufacturing Co. 

Tuba Mfg. Co. 
Tramways, Aerial 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Simpson Co., A. H 

Williamsport Wire Rope Co. 
Transmission Machinery 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Prescott Co. 

Trucks, Motor (see 'Motor Trucks') 
Tube-Mills (see 'Mills') 
Turbines, Hydraulic 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Smith Co.. S. Morgan 
Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Crane Co. 

Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co. 

Merrill Co. 

Powell Co., Wm. 
Water Wheel, Impulse 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Smith Co., S. Morgan 
Well Drilling Machy, and Supplies 

Union Construction Co. 
Wheels, Car 

American Steel Foundries 

Fuller-Lehigh Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co. 

Powell Co., Wm. 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 

Simpson Co.. A H 

Williamsport Wire Rope Co. 
Wire Cloth 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Tyler Co., W. S. 
Wire, Insulated 

General Electric Co. 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Wire Rope Fittings 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 

Williamsport Wire Rope Co. 
Zinc Boxes 

Colorado Iron Works 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Zinc Dust and Shavings 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. 
Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Merrill Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
TJ. S. Smelting, Ref. & Min. 

. Co 

mi iiuiiimiuil u i if in ntiii iiiii in ntiiuiiiliDinifminiiini in innui iininiuninn nui i mititni miqiHiiirtioiiiniliuiunin imun nt n ni inn i inuiiuniiiii iiiiiiinu 11 m iniini i n i u u i n i it u i n m i ly i umuu n m 1 1 1 mi n imuj n 1 11 1 mini iu iimm n i iitiiiniiriuiiui intiiii niiinii n i it m ih tn 

un iiitiim inill 111 Ml ini minimum iminiiiimmmmi mm mimmim iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinii I i iiimmiiiiiiiimmiimmmiimmiimmiiiiiiimmi n i iniiimmmmmniimmiimmm mmm mmm 

Anaconda Copper Co., Engels Copper Co., Miami Copper 
Co., Premier Gold Mining Co., TJ. S. Smelting & Refining 
Co., Cerro de Pasco Copper Corp'n., Arizona Copper Co. 

Jt . _ ° - 


is designed specifically to withstand the abrasive action 
of sand, and tor this purpose has proven its value to many 
of the largest mining companies in the world. It is made 
of special chilled iron, extremely hard, and is entirely 
lined inside. Wearing parts easily and 
quickly renewable. 

Write for Bulletin M-79 

Krogh Pump & Machinery Co. 

149 Beale St., San Francisco, Cal. 

niiiiiiiiiimiiiin iiiiiMmmMMiMiimiiHiiiiuiiiiiiiMmMffliiiiHiMiiiiuiMMiiMmuiiiiiHiiiwiiimmH^^^ 

=>iliitiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiliillltiiiililitlMilllllllllllilliltiiiiiiiiniiiiiiniiiillllllllillllllllitiiiiiiiiiiiilliililllliiiliiiiiMiiiiiiliiillllllllltllii]iill!: iiii>liiiiilllllliiliiiiiiiiiiiiiMMriiiiilll)iiliiilliiilliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiitiiiiiiiriitiitiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiillliiiiilliiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!= 


351 California St , San Francisco 





Most extensive and successful manufacturers. = 

Old plates replated — made equal to new. = 


1349-51 Miuon St., San Franciico E. G. DENNISTON. Prop. | 

Get our prices. Catalog: sent, i 

Telephone: Market 2915 = 


January 7. 1922 



r Mr iM u ■ 


the little things count 

We can save you at least $12 a gross on 


No. 500 

Cap Lamp $fi- 7 5 

lamp only . . . "doz. 

No. 500 
Cap Lamp $Q.50 


with Pocket Container 

This price holds good only on the special stock that 1 

we have just received from the factory and does not 1 

mean any reduction in price on the other Justrite | 

Numbers. 1 


268 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



'I ILL Si^\ijL!l^ij SPUR ^^ 

DRIVES «S) xvx ^^^W)})a^ W O F2 M 



Western lOTon 

only one 



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w.'V ORE e-ROCK :■'■.'" : 




Wire Rope Wire Rope Fittings Welding Wire 3 




Electric — Steam — Air 

II O O has always stood for 
iIOlD the ver y D est j n e very 

kind of mine hoists. Electric, 
Steam or Air — the product is 
always what long years of experi- 
ence has taught us to be best 
adapted to the requirements. 

Vulcan Steel Frame Electric, 
Vulcan Steam, Cushman 
Gasoline, Leadville Drill 
Column; Steam and Hand 
Winches and Prospecting 

Let us know your requirements 

Special Catalogue*; 

The Hendrie & Bolthoff 

Mfg. and Supply Co. 

i ofJenlicel DENVER 


l.m minimi iimiimiimiimiiiimMiimiimmimiimmimmimiimmimiimiimmiii 




Less than % hp. is required to operate a 
Mitchell screen, yet it is continually estab- 
lishing records for large tonnage handled and 
thoroughness of screening. One Mitchell 
screen operating uninterruptedly over a period 
of 18 months handled more than a million 
tons of material at a cost, including power, 
labor and screen-cloth expense, of less than 
one-tenth of a cent per ton. 

Write us for full details of Mitchell success. 


Felt Bl'd». Salt Lake City -Grand Central Terminal B%. IWiivk 

iiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiitiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii i imiiiimiiimiiiimiimiiiiiiMimiimiiiiMiiiiiiimiiiiiimiiir 


Steels and Steel Products for use in Mining Operations 


= Sales Office* st San Francisco, Chicago, Philadelphia, and other principal cities = 

Sole Export Representative: 
\ CONSOLIDATED STEEL CORPORATION. 25 Broadway, New Yorlc City | 


r J m i ■ I u ri 1 14 J i f i r 

■ i r j m i pi n i ii i u ii n 1 1 1 n i ii iilimilllllllllllllllllltililh: 



"It Can't Stick— It Won't Leak" 

The Lubrication Does It. End your valve troubles once and for all. 

Indispensable on vacuum, air, gas, Blime, acid and other solution lines. 
Write for catalog and prices to 

121 Second St. 


Monadnock Bldg. 

■<i mimiiiimtiiiiihiimimmimiiiimiMiMiriiiiiiiMiiiiuiiiiiMJ i iiiiiiiiiHiiimnii Miiimiiiii<iiimiimiitimiiiimm,' 



January 7, 1922 

iinimimi; imiimmnmmm 

iiimimi iiiimiiimiiiiiiiiniiii 



Roessler 6 Hasslacher 

Chemical Company 

709-717 6th Ave., cor. 41st St., NEW YORK, N.Y. 


Cyanide Sodium 

(Cyanogen 51-52%) 


Sodium Cyanide 96-98% in egg form, 

each egg weighing 1 ounce. 

(Cyanogen 51-52%) 

iiimnmiiiii riimiimi iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiimi 

flllllltllll i I Ill nr in i 

llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll tlllllllllllll tlllllR 

Exploration Department for the purchase of i 


55 Congress St., Boston, Mass. I 


United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Company 



Gold, Silver, Lead and Copper Ores. Lead and Zinc 
Concentrating Ores, Matte and Furnace Products 


Lead Bullion. 


Gold, Silver, Lead, Copper, Arsenic, Insecticides, 
Fungicides, and Cadmium. 


912 Newhouse Building, Salt Lake City, Utah; Ken- 

nett, Cal.; Goldroad, Ariz.; Baxter Springs, Kansas; 

120 Broadway, New York; Pachuca (Real del Monte 

Co.), Mexico. 


| United States Smelting R. & M. Exploration Co. 

| For examination and purchase of Metal Mines, 55 Congress St., 

| Boston, Mass. District OlQces, 120 Broadway, N. Y.; 1504 Hobart 

| Bldg., San Francisco, Cal.; Newhonse Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

i 1. 

American Smelters Securities Co. [ 


Buyers of | 


Consign all shipments to | 

American Smelters Securities Co. [ 


Address correspondence to 


uimiitiiiiiniiitiiiiintu iu uiiinitutiiiininiiiiiiitiiiiiiif iiiinuimiiiuif mum niiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiuiiiuinmmnituiiiiiiimmuiiiiiEl 

^iiiiiiiiimmmiimitiiJirimijiiJiiiiiiiiiiiimit iiiiiiitntii iitiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiuitiiiii mic 

[ American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Company I 

I Purchasers of | 


| Address: 1012 Pierce Building, St. Louis, Mo. | w 

-j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ i f r 1 1 ■ j r 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 ■ i [ 1 1 1 ■ r ■ ■ i ■ j t ■ i ■ ■ l ■ i c ■ ] i ■ i ■ 1 1 1 1 ■ I l ■ < r ■ ] 1 1 1 ■ ■ 1 1 1 f ■ l p ■ i ■ i r ■ 1 1 i r ■ 1 1 ■ i ■ 1 1 1 ■ r 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 ■ 1 1 ■ t ■ ■ r ■ i ■ ■ i ■ ■ t ■ ■ ■ 



New York Office: 25 Broadway 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and 
Lead Ores 



International Lead Refining Company, East Chicago, Indiana 
Rariton Copper Works, Perth Amboy, N. J. 


618 Kearns Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 


minimi null lull IMIInilUIUUUDIUitt] 

The Greenawalt Sintering | 
Apparatus and Process 

John E. Greenawalt, 

50 East 42nd Street 
New York, N. Y. 

W. E. Greenawalt, 

85 South Sherman Street 
Denver, Colorado 



I ATKINS KROLL & CO., San Francisco 













The efficiency of your rock drill 
equipment is going to play a large 

The return of your property to nor- 
mal production will be dependent 
upon operating costs. Cleveland 
' Pocket-in-Head ' drills by their 
decided savings will make possible lower mining costs. 

A saving of upward of 25% in your drilling charges means 
the early resumption of normal mining operations. 

Start the new year right by trying out Cleveland ' Pocket-in- 
Head ' drills. 

The Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 

3734 East 78th Street Cleveland, Ohio 


Guy Gregory, Mut. 

Room 538. 30 Church St.. New York City 


Colman O'Shea. MgT. 

570 Gas & Electric Bide.. Denver. Colo. 


C. J. Albert. Mgr. 

515 Mission St.. San Francisco. Cal. 

Canadian Trade supplied by 

Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Co. of Canada. Ltd.. 

Toronto. Ont. 

SALT LAKE REPRESENTATIVE: Stimpson Equipment Co.. Salt Lake City. Utah 


illllJliltllimriiiimmiiiiiimiiiimmiiiiiiiiiit: aiiiniiiiiiiiiiiui n iimnii imiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiimjiiiiiiiiiiiimiimiiiiiiim ■ mi'iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii>ilMmiti>; 


2 Rector Street New York 



"Empire" Prospecting Drills 
Placer Mining Machinery 

Write for Catalogs 



Write for 

Booklet and 




Los Angeles 
Foundry Co. 

2444 So. Alameda 
Los Angeles, CaJ. 

j Harbison - Walker Refractories Company ! 


High Grade Silica. Chrome, 

Magnesia, and Fire Clay Brick, 

| Dead Burned Magneslte tnd Furnace Chrome, f 

Chrome Ore, 

niiiililimiiimiimimiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiii, iiiiimiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiimiimini imiiimiimiim 


Metallurgical Laboratory Supplies 

Crushers, Pulverizers, Furnaces, Burners, °: 

Process chemicals — Commercial and C. P. Acids. | 
J. T. Baker's C. P. Analyzed Chemicals. 


San Francisco House 


Los Angeles. California, U. S. A. 
Cable Address: "Braundrug" 

nimilMIIIIJhlllllM II Mil IIIM II Mil! II Mliill fill II I! |! Jl ■ I ! i i ii i !i I : l( h ! i ■ ii HI 1 1 !J ! ii : N! ! II ! i (I ' 1: II M ^: : i H : i( : i! (, !>' ii fl(( : I! :llll1llll|ll1l|||||ir 

Jigs, Screens, Sand and Slime 
Tables, Classifiers, Automatic 
Ore Feeders, Etc. 

Manufactured by 

35 Runyon Street Newark, N. J. 

jimiiimiiiiriiimii minim u inn iihi iiiujiiiiiiiiiuniiiiii imi 11111 n jumuiif limn miniiinimiiin nmui nintii iiiimtnini 


cars-track x switches 


1 Philadelphia • San Francisco KoddcI .Pa* 






January 7, 1922 

■Dash -Indicates -Every-Other-WecK-or-Honthly-fldvertisement- 


Aldrich Pump Co., Allentown Front Cover 

AUis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co.. Milwaukee, Wis 4 

American Cyanamid Co., New York — 

American Mine Door Co., Canton, Ohio — 

American Smelters Securities Co.. San Francisco. 38 

American Spiral Pipe Works. Chicago — 

American Steel & Wire Co.. Chicago 33 

American Steel Foundries, Chicago — 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co., St. Louis. .38 

Ames Co.. W. R., San Francisco — 

AssayerB, Chemists and Ore Testing Works 30 

Atkins. Kroll & Co., San Francisco 38 

Bacon, Inc. Earle C, New York 37 

Bartley Crucible Co.. Jonathan. Trenton. N. J. . — 

Blake. Moffitt & Towne, San Francisco 33 

Books, Technical 18 

Braun Corporation, The. Los Angeles, Cal 39 

Braun-Khecht-Heimann-Co.. San Francisco 39 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co., St. Louis, Mo. . . — 

Buchanan Co., C. G., New York 

Bullard, E. D.. San Francisco 37 

Bunting Iron Works, San Francisco 10 

Busch-Sulzer Bros., St. Louis, Mo 31 

Buyers Guide 32-34-36 

Byron Jackson Iron Works. San Francisco 29 

Caire Co., Justinian, San Francisco 19 

Calkins Co., Los Angeles. Cal 19 

Cambria Steel Co., Philadelphia 37 

Cement-Gun Co., Allentown. Pa 

Chalmers & Williams, Chicago Heights, 111 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., New York 11 

Cleveland Rock Drill Co., Cleveland, Ohio 39 

Cochise Machine Co., Los AngeleB, Cal 33 

Colorado Iron Works Co.. Denver 41 

Crane Co., Chicago 15 

Deister Concentrator Co.. Fort Wayne. Ind 33 

Deister Machine Co.. Fort Wayne, Ind 42 

Denver Fire Clay Co., Denver 8 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co., Denver 3 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. Jersey City, N. J. . . 

Dobbins Core Drill Co., New York 33 

Dodge Mfg. Co., Mishawaka, Ind 

Dorr Co., The, Denver 33 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co.. Wilmington. Del. . . 

Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co., New York 31 

Edison Storage Battery Co.. Orange. N. J 

Elmer, H. N., Chicago 21 

Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia 

Elsol Concentrating Co., Los Angeles, Cal 23 

Faribanks, Morse & Co.. Chicago — 

Fawcus Machine Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 37 

Filter Fabrics Co.. Salt Lake City. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co.. San Francisco. 

. . .19 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co., Chicago — Opportunity Pages 22-23- 

Florida Wood Products Co., Jacksonville. Fla. 

Frenier & Son, Rutland, Vt 

Fuller-Lehigh Co.. Fullerton. Pa 

Garratt & Co,. W. T.. San Francisco 20 

General Electric Co.. Schenectady. N. Y — 

General Naval Stores. New York 31 

Goulds Mfg.. Co.. Seneca Falls, N. Y 31 

Gracier Co., Inc., S. B., San Francisco — 

Greenawalt Sintering Apparatus & Process, New 
York 38 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Co., Pittsburgh. .39 

Hardinge Co.., New York 2 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co.. Denver. .37 

Hercules Powder Co.. Wilmington. Del 21 

Holt Mfg. Co., Stockton, Cal 37 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co., New York — 

Ingersoll-Rand Co.. New York 6-7 

International Smelting Co., New York 38 

Jackson Compressor Co., Denver 

James Ore Concentrator Co.. Newark, N. J. 


. .39 

Koppel Industrial Car & Equip. Co.. Pittsburgh . 39 
Krogh Pump & Mach. Co., San Francisco 36 

Lane Mill & Mach. Co., Los Angeles, Cal 20 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., St. Louis, Mo 31 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co.. New York 31 

Linde Air Products Co., New York — 

Los Angeles Foundry Co., Los Angeles, Cal .... 39 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co., St. Louis, Mo 5 

Lunhenheimer Co., The, Cincinnati. Ohio 16 

Main Belting Co.. Philadelphia — 

Meese & Gottfried Co., San Francisco 42 

Merrill Co., San Francisco 37 

Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co., Philadelphia. . . . — 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co., New York 14 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Supply Co., Denver 23 

Nashville Industrial Corp., Jacksonville, Tenn . . 22 

National Tank & Pipe Co.. Portland. Ore 35 

National Tube Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 

Nevada Eng. & Supply Co., Reno, Nev — 

New York Belting & Packing Co., New York. . .12 

New York Engineering Co., New York 39 

Nordberg Mfg. Co.. Milwaukee, Wis 

Nuttall Co.. R. D„ Pittsburgh. Pa 

Ottumwa Iron Works. Ottumwa. Iowa 29 

Oxweld Acetylene Co., New York — > 

Pacific Pipe Co., San Francisco 22 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co., San Francisco — . 

Pelton Water Wheel Co., San Francisco 35 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co., Gull Point, Fla. 33 

PhotoBtat Corp., Rochester, N. Y 20 

Positions Available 23 

Positions Wanted 23 

Polhemus, L. E., Miami, Ariz 23 

Powell Co., Wm.. Cincinnati, Ohio 29> 

Prescott Co., The, Menominee, Mich — ■ 

Prest-O-Lite Co., New York — ■ 

Professional Directory 24-28 

Redwood Mfrs. Co., San Francisco — r 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co., San Francisco. 40 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A., Trenton. N. J. . . .37 
Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co., New York. . .38 
Ruggles-Coles Engineering Co., New York — 

Sacramento Pipe Works. Sacramento. Cal — ■ 

San Francisco Plating Works. San Francisco. . .36 

Siebe. Gorman & Co.. Ltd., Chicago 21 

Smith Co., S. Morgan, York, Pa — 

StearnB-Roger Mfg. Co., Denver, Colo 22 

Stimpson Equipment Co.. Salt Lake City 37 

Sullivan Machinery Co., Chicago 21-22 

Thompson Balance Co.. San Francisco — 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co., Allentown, Pa 9 

Tyler Co., W. S., Cleveland, Ohio 41 

Union Construction Co., San Francisco 36 

United Filters Corp., Salt Lake City 20 

U. S. Rubber Co., New York — 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., Boston. .38 
Utica-Duxbak Corp., Utica. N. Y — 

Western Wheeled Scraper Co., Aurora, 111 — 

Western Wood Pipe Publicity Bureau, Seattle. .17 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh, 

Pa — 

Wildberg Bros., San Francisco — 

Williamsport Wire Rope Co., Williamsport. Pa. . — 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp., New York. . — ■ 

Yuba Manufacturing Co.. San Francisco 20 

iiiiiiiiiimiiimmiiiimi iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniMiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiii MiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiJiiiiiiiimmimiiiiiiii' 

No. 60 Complete Outfit. Heaviest piece weighs but 250 lbs. 

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on prospecting outfits. Made 
in many different styles and 
sizes to meet every require- 
ment. Send for our new cata- 
log P.C.-l just issued. 


San Francisco and Los Angeles 

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Ore Treatment 


For the 
Chemical Arts 

An ideal device for the continuous and i 

automatic washing of 
granular material on | 
a large scale. 

The Akins I 

In the treatment of ore it speeds up the regrind- 
iug department and improves table recovery. In 
eyanidation an extremely close separation of the 
slime is made without the addition of water to the 
pulp and without supervision. The absence of cams, 
cranks, lifting devices, connecting rods, etc., has 
secured the ready acceptance of the Akins by mill 
operators, and its superior efficiency has been dem- 
onstrated time and again. 

Has a wide range of usefulness in analogous 
separations occurring not only in ore treatment 
but in other lines where it is desired to continu- 
ously wash granular material to recover values car- 
ried in the adhering moisture, or where the granular 
material may be the valuable product. 

Bulletin 24-C gives full details 


I Established 1860 

New York Office, 30 Church St. 


Cement mill doubles clinker output 

by increasing crushing capacity one-third and 
screening with Hum-mer Electric Screens 

THE Castalia Portland Cement Co. formerly fed the product 
of their ball mills directly to tube mills. 
Two years ago, by increasing their clinker crushing capacity 
one-third and screening the clinker with HUM-MER Electric 
Screens after it had gone through the preliminary crushers, they 
increased the volume of this process 100% and are now operat- 
ing on a 12-hour basis instead of 24. 

Furthermore, the HUM-MERS produced a finer and more 
uniform product for the tube mills with the result that the tube 
mills work 60 to 70% faster — and a higher quality of cement is 

Mr. Kirkpatrick, superintendent, states that the labor saved 
by eliminating the 12-hour night shift alone pays for the HUM- 
MER installation twice a year. 

Send for detailed copy of 
Castalia Portland Cement Co. HUM-MER Report. 


Castalia Portland Cement Co. 
Castalia, Ohio. 

THE W. S. TYLER COMPANY, Cleveland, O. 

Manufacturers of Woven Wire Screens and Screening Equipment 



January 7, 1922 

The new mill of the Copper Queen 
branch of the Phelps-Dodge Corpora- 
tion near Bisbee, Arizona, is nearing 


are, of course, part of the equipment 

In each section Ten PLAT-O TABLES are to be used for roughing and Twenty 
PLAT-O finishing tables will receive and treat the notation tailings, each finish- 
ing table treating 38.5 tons per 24 hours. These tables will be driven by individ- 
ual 1 H.P. motors. 

Send for descriptive booklet which explains why the leading mining and 
milling plants all over the world specify and use PLAT-O TABLES. 


East Wayne Street 

EMIL DEISTER. Pres. and Cen. Mbi. 

W. F. DEISTER. Vice-Pra. 

Fort Wayne, Ind., U. S. 

E. G. HOFFMAN. Sec. and Trcas. 

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Apron Feeders 

For feeding ore and similar 
material to pan and belt con- 

Simple hand-operated feeding 
gates of different designs. 

Automatic air-controlled 
reciprocating rock and ore 
feeders of any capacity. 

Heavy apron feeders, contin- 
uous or intermittent,stationary 
or traveling. 


me &<S0ttfrie& Cnmpanlf 





660 Mission Street 558 First Are.So. 167 ftent Street] .400 East 3rd. St 



MSnafiimgj smd 

Member Associated Business Papon, Inc. 





Publiths'l at L£0 Jtarbt St., Son Fro 
bv the Drtrrv MWiiiff Ccru putty 


C.T. Hutchinson, manager 

E. H. Leslie. 000 FrsHCR Bos. Chicago 


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Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 14, 1922 

$4 per Tear — 15 Cents per Copy 





A yarn from Denver. History of the alleged de- 
posit. Stone map. Victim of an ignorant reporter. 
M. & S. P., Jan. 14, 1922. 


Expense of erecting small flotation plant in Mexico. 
Statistics of cost in the United States. M. & S. P., 
Jan. 14, 1922. 


Early life. Experiences at Leadville. Professional 
work at St. Louis. The presidency of the Institute. 
Work during the War. Character and attainments. 
Influence on and help to others. M. & S. P., Jan. 
14. 1922. 


Establishment of the Bureau. Work during the 
past fiscal year. Effective services of the engineers. 
Research accomplished. Problems solved. Details. 
M. & S. P., Jan. 14, 1922. 



By Robert Bruce Brinsmade 41 

Washington conference. Age of steam and its re- 
sults. Reasons for crises. War in present economic 
form. Public-loan system. Debts owing to the 
United States from Europe. Payment of public 
debts from social wealth. M. & S. P., Jan. 14, 1922. 


By R. P. Hines 

Liner bolts for ball-mills. 

M. & S. P., Jan. 14, 



By W. G. Emminger 43 

Cyanide tests at Rochester, Nevada. Cause of poor 
extraction. Effect of varying quantities of lime. 
M. & S. P., Jan. 14, 1922. 


By M. W. von Bernewitz 4 4 

McFadden bill. Price of gold. A correction. M. 
& S. P., Jan. 14, 1922. 


By M. G. F. Sohnlein 44 

Definition of an old term. M. & S. P., Jan. 14, 


By P. B. McDonald 44 

An objection from New York. M. & S. P., Jan. 14, 



An Interview, by T. A. Rickard 4 5 

Birth and parentage. Early life. First appoint- 
ment. Mining of iron ores. Dredging. Work dur- 
ing the War. Presidency of the Institute. Mineral 
resources during the War. Discussion on Institute 
publications. Revival of mining. M. & S. P., Jan. 
14, 1922. 


By George H. Shepherd 51 

Position of property. Character of ore. Develop- 
ment. Mill. Flow-sheet. Power. Clean-ups. 
Smelting. M. & S. P., Jan.. 14, 1922. 


Value of output. Details of production by dis- 
trict. Gold recovery by dredging. Quartz min- 
ing. Copper mining. Miscellaneous. M. & S. P., 
Jan. 14, 1922. 


By C. E. Siebenthal and A. Stoll 

Mine production of lead and zinc. Refinery pro- 
duction of lead. Smelter production of zinc. For- 
eign lead and zinc industry. M. & S. P., Jan. 14, 










Established May 24. 1880. as The Scientific Press; name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered nt the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg\: New York. 31 Nassau St.: 
London. 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price. 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription rate in the United States. 
Alaska, Hawaii. Philippines. Canada, Mexico. Canal Zone. Republic of Hon- 
duras. Salvador. Panama. Nicaragua. Peru. Colombia. Bolivia. Dominican 
Republic. Cuba. Porto Rico, and Shanghai. China. 54: other countries. 56. 

Cable address: Pertusola. 



January 14, 1922 

Oxwelding seams on tanks to make one-piece construction 



The Seam Sealer 

What Oxweld has 
done for others — 
Ox weld can do 
for you. 

An illustrated book 
tells what oxwelding 
is doing — write for it 

To make two tank sections into one homogeneous whole is an every 
day application of oxwelding as used in modern tank and boiler shops 
throughout the country. 

And this is but one of a great variety of manufacturing operations that are done 
better, more quickly and at less cost because of Oxwelding. 

The oxwelding and cutting blowpipes can be used to save time and money on 
practically every article made of metal and they have been successfully applied 
to the production of such fragile substances as glass ! 

And by enabling quick, permanent and economical repairs on machinery — Ox- 
welding has minimized delays and eliminated scrap-heaps in hundreds of plants. 

Oxweld Service Engineers, stationed in more than fifty important cities, are ready 
on request to demonstrate in your own plant how oxwelding and cutting can 
help solve your production and reclamation problems. 

'y/r'te for an illustrated book "Oxweld Can Do It!" which tells what oxwelding 
is doing. 

OXWELD ACETYLENE COMPANY » Newark, N.J. , Chicago * San Francisco 

Sales Representatives in the Principal Cities of the World 


1278-22 * 

h n 1 1 1 m ii T a— — ■ i n 1 * 

January 14, L92S 



II llll !.. Ill 

• - - - Editor 




QOviEiT Russia is to be commended for the bold step, 
*^ recently taken by the Peoples Commissars, providing 
for the legalization of metric measures in that country. 
From consular sources it is learned that the law provides 
that, after 1923, the metric system of weights and "meas- 
ures must be adopted throughout soviet Russia. As with 
the introduction of decimal coinage into the United 
States, the first step in making such a reform appears to 
be drastic ; but after a few years the change is recognized 
as one that is indispensable to national progress. 

j" TNSECTRED paper currency invariably causes an in- 
^~ > terruption to international commerce. The Govern- 
ment currency notes of Great Britain are not exchange- 
able on demand for gold ; consequently, the recent reduc- 
tion of the amount in circulation was doubtless a factor 
that affected favorably the rate of exchange between 
London and New York. The present rate of $4.20 is in 
marked contrast to that of January 1921, when the paper 
pound was worth only $3.53. The improvement has been 
gradual and steady, and has continued in spite of the re- 
cent importation into Great Britain of large quantities of 
grain and cotton from the United States. The increasing 
stability of exchange quotations across the Atlantic is 
significant, and will do much to restore confidence in the 
expectation of a resumption of normal exportation. 

A DECISION adopted at the third session of the Inter- 
**■ national Labor Conference of the League of Nations, 
recently held at Geneva, that the use of white lead for 
interior painting shall be prohibited after the lapse of 
six years, indicates a somewhat mistaken view as to the 
cause of sickness among artisans engaged in such work. 
However, indoor artists are still to be allowed to continue 
their professional work without interference as to the 
composition of the pigments they may use, and a few 
other concessions have been granted. It appears that, 
after the lapse of the stipulated period, no persons under 
18 years of age will be permitted to use an industrial 
paint containing white lead or lead sulphate, unless he or 
she be an apprentice. The explanation of this ruling is 
not clear. If lead paint be harmful, why should appren- 
tices be exposed to its ill effects ? After January 1, 1924, 
no paints containing lead can be mixed from dry in- 
gredients by the painters; measures are to be taken to 
minimize the ill effects arising from a lack of care in the 
use of spraying apparatus ; and the danger of inhalation 

of the dust that is disseminated during the process of 
'nibbing down' old paint must be obviated by protective 
measures. These recommendations are sound and log- 
ical : had their significance been anticipated by the intro- 
duction of preventive measures in the past, no need would 
arise now for the drastic proposals made by the Labor 
Conference in regard to the abolition of the use, for in- 
terior painting, of pigments containing lead. 

TMiE annual demand note for the $15 yearly dues from 
-*- members of the Institute states that $5 is to be ap- 
plied as a subscription to the magazine 'Mining & Metal- 
lurgy', and that this represents a nominal division of the 
receipts to comply with post-office regulations. It is inter- 
esting to learn that a nominal 'value' has been assigned to 
that publication, and that it averages about 40 cents per 
copy ; we wonder how many members would prefer to 
forego the privilege of supporting the Institute's new ex- 
cursion into the publishing business if by so doing their 
dues were reduced to the extent of $5 per annum. Un- 
fortunately for them they have no choice. The publica- 
tion was wished upon them by the authorities at head- 
quarters; and they now read that the subscription is 
obligatory. The idea of a "subscription" being "oblig- 
atory" is strange; it has a touch of caustic humor; the 
sentiment underlying the intimation indicates the lack of 
a desire to study the wishes of members or to respect the 
position the technical press has won for itself after many 
years of endeavor. 

PROPAGANDISTS often give the dear public credit 
■*- for an exceedingly small amount of horse sense. For 
instance, the Educational Service Bureau of the American 
Railway Express Company, quoting Mr. George C. Tay- 
lor, its president, felicitates the public because, by virtue 
of the new Revenue Act that became effective on Janu- 
ary 1, it (the public) will "save approximately $1,500,- 
000 per month as a result of the elimination of the Fed- 
eral war-tax on express shipments". The sum collected 
during 1920 was $17,502,918. On the same theory, if 
all Federal taxes were abolished the public could 'save' 
four or five billion dollars in the next year. The only 
way to save is by decreasing expenditures, not by shifting 
the source of revenue. It matters not at ail whether a 
man pays with a coin out of his vest pocket, with a bill 
out of his trousers, or writes his check from the book that 
he carries in his coat. To save he must stop buying 



January 14, 1922 

things that do him no good. Mr. Dawes — if Congress will 
let him — will save something under a billion ; Mr. Taylor 
merely draws attention to the fact that a little more cash 
will come from the collective trousers than from the vest. 

CONTRIBUTIONS to 'Discussion' this week start with 
a letter from Mr. Robert B. Brinsmade, who writes 
from Mexico on the subject of militarism as affected by 
the gain of huge fortunes by the captains of industry. 
"We welcome Mr. Brinsmade 's discovery of one more ob- 
jection to militarism, for the sooner the modern world 
rids itself of such brutality the better for humanity. The 
note on ball-mills is by an engineer, Mr. P. R. Hines, well 
qualified to speak on the subject. Mr. W. G. Emminger 
writes from Rochester, Nevada, to record his experience in 
the use of lime in the cyaniding of silver ores. Mr. von 
Bernewitz contributes a note on the so-called gold pre- 
mium in England. We ventured to insert the word 
'"paper" before "pound sterling" in the 13th line of his 
letter as printed, because it is essential to keep in mind 
the difference between the gold sovereign and the paper 
pound. Of this Mr. von Bernewitz, of course, is aware, 
but it is a fact that cannot be emphasized too much in 
discussing the 'premium'. Mr. M. G. F. Sohnlein sends 
a welcome bit of commentary on the use of the Spanish 
term 'eajon'; and our friend Professor McDonald has 
something interesting to say on the definition of 'engi- 
neer'. Our own idea of an 'engineer' is stated in the 
address delivered at Rolla and appearing in our issue of 
December 10. 

fARD-INDEXING- of books published is an essential 
^* feature of library economy, but few engineers ap- 
preciate the fact that they can maintain such a system of 
their own at a negligible expense. The Library of Con- 
gress at Washington has developed the idea of co-oper- 
ative cataloguing that was started by the American 
Library Association in 1876. The printing and storing 
of cards was begun in 1898 ; and in 1901 the work of dis- 
tribution was commenced. Most of our readers are fa- 
miliar with the style adopted; the standard Library of 
Congress cards are to be found in almost all American 
libraries. One form of card only is printed for each book. 
The author's name is given in full, dates of birth and 
death being added when available. The title is usually 
given in full, and details follow that describe accurately 
the contents of the volume. All the cards are numbered 
to facilitate reference and ordering. A pamphlet has 
been published and is available for those who are inter- 
ested in cataloguing and card-index work ; it gives inter- 
esting details of the development of the idea. The stock of 
cards now covers about 850,000 titles ; it is relatively com- 
plete in all classes for books that have been copyrighted 
in the United States since July 1898. Current cards can 
be ordered on any well-defined topic, the usual price for 
each being three cents ; if ordered by number the price is 
even less. The number of libraries, institutions, and in- 
dividuals subscribing to cards has risen from about 200 
in 1901 to about 3000 in 1921. About 550 individuals 

and firms are now ordering the cards regularly, chiefly 
for bibliographical purposes; the remainder of the sub- 
scribers are libraries. The returns to the U. S. govern- 
ment from the sale of cards have increased from about 
$4000 in the fiscal year 1901-1902 to about $90,000 in the 
fiscal year 1920-1921. This income now covers the cost 
of the cards and storage, and the salaries of the 50 assist- 
ants that are engaged in the work of distribution. Thus 
it is that the Card Division of the Library of Congress is 
self-supporting, and at the same time is carrying on an 
excellent work that results in the avoidance of the waste 
that would occur were the 2500 libraries and the 500 indi- 
viduals that benefit obliged to devise their own indexing 
system and print their own cards. Many engineers will 
probably be glad to avail themselves of this service in 
view of the insignificant expense that is involved. 

TVTEW MODDERFONTEIN, the greatest gold mine 
■"- ' in the world, has made another excellent record, 
thanks in part to the so-called premium on gold. During 
the last fiscal year, ended on June 30, this mine, at 
Johannesburg, produced 1,083,000 tons of ore, averaging 
9.74 dwt. per ton, the total yield being half a million 
ounces of gold during the twelve months. The working 
profit is given at £1,699,052, whereas the dividends 
amounted to £1,400,000, this being at the rate of 100% 
on the par value of the shares. The chief feature of the 
milling practice is the use of Nissen stamps, of which 
eight more were added during the period under review. 
The economic character of the lode is indicated by the 
average assay-value, which is 803 inch-pennyweights. 
This is the unit used on the Rand; it means, of course, 
a weighted average, the width of the ore being multiplied 
by the assay. Between the 12th and 13th levels there 
is 302,800 tons of 9.7-dwt. ore that is over 82 inches wide, 
says the consulting engineer to the company. Another 
interesting foreign item of news is the closing-down of 
the celebrated Mount Bischoff tin mine in Tasmania, 
which has been exhausted at last. The lode was dis- 
covered fifty years ago and the company exploiting it 
has paid £210 per £5 share in dividends. In the 'eighties 
it was the leading tin-producer in the world. 

Buried Bullion 

Stories of the Spanish dons and their doubloons have 
become part of our literature from the day that Steven- 
son's 'Treasure Island' awoke the boyish imagination of 
elderly men and put jazz into the dreams of faded 
spinsters. The hunt for treasure has not ceased either in 
literature or in real life, for every now and again the 
newspapers tell us of expeditions being outfitted to seareli 
for pirate gold in the Caribbean or to unearth buried 
treasure on Cocos island. The latest yarn comes from 
Denver, and it is worthy of an altitude just one mile 
above sea-level. It is a tall story, but it has the merit of 
being told seriously, which makes it humorous. "I have 
found", says a Mr. Antony Fenninger, "the key to an 
ancient map carved in stone ; it reveals the hiding-place 
of $2,500,000 in Spanish gold, buried in the wilds of the 

January 14. 1922 


Arkansas Oiarka". This sounds liki' old staff. To give 
ii verisimilitade Mr. Fenninger ia organising a party to 
dig (or "tlic tarnished bullion", so saya the 'Rocky 
Mountain News'. How did he find this map on stone 1 
He tells us thai it happened while "squirrel hunting", 
and more particularly while "punning a squirrel". In 
his impetuosity he Stumbled over "a stone slab, hidden 
ill the tall grass'*. The tallness of the grass is the only 
touch that redeems this tale from bathos; ancient in- 
scriptions ought to be found on the faces of inaccessible 
cliffs or inscribed in luminous paint cm the walls of 
mysterious caverns. He scraped the dirt and moss away 
and called a native to s.o it. whereupon he heard a true 
story, which was that the inscription was the key to a 
paper map for which the Spanish government had made 
"extensive search" many years ago. having heard of 
the buried bullion, which must have been taken from the 
Indians, for Mr. Fenninger asserts that the aborigines 
were so enraged that the Spaniards "constructed an 
underground labyrinth of tunnels and concealed the gold 
in the subterranean passage". We are not told when 
this happened, but it must have been after 1492. Why 
the angry Indians did not interrupt these mining opera- 
tions is not stated, but we are informed that years passed 
and that "close to the opening of the nineteenth cen- 
tury" the Indians, in a belated fit of annoyance, "made 
another and more terrible onslaught upon the Spanish 
settlers". This culminated in a massacre, "only one 
youth escaping the murderous redskins". He, it is to be 
presumed, as it is not stated, carried the story to Spain ; 
for a hundred years later, which brings us to the day 
before yesterday, a searching party came from the land 
of Cervantes, armed with an ancient map, but without 
the stone key. So they failed. Ten years ago a party of 
native Arkansans heard about the treasure, presumably 
from a garrulous Spaniard, and "began searching 
blindly for the gold". They found the underground 
passage and lowered a man at the end of a rope into a 
cavernous opening to the entrance of which they had 
penetrated. Soon the man signalled "frantically to be 
pulled up". He died in a delirium. That ended the affair 
for the Arkansans, for they are "very superstitious". 
They could not be hired to go near the place. Mr. Fen- 
ninger is good enough to explain the mystery: "It is 
plain to a scientific man what caused the gold-hunter's 
death. The action of the damp earth upon the mass of 
gold must necessarily generate a great amount of arsenic 
gas. It was this gas which killed the man". Without 
claiming to be ultra-scientific we venture to doubt the 
possibility of generating arsenious fume by the action of 
moisture on gold. Perhaps the decay of timber had 
produced carbon monoxide gas, which would account for 
the sickness but not the delirium of the unfortunate gold- 
seeker. But, we had forgotten that this is only a pipe- 
dream ! We would suggest that the Arkansan descended 
into a subterranean distillery and that he was overcome 
by the fume of moonshine; in short, that he was ren- 
dered delirious by alcohol. Our story is nearly ended. 
By aid of the stone map Mr. Fenninger found three more 

maps, tic- combined information therefrom sufficing 

to lead him by the squirrel-path to the treasure. Ha 

found .i shaft, now caved, but he saw evidence enough to 
satisfy him that it was a real Spanish diggings. He did 
not penetrate far because he had not yet 'the apparatus 
to neutralize the effects of the arsenic gas generated by 
the rare gold below", but he is making arrangements to 
unearth the bullion that "has lain corroding in the black 
muck of Arkansas for a century and a half". .Mr. Fen- 
ninger. for aught we know, may be a sensible man: and 
it is more than likely that he is the victim of an ignorant 
Denver reporter plus an irresponsible editor, but if he 
has found a hole in the ground it is more than likely that 
it was made in the search for lead ore and it may develop 
that in his pursuit of a lively squirrel he only caught 
the tale ! 

Cost of a Small Flotation Plant 
A correspondent from the southern part of Mexico 

finds himself in the position — by no means unique — of 
having a mine in which he has proved about 20,000 tons 
of rock that contains on the average 35 ounces of silver 
anil half an ounce of "old per ton. but that does not as 
yet qualify as 'ore'. The owner says that the precious 
metals are contained in. or are associated with, sulphide 
minerals; that testing by flotation proves 90$ of the 
metal to he recoverable, with an excellent ratio of con- 
centration; and that, if he could find money for the 
erection of the necessary plant, he could earn a sub- 
stantial profit. But, he adds, "the oil-flotation experts 
talk of nothing but hundreds of thousands of dollars as 
the cost of building a plant. . . My idea is to start with 
a unit with a capacity of from 20 to 50 tons per day . 
He asks for advice. Interpreting what he says literally, 
the flotation engineers must have estimated the cost 
of the plant as being at least $200,000. It seems to us 
that even .+100.000 is a high price to pay for so small a 
plant ; and. in this connection, the following data may 
prove interesting to others besides our friend in Mexico. 
The factory cost of the equipment in a recently com- 
pleted 60-ton flotation plant in the United States was 
$16,851. This included a jaw-crusher, trommel, ball- 
mill, classifier, flotation-machine, eoneentrating-table. 
vacuum-filter, feeders, pumps, elevators, belting, piping, 
transmission machinery, motors, and the necessary tanks 
for a concentrator that ought to prove adequate for 
treating any ore amenable to flotation. The cost of 
freight, of materials for the building needed to house the 
equipment, and of the labor and supervision entailed in 
erecting the plant depends, of course, upon factors that 
vary with the geography of the mine. In the instance 
we quote, the cost of delivering the machinery mentioned 
was $2168; the building material, including cement, tim- 
ber, corrugated iron, and miscellaneous items, cost $5000 ; 
and the cost of construction was approximately $18,000, 
making the total cost $42,000. The mill was built by an 
exceptionally competent and experienced engineer whose 
object was to build a first-class plant without waste, and 
the result might be hard to duplicate. Another well- 



January 14, 1922 

built plant, recently finished, has a capacity of 130 tons 
per day and cost $91,000 ; and a third, to handle 175 to 
200 tons per day, cost $135,000. Manifestly the cost of 
such plants need not be even approximately propor- 
tional to their capacities, but it is apparent that $50,000 
should be sufficient to build a complete 50-ton plant any- 
where in the western part of the United States. Indeed, 
it is probable that a serviceable plant could be erected 
for considerably less. Cheaper machinery might be used, 
and some of the equipment listed in the $42,000 plant is 
not indispensable. Although some sacrifice in the cost of 
subsequent operation and perhaps in metallurgical re- 
covery might be entailed, it is reasonable to say that 
$30,000 ought to build a workable plant of 50-ton ca- 
pacity. The distance of the mine in Mexico from the 
coast or from the nearest railroad would be the most im- 
portant consideration in estimating the cost of a plant 
there as compared with a similar one in this country, 
where, incidentally, the railroads have not, as yet, begun 
to haul freight for nothing. Other conditions would 
have their bearing on the problem, and in the absence of 
further details it would be foolish to make even a con- 
jecture as to what a concentrator at the Mexican mine 
ought to cost. Nevertheless it seems safe to suggest to 
our correspondent that, if he is sure of the ore in his 
mine, it would be to his advantage to consult a com- 
petent metallurgist, able to think financially in tens, as 
well as in hundreds, of thousands. 

Philip N. Moore 

In this issue we publish an interview with one of the 
honored veterans of the profession, Mr. Philip N. Moore. 
That he is in truth a veteran we were hardly aware until 
he responded frankly to our systematic curiosity, for he 
is one of the men fortunate enough to retain the spirit of 
youth long after the time for jumping hurdles or even 
playing tennis has passed. Touthfulness of spirit joined 
with maturity of mind is a happy combination, and he 
seems to have had it from the first. The interview shows 
how at an early age he went to Leadville, when that 
famous silver-mining centre was in the heyday of its first 
development. As one reads of the early days in the West, 
when the frontier of civilization was on the horizon, one 
is tempted to ask whether it were not better to have been 
born sooner so as to participate in the real romance of 
mining adventure. Later time has brought its compen- 
sations, but one thing the younger men may envy, and 
that is the companionship of such alert minds and inter- 
esting characters as were at Leadville, for example, in the 
late 'seventies and early 'eighties. Nowadays most en- 
gineers reside in big cities and make an occasional short 
visit to a mining district ; in former times, owing to the 
difficulty of travel, they lived in the mining camp, which 
was fitly named because many lived in tents or shanties, 
and the community was nomadic. Mr. Moore knows how 
to express himself; his replies to our questions convey 
the atmosphere of hope and elation in which he and his 
comrades lived. He indicates also the vicissitudes of an 
engineer's life in those days; how the technician had to 

be ready to do many things and to adapt himself to tasks 
for which perhaps he had received no direct preparation, 
but for which he had always, as Mr. Moore had, the back- 
ground of a thorough technical training and the alert in- 
telligence that came partly by inheritance from quick- 
witted progenitors and partly from the breezy initiative 
of what was then the West. The basis of his financial 
success was the money he made as manager and part 
owner of two iron-ore enterprises, both of which, thanks 
largely to his own skillful management, pi-oved highly 
productive and profitable. This prepared the way for a 
successful start as a consulting engineer, with head- 
quarters at St. Louis, from which city he traveled far and 
wide as his engagements called him. The story of the 
Conrey placer will interest Harvard graduates especially, 
because it involves several notable men, more particularly 
the much-beloved Professor Shaler. Another successful 
operation, in later days, was Mr. Moore's venture in zinc 
mining, on the Indian lands of the Miami district, in 
Oklahoma. That was during the War. He sold out hand- 
somely just in time to divert his energies to the national 
service, to which he has devoted himself since then. His 
ability to perform a patriotic duty was enhanced by the 
fact that in 1917 his high standing in the profession was 
recognized by bis election to the presidency of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Mining Engineers. That gave him offi- 
cial status as the standard-bearer of the profession. In 
the rush to aid the Government there was excessive haste 
t organize committees, which became so numerous that 
they interfered with each other. Mr. Moore was enabled 
to prevent duplication and waste of effort by co-ordinat- 
ing the industrial investigations necessitated by the War. 
Later he was instrumental in arranging for the represen- 
tation of engineers, at Washington, especially charged 
with the duty of pushing the campaign for a National De- 
partment of Public Works. This he did in 1918 as a 
member of Engineering Council, the president of which 
was Mr. J. Parke Channing, who backed Mr. Moore not 
only by his voice but by subscribing the money needed to 
meet the expenses of representation at the national capi- 
tal. Next came a more arduous task. Mr. Moore was one 
of the three members of the War Minerals Relief Com- 
mission, appointed in 1919 to apportion pecuniary com- 
pensation to those who produced sundry war minerals in 
response to the call of the Government. It is only fair to 
say that Mr. Moore was the strong man of the Commission 
and that he did his work under a keen sense of duty and 
with a sincere desire to do the right thing. He was criti- 
cized, of course; and, among others, by ourselves. We 
took exception to his attempt to prove self-interested 
motives, as against purely patriotic motives, on the part 
of claimants, holding that this line of cross-examination 
was mistaken. That was the only criticism that we made, 
and our disagreement with Mr. Moore on this point per- 
sists to this day, but it has not impaired the goodwill that 
subsists between us. He keeps his friends, as Stevenson 
said, "without capitulation". He is not of the small- 
gauge men that break a friendship on account of fair 
criticism or reasonable difference of opinion ; on the con- 

lary it. 1922 



trary, he conforms to the definition of a friend that we 
like best : a man whom you know well an.l still like. Per 

contra, an acqnaintai is a person whom you know 

slightly and therefore like. Prom persona] knowledge Mr. 
Moore stands the test we have <i He has achieve! 

the two things that men value most: the winning of 
Friends and the realization of a desire to he effective. To 
this achievement his personal qualities have contributed. 
for lie has a penetrating mind and is a good judge of 
men : he has social adaptability and an engaging manner ; 
bis abilitv to speak in public is suggested by the style of 
bis diction when interviewed; he has an excellent mem- 
ory, upon which he can draw confidently for apt quota- 
tion, including poetry. Neither the sense of humor nor 
the wit of the dialectician is wanting. The editor of our 
New York contemporary described him as "truculently 
honest", to which he demurred, because the word 'trucu- 
lent' is assumed erroneously to involve the Hibernian itch 
for a fight. 'Uncompromising' suits our friend better 
than 'truculent'. He does not bargain with the truth. 
He has been a happy man in most things that men value, 
and most of all in his marriage, for Mrs. Moore is dis- 
tinguished among American women and a partner in mat- 
ters of the mind as in domestic affairs ; she is now serving 
her third term as president of the National Council of 
"Women of the United States. Mr. Moore himself is fond 
of work and does not shy at difficulties; he gives un- 
grudgingly to the public service ; for 12 years he has been 
on the board of directors of the Missouri State Geological 
Survey, giving gratuitously not only his time but his 
enthusiasm for such scientific labors. He took the lead in 
organizing the St. Louis Section of the Institute, and 
when president of the Institute he did much to stimulate 
the vigor and usefulness of similar Sections in other parts 
of the country. He has the instinct of leadership and the 
gift of inspiring loyalty. He takes a personal interest in 
the younger engineers and has helped many of them in 
making a good start. Of all the rewards that have come 
to him we envy him most the gratitude of a number of 
capable and useful men to whom he has given a start, 
freely and sympathetically, and a helping hand after- 
ward. They and their achievements are a part of his own 
reputation ; they bless him now and they will bless him in 
the years to come. 

U. S. Bureau of Mines 

The Act of Congress establishing the Bureau of Mines 
authorized investigations designed to improve health and 
safety in the mineral industry, and to promote efficient 
development and utilization of the mineral resources of 
the United States. The scope of its work, therefore, is 
exceedingly wide, a fact that is evident from even a 
cursory glance through the eleventh annual report of the 
Director, covering the fiscal year that ended on June 30, 
1921. During this period the Bureau has given special 
attention to the work of aiding the mineral industry to 
pass through the transitional stage between war activities 
and normal peace-time operations; to establish it on a 

safe basis bo thai foreign competition may be met, and 
regard paid to the changed conditions of supply and de- 
mand. Spi estigations have I n made daring 

the period under review in connection with the produc- 
tion of various mineral substances; information has been 
gathered and distributed in regard to thf sources of sup- 
ply. A continuation of the work of determining mine 
hazards, of promoting rescue and first-aid training, and 
of studying the use of explosives and equipment in mines 
has proved of value to the industry. In his letter of 
transmittal to the Secretary of the Interior, Mr. H. 
Poster Bain, the Director, shows that the effective service 
rendered by the engineers of the Bureau at mine-fires 
and other disasters is attested by many unsolicited com- 
mendations. Progress has been made in the development 
of the experimental plant, at Petrolia, in Texas, to be 
used to investigate the properties of helium. The mining 
division, in addition to its regular work of advising and 
assisting both the coal and metal-mining industries in re- 
gard to better and safer practices, has prepared a pre- 
liminary draft of regulations for operations on oil-shale 
and phosphate leases. The owners of pulverized-coal 
equipment have been advised as to safe methods of opera- 
tion. Work was continued on the investigation into ven- 
tilation, dustiness, and humidity in the metal mines of the 
West and in the Lake Superior region. Remedial meas- 
ures for the allaying of dust have been adopted more 
widely ; and efficient systems of ventilation have been in- 
stalled in mines with high temperatures and abnormal 
humidities, or in which the air is harmful. The division 
of mineral technology has completed the preparation and 
analysis of a number of zirconium-steels for test by the 
Navy Department, to determine their value as armor- 
plate ; in co-operation with the producers of cerium and 
of molybdenum a similar series of alloy-steels containing 
these metals have been prepared. Aluminum alloys have 
been studied, and valuable data have been obtained as to 
the causes of loss during melting and casting; methods 
for the reduction of such losses have been suggested. A 
bulletin representing eight years of study of electric 
brass-furnaces has been issued. An investigation of the 
talc industry was completed, and improved methods of 
mining and preparation were brought to the attention of 
producers. A report on the slate industry is being pre- 
pared that describes efficient methods of operating quar- 
ries, improved equipment for reducing waste, and means 
of utilizing what is now considered as valueless material. 
The metallurgic division has continued and broadened its 
researches on the utilization of low-grade iron ores and 
the smelting of such material in the blast-furnace. Effec- 
tive work has been done in improving or devising meth- 
ods for treating low-grade ores of zinc, silver, lead, cop- 
per, and gold. At the Pacific station at Berkeley, in 
California, an extensive study was completed of the 
methods of manufacturing caustic magnesia, used for 
making oxy-chloride cement; it was demonstrated that 
grades of magnesite not hitherto employed can be used, 
and standard specifications and tests were devised for 
the final product. The results of a study of the metal- 



January 14, 1922 

lurgy of mercury that extended over several years were 
compiled for publication. At the North-West station at 
Minneapolis, in Minnesota, blast-furnace reactions in the 
smelting of low-grade manganese ore were studied in an 
experimental furnace, and fundamental data were ob- 
tained for further investigations. With the establish- 
ment of the Southern station lit Birmingham, Alabama, 
the work on iron ores has been greatly extended to in- 
clude a general study of the iron industry of that dis- 
trict, with special regard to the utilization of the low- 
grade and highly-silicious ores that are available. The 
principal work of the ceramic station at Columbus, in 
Ohio, has been on clays, graphite, and dolomite. Tests 
of samples of white clays collected from States east of the 
Mississippi river have demonstrated that some of them 
approach English china-clay 
in quality, and that many of 
them are suitable for pottery 
work. Promising results have 
been obtained in the dead 
burning of dolomite to be used 

son River tunnel now under construction. At the Rare 
and Precious Metals station, at Reno, in Nevada, an 
improved method was developed for the collection of the 
emanation from radium salts. The Mississippi Valley 
station developed two processes for the separation of zinc 
from fluorspar, thus solving a vexatious problem that has 
troubled fluorspar operators for some time ; the operators 
of the zinc-mills were also advised how to save the fine 
zinc that was being lost in the tailing. The Intermoun- 
tain experiment station at Salt Lake City has continued 
its work of devising methods for treating low-grade ores 
from the Rocky Mountain district. It is stated that the 
results of experimental work on the volatilization process, 
for the recovery of lead, zinc, and silver, have been ap- 
plied at a number of mines. Bureau engineers at the 


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as a substitute for the more 
expensive magnesite as a basis 
for the composition of refrac- 
tory bricks. The Alaska sta- 
tion at Fairbanks, in Alaska, 
has aided prospectors and 
mine operators in their special 
problems, and marked prog- 
ress has been made with the 
general survey of the placer- 
mining industry. Bureau en- 
gineers have also assisted in 
the development of the use of 
lignite, in order to conserve as 
much as possible the rapidly 
diminishing supply of timber. 
At the Pittsburgh station, 
some of the principal results 
have been in connection with 
(1) the determination of the 

properties of picric acid and other explosives; (2) the 
preparation of a proposed safety code for electrical and 
mechanical equipment in mines; (3) the determination 
of combustion factors involved in burning powdered coal ; 
(4) the completion of firing tests to determine the per- 
formance of the Scotch marine boiler for the use of the 
U. S. Shipping Corporation; (5) the determination of 
the relative steaming values of coke for house-heating 
boilers; (6) methods for determining accurately the 
amount of carbon dioxide in the blood of persons exposed 
to abnormal amounts of the gas ; (7) the development of a 
gas-mask for firemen and for locomotive engineers, respec- 
tively, and a universal mask for all industrial purposes ; 
(8) the determination of the constitution of oil-shales, the 
forms of sulphur in coke ; and (9) the action of hydrogen 
as a desulphurizing agent in the blast-furnace. In co- 
operation with the New York and New Jersey tunnel com- 
missions, an experimental tunnel has been built to de- 
termine the best methods to adopt to ventilate the Hud- 

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■W RM« dw. 

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North-West station at Seattle have developed methods 
for the production of iron in the electric furnace; they 
have also demonstrated that antimony can be removed 
electrolytically from refractory ores containing that 
metal. At the South-West station at Tucson, in Arizona, 
work has been concentrated on the problems connected 
with the leaching of low-grade porphyry copper ores, and 
improvements effected, it is stated, are being put into 
practice by the copper companies. Such is a broad out- 
line of the work that is being accomplished, which should 
have the unqualified support of the mining industry and 
of the technical press. The accompanying chart shows 
the ramification of the Bureau. Much investigative work 
remains to be accomplished, and we presage that, under 
the able direction of Mr. Bain, the coming year will see 
no diminution in the Bureau's efforts to improve the 
health and safety of those engaged in the mineral in- 
dustry, and to promote the efficient development and 
utilization of the mineral resources of the United States. 

January 14. 1922 



Militarism and Millionairism 

The Editor: 

Sir Now thai the Washington conference seems to he 
achieving some tangihle results toward disarming the 
world, it may prove interesting to analyze some of the 
economic features of modern civilization that often are 
more weighty than the political ones in causing: wars. 
While far from accepting the Socialist theory of history 

i \tnisively developed by Karl Mars — which postulates 
the supremacy of the economic motives as inciters to 
human activities, I am inclined to believe that any theory 
That omits them entirely is as futile as would be the play 
of ' Hamlet' were Hamlet left out. 

One need not go far to observe that the age of steam, 
which began in England in the 19th century, has been 
characterized by the concentration of great wealth into a 
few hands. This does not mean that our proletariat has 
not profited greatly by machine production, for one has 
only to visit a medieval country like Mexico, where most 
things are still done by man-power, to disbelieve this 
popular fallacy. Nevertheless the privileged classes 
everywhere have captured the lion's share of the benefits 
of mechanical power, as is evidenced in the United States 
by the fact that 2% of the population owns 60% of the 
wealth. This rich minority represents the reservoir of 
the social surplus, which, by the drawing power of some 
form of private monopoly, has filled its coffers each year 
with the residue of the national output after the essential 
expenses of labor and capital have been paid. Our mil- 
lionaires are the high priests of Mammon who dominate 
not only big business but the press, the pulpit, the school, 
and the Government. Their incomes are so vast that, 
after providing for their families like rajahs, they have 
as yearly surplus a huge sum that must seek one of five 
outlets. The first is luxury, which is always selfish and 
often decadent or even criminal. The second is charity, 
which is an outlet of great social possibilities but apt to 
be misplaced or over-done and at its best no substitute 
for justice. The third is speculation, which in the form 
of monopoly of natural resources tends not only to the 
exploitation of the masses but to the suppression of the 
middle class. The fourth is the purchase of machinery 
for increasing production, at home or abroad ; and the 
fifth is the loaning of money to governments. At first 
thought the last two outlets would seem to be unmixed 
blessings for society, but in our topsy-turvy organization 
they have often proved themselves curses instead, by 
causing the two greatest economic ills of modern times — 
industrial crises and militarism. 

Various authorities give all sorts of explanations for 
our periodic crises from sun-spots to lack of confidence, 
but the main cause seems to be millionairism itself, 

which absorbs a large part of the annual output of com- 
modities that otherwise would be retained by the pro- 
ducers. The difficulty that millionaires have in con- 
suming their incomes causes 'under-consumption', while 
the opposite phenomenon of 'over-production' does not 
at all mean that people have enough of material things, 
but simply that they are unable to purchase them. The 
present crisis in the United States has peculiarities all its 
own. Its chief and beneficial result will be a liquidation 
of labor, which, as I predicted two years ago, was bound 
to happen before long in spite of the schoolmen. When 
workmen are getting wages based on a price for their 
output that represents not fair value but the desperate 
n ed of perishing belligerents, anyone not obsessed by 
prejudice can see that such a condition is hound to be 
ephemeral. All this, however, diverges from my main 
theme of militarism. 

War in its present economic form may be dated from 
the later 18th century, when England inaugurated its 
war-loan policy. This was made necessary by the aboli- 
tion in 1663 of military land-taxes, which had formerly 
supplied the national war-funds. While this abolition 
was hailed as a reform at the time, experience has proved 
it to be the reverse, for without this new system of public 
loans none of the destructive wars of recent times could 
have been fought on the same scale, and many not at all. 
Under the old system a national war was a burden to the 
rich landholders, who were obliged to pay its expenses 
and often had only a slim chance to recoup themselves 
by the plunder of the defeated enemy. 

The public-loan system, however, changed all this, for 
it now became possible for English landlords to make 
war a profitable business by the use of a two-edged 
economic sword that cuts both ways into the national 
melon. In the Napoleonic wars, for example, the con- 
tinual destruction on the Continent skyrocketted the 
prices of English produce so that the landlords could 
double and triple their rents. These great incomes were 
then invested in new war-loans, whose service was paid 
by taxing the consuming masses by the excise and cus- 
toms. As a net result, in 1815 the British nation found 
itself with a public debt of £860,000,000, representing an 
average burden of £200 per family, for the benefit of a 
few hundred landlords. 

At the beginning of the Great War, a century' later, 
the British debt, in spite of numerous economic reforms, 
had diminished but little, and the war-loan idea had be- 



January 14, 1922 

come the fashion everywhere. Moreover, since our Civil 
War, a new propeller has been added to the war chariot, 
in the form of mechanico-chemical munitions and ap- 
paratus, which cost more money than all the old equip- 
ments combined. This alteration in technique, along 
with the change from the small professional army of 
William III to the nation-in-anns of the epoch suc- 
ceeding the French Revolution, has made of war muni- 
tions one of the greatest industries of today ; and since 
the formation of the international war trust, a few years 
before the Great War, undoubtedly the most profitable. 
The huge factories required for the manufacture of 
explosives, guns, tanks, aeroplanes, submarines, and 
dreadnaughts form the missing link needed to complete 
the endless chain of our modern economic system ; for 
they create a bottomless pit that can profitably swallow 
the millionaires' surplus incomes, no matter how big, if 
only an occasional war be provided to cause a steady 
market for the munition output. The fact that wars 
had become an essential for millionaire prosperity tended 
to abolish the sentiment of patriotism among high finan- 
ciers. The national press and public officials were 
suborned as a matter of course, and when this proved in- 
adequate a propaganda was carried abroad to incite the 
arming of foreign nations, even dangerous rivals to the 
fatherland. The Krupp company, for instance, of which 
Kaiser Wilhelm was a heavy stockholder, was accustomed 
to use the French venal press to advocate the increase 
of French armaments in order to stimulate a greater 
counter-arming at home. 

Sharing with the European aristocracy the guilt for 
the vast military and naval expenditures that preceded 
the catastrophe of 1914, the War Trust enjoyed for many 
months thereafter such a volume of profit as was never 
before dreamed of even by pyramiding stock-gamblers. 
But as the conflict dragged on. beyond all precedent or 
prediction, the favorite four-spoke cycle, which had 
served English landlords so well in the Napoleonic wars, 
of munitions, profits, destruction, and loans, began to 
get rickety as to its last -mentioned spoke ; for even a fool 
can understand that it is poor business to sell munitions 
to a government, even at huge nominal profits, if he is 
being paid for them with his own money that has been 
exchanged for worthless bonds. 

The entrance of the United States into the War in 
1917 saved the day for the American branch of the War 
Trust, because with the ten billions loaned by Uncle 
Sam to his Allies the latter were soon able to liquidate 
their big munition debts to his manufacturers in cash. 
Meanwhile things in Europe kept getting worse for the 
War Trust. The defeat of Italy and the collapse of 
Russia in December of the same year not only spelled 
rain for stock-gamblers everywhere, but was bad news 
for the War Trust, for it meant the repudiation of bil- 
lions of Czarist bonds exchanged abroad for munitions. 

The final defeat of the Central Powers gave promise 
that England might be able to retain her solvency ; she 
still had great investments in countries unharmed by the 
War. her factories were intact, and she had been wise 

enough to tax her rich heavily, by comparison with 
others, but quite insufficiently to prevent the accumula- 
tion of a monumental debt. On the contrary, France and 
Italy had taxed everybody except the rich; while Ger- 
many and Austria were equally partial. To pay war ex- 
penses all these plutocracies relied on fiat paper-money, 
which is merely national promissory notes. Though 
nominally of forced circulation, it is clear that an issue of 
fiat money can only be made legally obligatory for the 
payment of debts previously contracted, and that none 
need sell their merchandise for it at any fixed price. 
Wherever the European belligerents attempted to fix 
prices for commodities below their commercial value in 
paper money, such commodities promptly vanished from 
the markets and became contraband. By this suicidal 
policy the European plutocracy reduced to poverty that 
large part of the middle class which had its property in 
forms of money, such as mortgages, bank-deposits, or 
cash, and inflicted untold suffering upon that large part 
of the working class which was unable to get its wages 
increased in accord with prices. The only profiteers were 
the big monopolists of tangible chattels and natural re- 
sources, and middle-class people whose fortunes were in 
real estate, for their property values were unaffected by 
fiatism, which also reduced their taxes to zero. 

As the value of any promissory note depends upon the 
solvency of the maker, it is evident that the fiat money 
of any government whose outgo exceeds its income will 
soon become worthless. The failure of governments to 
balance expenditures with taxation was bad enough in 
war-time, but since then the same policy has been in- 
excusable. For a while after the Armistice, France, 
Italy, and the rest were able to stave off disaster by 
drawing on their credit with Uncle Sam ; but when 
these were finally cut off, in response to the warning of 
Mr. Hoover, the avalanche of ruin again gathered head- 
way in spite of the brake put on it by the suspension of 
interest on the ten-billion debt to America. Then began 
the Allied propaganda for the cancellation of this debt 
altogether, an agitation that is still on foot at the Wash- 
ington conference. 

On account of this financial pap from America, supple- 
mented by German reparation payments in goods and 
gold, the franc has only fallen 60% and the lira 76% 
from the par value, as compared with a drop of nearly 
99% for the mark. The post-war crisis for the economic 
system of Western Europe has thus first appeared in 
Germany, and she is now face to face with the question : 
Will you repudiate your debts and slide into the Bolshe- 
vik night, like Russia, or will you master your plutocracy 
and socialize economic rent and great inheritances ? Chan- 
cellor Wirth appears alive to the situation, though his 
proposal for a 20% levy on all property is clumsy, un- 
just, and inadequate to solve the problem permanently. 
The German monopolists, in opposing his plan, prove 
again the old proverb: "Whom the gods will destroy 
they first make mad", and the beginning of the economic 
revolution appears imminent. 

Should Uncle Sam, persuaded by sophistical argu- 

January 1 1. 1922 



ments, be bo Foolish as to forgive liis European di 
he will not only 'I" ;i rank injustice in his tax payers bul 
will strike a blow at the progress of civilization : for such 
a mistake might postpone the inevitable change of our 
unethical economic system for a generation, by enabling 
tli.' . Mhos to siav. oft tii,- crisis now facing < lermany, ami 
result in other great wars. Modern civilisation ''an never 
establish a permanent peace until it has abolished its tun 
war-making classes, which are military aristocracies ami 
hereditary plutocracies. The Greal War appears to have 

done for the former except in Japan, but (lie latter seems 

to have emerged from the conflict even stronger than 
before. Until public expenses arc paid entirely from the 
social (aa distinguished from individually earned) wealth, 

so that no millionaire fortunes Can he made, and the 

existing ones are destroyed by death dues, we shall 
always be living under war-clouds, however vociferous 
may he sueh makeshifts as Leagues of Nations and Dis- 
armament Conferences. K(1BERT Br( . ce BBINSMAnE . 

Ixmiquilpan. Mexico. December 20. 

Mr. Benitez has presented a very informing article and 

one thai should cause a i valuable discussion, I hope 

that some' of those directly interested will reply. 

P. B. Hi 
Portland, • Oregon, I (ecember 80. 


The Editor: 

Sir — Mr. Benitez, in his article on 'Ball-Milling and 

Flotation at Catemu, Chile', which appears in your issue 
of December 24, suggests an improved liner-bolt for ball- 
mill shell-liners. This is shown on page 884, Fig. 4. and 
has a square bead, tapered. The bolt suggested was in 
use long before the holt shown in Fig. 3, which he is now 
using, and was not satisfactory. It is more difficult to 
get a good fit between the liner-hole and the head of the 
bolt than by using the present form. The requirements 
are that the bolt be placed in the position subject to the 
least wear or which is the thickest when the liners are 
nearing the end of their life. The counter-sink should 
extend through to as near the bottom of the liner as 
practicable, so as to hold the liner when it is thin. If 
the liner is of manganese-steel, there will be some stretch- 
ing of the metal, and this will give trouble if the counter- 
sink extends clear through. The stretching action gives 
trouble in any type of bolt-head. It is my opinion that 
a flat-angle taper with a head as shown in Fig. 3 will 
hold far better than a slightly tapered square head as 
shown in Fig. 4. 

Referring to Mr. Benitez 's statement, "The matter is 
well worthy of investigation by mill manufacturers", I 
wish to correct his impression. The manufacturers of 
ball-mills are all striving for increased length of liners; 
the method of fastening liners, the position of the bolt, 
and the shape of the liner have been discussed with mill- 
superintendents and operators, and their suggestions 
have been given close attention. Since my first mill ex- 
perience in 1908 there has been a gradual increase in the 
life of the liners in tube-mills, ball-mills, and grinding- 
machines of this kind. I can remember distinctly, and 
have among my notes, the life and wear of liners in ball- 
mills used in the Western States in 1917 ; there has been 
a remarkable increase since then in tonnage ground, based 
upon reports I have seen lately. 

Lime in Cyanidation 

The Editor: 

Sir — In conducting cyanide teats on Rochester | Ne- 
vada) silver ores an unusual and interesting fad was dis- 
covered in connection with the use of lime. Most of the 
oxidized ores from the Rochester Silver Corporation's 
mine yield 80 to 85% of their silver content by simple 
all-sliming treatment. The consumption of lime is 10 lb. 
per ton of ore In a slope on the main vein a block of ore 
was found to give an extraction of only 35%. An analy- 
sis of this ore gave : 

Silica (insol. residue) 80.00 

Iron oxide 7 71 

Alumina (I :n 

Antimony 0.83 

Copper 0.05 

Lime 1". 

Sulphur 0.82 

Phosphoric aeid (P..O-) 0.80 

Lo.-s by ignition (water of combination) 3.06 

Magnesia Trace 


From this analysis, antimony would be tin 1 only min- 
eral that one would suspect to be the cause of the poor ex- 
traction. Other parts of the vein showing 1 to 2% anti- 
mony gave an 85% recovery in the mill. It was assumed 
that, in this case a large percentage of the silver was com- 
bined with the antimony. 

Experiments were made to determine the effect of lead 
acetate, preliminary sulphuric acid treatment, tartaric 
acid, sodium and calcium hyposulphide, caustic potash 
and soda, lime, and several others, none of which gave 
any encouragement except sulphuric acid and lime. 

In determining the lime factor, varying quantities were 
used, from 1 to 30 lb. per ton of ore. The available CaO 
in the lime used ran from 85 to 90%. The results of this 
experiment follow : 


1 lb. lime per ton of ore 24.5 

2% 26.5 

10 " 38.0 

20 " 39.0 

30 40.5 

The experiments were continued, and resulted in the 
following, which are averages from 112 experiments: 

Extraction, % 

60 lb. lime per ton of ore 01 

80 80 

100 80 

130 " 92 

Giving the ore a preliminary lime treatment, washing 
and then cyaniding gave very poor results. This proved 
that it was necessary to have the lime present during the 
cyanide treatment ; 35 to 40 lb. of lime per ton of ore was 
found in the tailing from the experiments which were 
made with the maximum amount of lime. Any effort to 
decrease this loss resulted in lower extraction. As lime 
is more soluble in cold than in hot water an attempt was 
made to reduce the amount of lime by agitating in colder 
solutions. A mill temperature of 60°F. gave a 70% ex- 



January 14, 1922 

traction, whereas 120° gave 90 to 94% extraction. The 
heat was increased to 140°F., but only decreased the time 
factor. The consumption of cyanide increased as the ex- 
traction increased. At 35% the consumption was 1 lb. 
per ton of ore ; at 90% it was 3 lb. per ton of ore. A 1 to 
1 dilution was found to be as good as a 4 to 1. The 
amount of lime required decreased as the silver content 
of the ore decreased. The gold extraction remained the 
same, 90%, and whether 10 lb. or 130 lb. of lime per ton 
of ore was used. The mill has treated 1800 tons of this 
ore, and mill extraction has checked the experimental 

Difficulties were encountered in clarifying solutions 
and in precipitation following a 6-day run on this ore. A 
white precipitate was deposited on the clarifler leaves, on 
the surface of the thickeners, in pipe-lines, and on the 
zinc thread in the zinc-boxes that were in use at that time. 
It was very harmful in the zinc-boxes, coating the zinc 
so badly that precipitation ceased. Cleaning the boxes 
was the only method used to remove it. An analysis of 
this white precipitate gave : 

Silica and insoluble matter 10.60% 

Iron and aluminum oxide (A1 3 3 . Fe^) 10.76 

Zinc trace less than 0.2% 

Cadmium trace " " 0.1 

Lime (CaO) 34.72 

Magnesia (MgO) trace " " 0.2 

Loss on ignition (combined water and C0 3 ) 33.16 

These difficulties were eliminated by treating the ore 
in small lots at intervals of several days. 

The ore assayed 30 to 34 oz. silver and 0.10 oz. gold. 

With the increased cost of lime and heat the treatment 

was a commercial success. _. _, _ 

W. G. Emminger. 

Rochester, Nevada, December 5. 

Premium on Gold in England 

The Editor : 

Sir — In discussing the McFadden Bill in your issue of 
November 26, Mr. Kidder said, ' ' England has recognized 
the situation by the payment of a premium to South 
African producers". This is not so; what England did 
was to remove the embargo placed on the movement of 
gold during the War, thereby giving African, Aus- 
tralasian, Indian, and other dominion producers an un- 
restricted or open market. The mint price of pure gold 
is approximately 85 shillings per ounce, but by selling in 
the open market the producers realized a higher price, 
which might be construed to be a premium, but in reality 
it is simply a higher value owing to the low exchange on 
the paper pound sterling. The highest price 'that gold 
reached in England in 1920 was 127 shillings and 4 pence, 
equal to 50.1% above the mint price. That was in Febru- 
ary, when sterling was at the rate of £1 = $3.30. The 
average for 1920 was 112 shillings and 11 pence. In 
February 1921, when sterling was £1 = $3.82, gold 
dropped to 106 shillings per ounce. Since then it has 
been see-sawing, until today, when sterling is £1 = $4.90 
and gold in England is worth 102 shillings and 11 pence. 
Every increase in the exchange value of sterling is 
watched with more or less apprehension by the owners 

of low-grade gold mines in Africa and Australasia, as 
their so-called premium or extra profit becomes so much 
less. If sterling should get back to normal (£1 = $4.86) 
there would be no premium on gold. The price works 
automatically, and the Government has nothing to do 
with it ; that is, in the way of paying a premium. 

Pittsburgh, December 2. M. W. von Bernewitz. 


The Editor: 

Sir — In the article on ancient South American milling 
and amalgamating practice, published in your issue of 
October 1, the term cajon is explained as a box, probably 
used as a measure. Although this term is certainly de- 
rived from the Spanish word for box, in mining ter- 
minology a cajon is a definite weight, being equal to 50 
quint ales, of 5000 Spanish pounds (2300 kg.). This 
shows that a cuerpo contained about 2500 lb. of ore and 
that the consumption of salt was 8%. 

Nowadays very few people use the term cajon in South 
America, but one frequently hears the expression 
"marcos por cajon" to indicate the grade of silver ore, 
especially in Bolivia and Peru. One marco is equal to 
half a Spanish pound, or 7.39 oz. troy, so that a silver 
content of one marco por cajon equals one ten-thousandth 
part, or 0.01%. In Chile the grade of silver ore is often 
expressed in ten-thousandths parts (diez milesimos ab- 
breviated to D. M.), which is exactly the same figure as 
marcos por cajon. One marco por cajon, or one D.M., is 
equal to 2.92 oz. troy per ton of 2000 pounds. 

Santiago, November 8. M. G. F. Sohxlein. 

Definition of Engineer 

The Editor: 

Sir — Replying to Mr. Parsons' letter on the definition 
of engineer, I would refer anyone interested to a long 
article on the subject in 'Engineering and Contracting' 
of July 28, 1920. Alfred P. Flinn and associates, who 
prepared the article, discouraged any attempt to define 
the engineer. Most definitions, of difficult terms at least, 
can be picked to pieces and discredited by skilful dialec- 
ticians. Mr. Parsons' definition of engineer is one of the 
worst I have seen. He says that engineers create things. 
On the contrary, many of them merely condemn pros- 
pects, transport things, tear things down (such as New 
York skyscrapers that are considered obsolete), or meas- 
ure things. Moreover, he states that engineers toil for 
humanity's betterment. I fear that most of my engineer- 
ing friends, then, are not engineers. They toil for money, 
although they are not always as successful as they de- 
serve. Again, do military engineers that design devices 
and concoct poisons for killing people better humanity? 
I am reminded of Dr. Johnson's definition of network as 
"anything reticulated or decussated at equal distances, 
with interstices between the intersections". 

P. B. McDonald. 

New York University, December 22. 

January It. 1922 



Philip N. Moore, of St. Louis 

An Interview, by T. A. Rickarri 

You are not a native of Missouri? 

I was born in Indiana in 1849. My boyhood was spent 
partly in Ohio and partly in Missouri. 

What was your father's occupation? 

My father was one of the early civil engineers of the 
Mississippi Valley — a canal and railroad builder before 
my birth. The happening of my birth in Indiana was 
that he was there as engineer of a canal. He himself 
came — 

He himself came from New England? 

He was a Pennsylvanian. My mother was a New 
Englander, from Connecticut. Through her I am eight 
generations American. My ancestor, John North, came 
to this country in 1635. On my father's side the family 
was Irish, my great grandfather, Henry Moore, coming 
to this country in 1773. 

What was your early education? 

I was graduated in the classical course by Miami Uni- 
versity, one of the oldest colleges of the Ohio Valley; my 
technical training followed at the School of Mines, 
Columbia University, where I studied under Newberry, 
Chandler, and Egleston, master-teachers of their day, 
and, I am proud to say, my friends in later years. 

When did you graduate? 
I was a special student at Columbia from 1870 to 1872. 

Among the mining engineers who were your classmates 
at Columbia? 

Pierre de Peyster Ricketts, Arthur F. Wendt, Frank 
P. Jenney, and Peter T. Austen. 
What made you take to mining engineering? 

My father and two older brothers followed civil engi- 
neering and railroad building. Perhaps the desire for 
more individuality, the uncertain tenure of railroad posi- 
tions at that time, or the romance of mining, then even 
more attractive than now, may have led to my choice. 

How did you get your first job? 

While a student at the School of Mines, Major T. B. 
Brooks, then in charge of the Michigan Geological Sur- 
vey, in the iron regions, who was wintering in New York, 
was good enough to offer me a position. 

Then you went to Michigan? 

A season on the Michigan Survey under Major Brooks 
gave me a start in geological work which enabled me to 
secure a job under Raphael Pumpelly, then State Geolo- 
gist of Missouri, which service was for only about a year 
by reason that one of the then, as even now, common 
incidents of State geological work — failure of appropria- 
tions — caused me to seek another job, which I found 

promptly under Professor N. S. Shaler, of Harvard, just 
appointed State Geologist of Kentucky. Under him, I 
worked nearly four years, when fortunately for me, from 
a financial standpoint, appropriations were again cut, 
and I sought wider fields, going to Leadville, Colorado, 
where I was one of the pioneers. In the interval I spent 
about sis months in Europe. 

In what year teas that? 

The spring of 1878. 
Leadville must have been a lively place then? 

It was an example of the ways of the frontiersman at 
that time — wild to him who sought such .surroundings, 
but filled with the most attractive and intelligent set of 
young technical men with whom it has ever been my good 
fortune to foregather. This was in the early days of the 
technical engineer, who came into his own in a remark- 
able way. Never in all the years since, have I dwelt with 
men of higher average intelligence and comradeship than 
the circle who made their start at Leadville. 

Please mention some names. 

A. R. Meyer, A. A. Blow, "William Byrd Page, Fred 
Bruen, W. F. Patrick, Thomas L. Darby, Charles J. 
Moore, Max Boehmer, D. W. Brunton, Arthur D. Foote. 
Ferdinand Van Zandt, James B. Grant, W. S. Ward, 
Ralph Nichols, Henry E. Wood, and many others. 

Did you meet Dr. Raymond at that time? 

Dr. Raymond was not infrequently at Leadville, as ex- 
pert witness in the important apex lawsuits, which domi- 
nated the courts of Colorado for years. 

What was your first job there? 

My first position was as smelter superintendent for a 
firm, for whom I built the second smelting plant at Lead- 
vilkj subsequently known as the La Plata works. 

Where did you get your previous experience for this job ? 
The task came to me unsolicited. It may be that it was 
a case where need, with possibly favorable impression of 
training or character, forbade rigorous insistence on ex- 
perience. Smelting was very profitable. Charges ranged 
from $25 to $40 per ton. My employers fully understood 
the profit of hard driving. The already going plant was 
doing clean and slow work, smelting perhaps 15 tons of 
ore per day in a small stack. Using furnaces with about 
40% larger area, we put through 40 tons per day — of 
course, not making as clean slags, but largely increasing 
profits. The waste was of small importance in view of 
greater tonnage. 

Did you continue in charge of this smelter? 

Less than two years, when I went 'on my own', leasing, 
prospecting, of course, and finding in the mining activity 



January 14. 1922 

at that time sufficient examination work to keep me going 
in comfort. 

Please tell me, Mr. Moore, what sort of fees did they pay 
at that time? 

We used to get $25 per day, with an occasional $50 if 
the ease were important. These were rare. 

What were the conditions of living? 

Somewhat crude, but not necessarily involving hard- 
ship. In the early weeks when we were establishing our- 
selves in California gulch, five of us, partners in a claim, 
shantied near where the Grant smelter was subsequently 
erected, doing our own cooking week about, until it de- 
veloped that one of our party, a chemist, was an ad- 
mirable cook — John H. Talbutt. Then it was agreed that 
he should do all the cooking, the remainder of us taking 
turns washing the dishes ! 

So you had a good time? 

The place was full of hope and excitement. The at- 
mosphere was optimistic, fear of failure was small ; youth, 
courage, and hope took from poverty its sting. It mat- 
tered little were a young man 'broke', for he fully ex- 
pected to strike it again the next day. 

How long did you remain at Leadville? 

Until early in 1882, when unexpectedly an offer came 
to me to open an iron property in Kentucky, which I had 
known and described years before when I was on the 
Geological Survey, with no expectation that ever the op- 
portunity would come to me to share in its development. 
This offer was such that although I had fully expected to 
end my days in Colorado, it could not be lightly refused. 

How much money did you take with you from Leadville? 

A few thousand dollars, enough to make me feel inde- 
pendent as against the near-by contingencies of life. 

So you took charge of this iron property? Did the oper- 
ations involve anything interesting in a technical 
Nothing complicated. It was the simplest of quarry- 
ing operations, which was naturally one reason why it 
offered a chance for profit. It was known as the Slate 
Creek Iron Property. Upon it was built in 1791 the first 
blast-fumace west of the Alleghanies. I remained in 
personal charge of it for seven years, then my children — 

When, were you married? 

In 1879, to Miss Mary Eva Perry, of Rockford, Illinois, 
who went with me as a bride to Leadville, under the great 
pity of her friends, who thought that she was taking 
grave risks in going to such a lawless land, which anxiety 
might have been more intense had they known the ex- 
perience of her first week, when she saw two policemen 
shot under her window. In 1889, my children reaching 
the school age, I removed to St. Louis — my old home, 
where I have dwelt since. 

TT/i y do you call it your old home ? 

My father moved here in 1859. 

You established yourself in St. Louis in a ccmsidting ca- 
pacity ? 
In a consulting capacity, retaining charge of the iron 
enterprise of which I was the chief executive and a part 
owner. The proposition which carried me from Colorado 
covered not only what for that time was liberal compen- 
sation, but a year's option to take one-fourth interest in 
the enterprise, which I was able to do. 

What was your next departure? 

I retained charge of this enterprise until it was worked 
out, meantime with friends acquiring a large brown-iron- 
ore property in Alabama, which we retained for a num- 
ber of years, but finally sold to one of the larger Birming- 
ham consolidations. I was president of this company for 
18 years. 

You have had a good deal of experience in the miming of 
iron ores, which, is unusual among our Western men. 

Our operation in Alabama originally started with a 
charcoal blast-furnace. This was abandoned with the 
exhaustion of timber, ending in commercial mining of 
ore for various furnaces in Alabama and Tennessee. We 
operated a very large brown-ore mine known as the Baker 
Hill. It carried an ore lens about 100 ft. thick and 300 
ft. long. When the overburden was light, we mined this 
cheaply. Evidence of this is that in the hard times of the 
'90s we sold iron ore as low as 80 cents per ton of 2240 
lb., and more than covered expenses, our actual mining 
cost including overhead at that time being about 60 cents 
per ton. Of course, this did riot pay for depletion, but it 
kept the operation alive in hard times. The same ore 
during the War would bring approximately $3.50 per 

Thai brings tis to urhat year? 

This property was sold in 1908. During all this time I 
was practising as work offered, ranging, with the usual 
fate of the consulting engineer, over most of the mining 
States and Territories, into Canada and Mexico, traveling 
for some years around fifty thousand miles per annum. 

Can you mention any of your operations that proved im- 
portant or otherwise interesting? 

Probably on the whole the most interesting enterprise 
with which I have been connected, and which in fact I 
organized and assembled, was the Conrey Placer Mining 
Company, of Montana. 

How did you get into that? 

In 1896, while employed by Bigelow & Bixby, of 
Boston, to examine a placer in Idaho, on the request of 
the promoter, who was with me, I stopped off at Alder 
Gulch. Montana, to see a proposition on whieli he theu 
had an option. This property was known as the German 
Bar tract. It covered about 14 miles of the gulch. The 
operation contemplated was the re-working of the old 
tailing by machinery. It developed that this tract was 
under option to another party, whom I met on the 
ground. The incident was pleasant to neither party, but 
I recognized possibilities, which led to the request that 

January H. 1922 



should the tin u holder of the option fail to close, it should 
l><- offered to nay ili.nts. At the same time, I was shown 
the Conrey rancfa at the mouth of Alder gulch, by John 
c. sioss. an old Montana miner, who stated thai he had 
talked with the owner and could secure an option for a 
year at a reasonable priw — $30,000. While in Idaho, the 
option on the Herman Bar property lapsed and was 
promptly taken up by my clients. We re-visited the 
property in October and closed tor its purchase, paying 
one-quarter down, the rest in three equal payments. If 1 
remember correctly, the price was *100,000. At the same 
time prospecting work was started upon ihe Conrey 
ranch, on which we developed more than 200 acres of 
payable dredging ground. It was acquired by my clients 
in the following year. 

work, if I re mber the figures correctly, upon this 

yielded 37c. per cubic yard at a eost of about 24c, This 
was free ground which had been worked over by the old- 
timers by the 'shovel in ami shovel out' method, under 
which eaeh miner was allowed bul l 1111 ft. of the gulch tor 
his claim ami had to deliver the water to his neighbor 
below, free of sand. Operating cosl of the cable-way was 
prohibitive for the ground on the Conrey ranch. We 
therefore came to dredging, which, at that time, was 
being carried on in Qrasshopper gulch, some 40 miles 

distant, with small double-lift dredges. 

Was H- n. s. i;, veti then thenf 

Previous to that time he had Keen, hut not actively at 
the time of which we are speaking. In the dredging in- 
dustry we experienced the usual history of early de- 


Was Professor Shaln- one of your clients? 

Professor Shaler was associated with the gentlemen 
whom I have mentioned. He enthusiastically accepted, 
as he had done through nearly 30 years of our close busi- 
ness association, my judgment regarding this property. 
He visited it the following summer, after it had been 

That was in 1897? 

When did, Hennen Jennings become connected with the 
Nine years later — in 1906, when he and his associates 
purchased my interest. 

Did you have any interesting technical experience in con- 
nection with this enterprise? 
The first attempt to work the property was by means of 
an excavating cable-way ; this was an ingenious device, 
developed for us by the Lidgerwood company; it func- 
tioned profitably on relatively high-grade gravel in the 
upper part of the German Bar tract. The first year's 

velopers ; we built machinery and tore it to pieces, re- 
building stronger, and repeating the operation until al 
last machinery was evolved to meet our requirements. 

Can you give me comparative figures for the capacity of 
the dredge and cost of operation at the beginning 
and at the end of the period of growth? 

At the beginning of operations single dredges used 34 
to 5-ft. buckets, steam-driven, involving costs of from 12 
to 13c. per yard. The property is now almost exhausted, 
but one dredge remains, electrically driven, with 16-ft. 
buckets, handling nearly 100,000 yd. per month. It has 
shown a eost, for an entire year, after full charge for up- 
keep, of 3.16c. per cubic yard. 

Did you make any innovations in dredging practici: .' 

We were the first to prove that dredging was practic- 
able throughout the Montana winter, incidental to which 
we introduced the plan of flooding the surface to keep tlv 
loam from freezing, in which also I think we were 

What was the capacity of the 5-ft. dredge? 



January 14, 1922 

About 40,000 eu. yd. per month. 
One-tenth of the present rate? 

Yes. The Conrey property in its earlier days, until the 
time came for excavating the fringes of the main deposit, 
was remarkable in its uniform yield. It was at times 
almost possible to predict a clean-up from the number 
of hours operation of the dredge. 

This enterprise, taken altogether, proved highly profit- 

It has been very successful. 
Roughly, how much, a million or two million dollars? 

I have not the figures to date. Judging from the out- 
put for the time when it was under my close knowledge. 
I estimate that the property has yielded 
gross around seven million dollars. 
Did Harvard College participate in these 

Colonel Gordon McKay, a retired me- 
chanical engineer, of the older generation, 
a client of mine for 30 years or more, came 
into the Conrey property after my orig- 
inal employers reached their financial 
limit. He had been many years retired 
and was but casually interested in life. 
The control of the property that, during 
all the mechanical difficulties of operation, 
always responded to work by production, 
revived his interest in his old profession. 
He died before the property had got to its 
big results, but with absolute confidence 
in its outcome. 

What was McKay's relation to Harvard? 

Colonel McKay left his estate to trustees, to be used for 
the benefit of Harvard College. This included his inter- 
est in the Conrey Placer Mining Company. 

You were engaged as engineer in other placer-mining 
operations in the West? 

Only on examination work. 

You were much in Mexico? 

For several years, until the revolution unseated Diaz, 
a large share of my work lay in Mexico. 

Did you have anything to do with lead mining in 
I have had no executive responsibility for any of the 
large operations. Some years ago, C. P. Perin, of New 
York, and I examined one of the large properties as a pre- 
liminary to some financing. We recommended the loan. 
For a time thereafter I represented the bondholders on 
the board of directors, and as such had knowledge in de- 
tail of what was being done. This was the Doe Run Lead 
Company of south-east Missouri. 

I remember, Mr. Moore, when I was at Joplin, in 1917, I 

heard of your successful zinc operation in the Miami 
district. Will you state how you got into that? 

This property consisted of 120 acres of Indian leases, 
which were brought to the attention of some of my friends 
and myself, with the result that it was undertaken and 
developed to a producing property, but was sold within 
less than two years to wealthy oil-operators of Tulsa, 
This was the Admiralty mine, was it not? 

This was the mine of the Admiralty Zinc Company. It 
is still operating, one of the steady and largest producers 
in the district. 

You obtained the ground on leases from the Indian 

On the contrary, the leases were taken from sub-lessees. 
On what royalty? 

Tinc-leao District 

Emmrt Qisf'Kt fbiwrl/rvi stKnn rrtuj, 

Royalties varied from 15% to 20%. 

Were the Indians greatly enriched by the transaction? 

At the time we sold we were paying about $5000 per 
month to one Indian. 

Did you have anything more to do ivith that interesting 

Not since then. 

What were you able to do during the War? 

If I was of any national value during the "War, it was 
because of my work to prevent duplication of effort on 
the part of various committees and organizations ; and in 
the formation of what was then known as the War Min- 
erals Committee. 

At that time you were President of the Institute, were 
you not? 

I was elected President of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers less than sixty days before the declara- 
tion of war. Immediately following, enthusiastic and 
patriotic engineers urged that I place the Institute at the 
command of the Government. Various technical com- 
mittees had been organized. My service consisted in 
helping to co-ordinate these committees, and preventing 
special investigations of mineral resources by a certain 
very potent Board, by showing to them that the Govern- 

January it. 1922 



mi'iit bureaus were already in possession of a vast body of 
information which could nol be duplicated in reasonable 
time by new investigators. I insisted thai the commit- 
tees, wherever possible, should work through the minting 
government agencies: the Geological Survey and the 
Bureau of Win 

I'oii have not mentioned the most direct service and the 
that entailed th, greatest amount of your time 

■ , namily, the War Miiu rait fit Kef Com- 
mission; taken did you begin that workt 

1 tirst learned the intention of Secretary Lane to or- 
ganize such a commission by the receipt, in March 1919, 
of a telegram from him, asking it' I would accept ap- 
pointment upon it. 

Your colleagues, as I remember, were Senator Shafroth 
ami — ? 

My colleagues were Ex-Senator Shafroth. of Colorado, 
Ex-Representative Foster, of Illinois. In a few months, 

ination of the largest number of alaimi were lor I In- 
legal opinions of the Solicitor of tin- Interior Department 
and the Attorney General of the United States, which 

were mandates to the Commission, ami i ssaiily in !»■ 

followed. The task was one of great difficulty by reason 
that there were no contracts formal or informal. Tlir 
duty of the Commission was to determine what "net 
losses'' had been incurred by claimants "in consequence 
of" request or demand of certain named governmental 
agencies. Necessarily, if a man, previous to the entry of 
the United States in the War, had been engaged in the 
industry which resulted in loss, the Government could 
not have been responsible, unless he could show either 
that he had increased loss by additional investment 
through Government request, or that he would have 
ceased hut for it. 

Then it hrcamc a question of determining the amount of 
stimulation for which the Government was re- 


Admiralty SUclton 


Dr. Foster's death left a vacancy which was filled by the 
appointment of a mining engineer, Mr. Horace Pomeroy, 
of San Francisco. 

How long was that commission in existence? 

Although Secretary Lane stated his expectation at the 
time of appointment that the task would be accomplished 
within a year, it actually required more than two. 

As you know, there has been criticism of the rulings of 
the Commission, and some of it may seem to you to 
have been unfair. You must note be in a position to 
look back upon your work w-ilh a good deal of satis- 
Possibly enough time has not yet elapsed to enable me 
to take a detached view of the work, and its critics, but 
under my present light, I cannot see any line of decision, 
or method of treatment in the cases, which should be ma- 
terially modified. 

Won't you say something about the difficulties that you 
The criticism came from interested and disappointed 
parties. Further, the rulings which resulted in the elim- 

Ycs. It was readily seen that a matter of this kind was 
one of great difficulty ; especially in view of the naturally 
insistent demands of claimants, who, once possessed by 
the belief that the Government is their debtor, are apt to 
lose the sense of proportion. 

You have reason to be proud of having been President of 
the Institute. You probably have definite ideas as to 
the functions that the Institute can best perform in 
behalf of the profession? 
Naturally, I have given thought to such matters, some 
of the conclusions of which were expressed in my report 
at the time I passed from office. The problems are diffi- 
cult. They lie between extreme centralization of con- 
trol, with fair efficiency, and the opposite of decentral- 
ization, with loss of continuity of action. The gravest 
problem is to secure a voice in the detailed policies of the 
Institute for the men in the hills who do the real work of 
the profession. My theory of it is that ultimately the 
directors must be chosen by districts and some method 
evolved by which their attendance, at a reasonable pro- 
portion of the meetings of the board, at least, can be 
secured. The next in importance is to get the member- 



January 14. 1922 

ship to realize that they have obligations to the organiza- 
tion. To my knowledge it is the earnest desire of the 
men in the East, who now necessarily make the decisions 
of the Institute, that the West shall have and exercise a 
potent voice. To that end, Western directors are always 
elected, but instances have arisen where a man would re- 
main a member of the board for three years without at- 
tending a single meeting. At the present time there are 
five directors from the West, only one of whom has at- 
tended a meeting since February. In 1919, of three 
Western directors, two attended one meeting each. In 
1920, of four Western directors, one man attended one 
meeting, and in the first half of 1921, with five directors, 
no man has attended any meeting. 

Mr. Moore, what do you mean by the West? To us who 
live in San Francisco, the West probably begins 
nearer the Pacific than it does with you; do you 
mean west of the Mississippi River.' 

West of the 100th meridian. 

Which is —t 

In or west of the Rocky Mountains. 

But, surely, the gentlemen in New York consider St. 
Louis west, do they not? 

That is true of many, and in our own minds, we hold 
with them. I am thinking as I speak of the Mountain 
and Pacific Coast membership. 

The problems of the national engineering societies are 
difficult for the reason that none of them are able to carry 
their necessary expenses from the dues and initiation 
fees paid by the members. There has grown up, however, 
a constant small revenue from the sales of publications, 
which have made up the deficits. 

To what extent is the financial stringency of the Institute 
due to the exuberance of its publication activities? 

I am not prepared to accept the word "exuberance". 
Go ahead. 

There is always to be heard the voice of the man who 
wants few publications. Generally, he is mature and has 
acquired a permanent set as well as a specialty. A young 
man, still believing that his future may lie in any one of 
many directions, is apt to want everything he can get. 
These young fellow's accumulate documents, reports, and 
papers after the fashion of the young wife in the Ken- 
tucky mountains. Years ago, when examining a coal 
tract in Breathitt county, I was directed to the home of 
a man called Old Flint Ridge George Miller, who would 
not only take care of, but would vouch for, me — some- 
times important in that country. In the home — a two- 
room cabin — were the old man and his wife, my assistant 
and myself, and upstairs, the youngest son with his 
newly won bride. They were building a cabin over the 
hill. The old man, commenting on the new daughter-in- 
law, said : ' ' That thar gal is just like one of these yar 
mountain rats — every time she goes into that house she 
carries something". These young engineers often carry 
information to their files more effectively than to their in- 

telligence, until years teach them the improbability of 
ultimate omniscience, and they reject, initially, material 
which they know is likely to be of small use. 

You anticipate the revival of mining, do you not? 

I have no idea as to time, but the curve of mining, like 
other business, shows recessions and subsequent peaks. 
One of the advantages of years is a realization that metal 
production will not cease. I remember in the 'eighties 
traveling with an old friend who had been long in cop- 
per mining. The metal at that time was worth about 
9 cents per pound. His depression was great, and he ex- 
pressed the desire to get out of the industry, fully be- 
lieving that it would never be any better. He did with- 
draw from his then active operations, but since then he 
has been almost constantly interested in other copper en- 

I £ we remember that, roundly speaking, the metal pro- 
duction of the United States doubles every ten years, 
producing thereby practically as much as in the whole 
previous period, you will find it difficult to doubt the re- 
turn of large production. I believe in the increasing 
value of deposits of all mineral ores. The public does not 
realize that in mining w y e draw on a bank account where 
no deposits are made and that the easily accessible de- 
posits are becoming steadily less. Therefore, the value of 
good mineral deposits is bound ultimately to come to the 
higher level. To develop them will create continually in- 
creasing demand for engineering skill, but it is more than 
probable that the engineers who so serve will be spokes in 
the wheels of great organizations rather than independent 

Have you any pronounced ideas on mining education? 

I have a growing realization that after all, the greatest 
ability lies in the power to persuade and direct one's 
fellow-men. Mere technical knowledge can never give 
this. Possibly it is entirely a matter of native power, 
which no education can impart. I believe, however, in a 
broad grounding in the fundamentals of science, history, 
and language, rather than in the attempt to teach finished 
details. The young man leaving the mining school is 
largely a creature of chance, tossed by the waves of op- 
portunity into the channel of activity where he finds 
sustenance. If he be well grounded in the great funda- 
mentals of science, with the ability to write and speak the 
language, he can acquire the details of the calling into 
which he has come, far better than he can acquire the 
fundamentals which may be missing, should he have pre- 
pared for another line of industry than that in which he 
is cast. 

V.anadium, according to a bulletin of the Arizona State 
Bureau of Mines, was first employed by Berzelius in the 
manufacture of a black ink, which it was later found 
could be made indelible. For many years this was the 
only industrial application. In 1861 Saint-Claire-Deville 
proposed its use in the ceramic arts, and about the year 
1870 vanadium commenced to play an important part in 
the industry. 

.January 11. 1922 




The Nugget Gold Mines, at Sal mo, British Columbia 

By George H. Shepherd 

The properties of the Nugget Gold Mines, Ltd.. are 
situated on the north side of Sheep Creek canyon in the 
Nelson mining district, British Columbia. They occupy 
the entire slope, from the creek-level to the old Nugget 
workings. Eight claims, a mill-site, cyanide plant, aerial 
tramway, surface equipment, and buildings comprised 
the holdings of the Mother Lode Sheep Creek Mines Co. 
Seven claims and the disused mill were the visible assets 
of the original Nugget company. During 1919 the two 
companies were combined, the consolidation being known 
as the Nugget Gold Mines. Ltd. 

Eleven miles of good road connect the cyanide mill, at 
creek-level, with the Great Northern railroad at Salmo. 
This wagon-road also serves the Queen, Kootenay-Belle, 
Reno, Ore-Hill, Vancouver, and other properties, as well 
as the settlement of Sheep Creek, H miles below the road 
terminal. A trail from the end of the road at the Nugget 
mill opens up the interior for about 14 miles ; pack-trains 
move supplies from this point to the Bayonne, Spokane, 
and other camps in the Bayonne district. 

Veins and Enclosing Formation. The ore from the 
consolidated properties is an oxidized gold-bearing 
quartz ; it is mined from the fault-Assures that intersect 
the alternating bands of laminated quartzite (known as 
the bee-hive) ; chlorite and quartz-schists comprise the 
local formation. The veins, seven in number, vary in 
strike from N. 20° E. to east and west, and dip from 

70° E. to almost vertical. Two only of these veins have 
been mined or prospected. The orebodies are lenticular, 
varying in width from one to eleven feet, and with a 
maximum length of 210 ft. ; they exist only in the quartz- 
ite; vein continuations through the schist -zones are uni- 
formly barren. During 1920-1921, a eross-cut driven 
1165 ft. in a northerly direction from a point inside the 
No. 5 level of the Mother Lode workings tapped the 
principal Nugget vein at a depth of 1050 ft. below the 
rim-rock, and 625 ft. below the deepest of the old Nugget 

Character op Ore. Oxidation persists to the present 
lowest level, at 1050 ft., but sulphides are found in places 
in the mine as pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. 
Pyrolusite coats the cleavage-planes in some of the vein- 
matter; the presence of malachite and native copper (in 
leaf form) sometimes causes trouble in metallurgical 

Development. About 6000 ft. of cross-cuts, drifts, 
shafts, and raises comprise former developments, mostly 
in the Nugget ground. A winze, sunk from the No. 5 
level (Mother Lode) is down 150 ft. on the vein, with 
several hundred feet of drifting, both east and west from 
the shaft. The Nugget vein has been stoped 200 ft. above 
the car-tracks on level No. 5, and for a length of 210 ft. 
east and west from the cross-cut. A raise, continued 
450 ft. on the vein, will connect with the deepest of the 



January 14, 1922 

old Nugget workings, and is expected to expose a block 
of from 12,000 to 15,000 tons of good milling-ore. The 
precipitous character of the country permits the driving 
of a further series of cross-cuts, to cut the vein at re- 
quired points between the No. 5 level and the lower tram- 
terminal, 1800 ft. below. 

Aerial Tram Equipment. Level No. 5 (elevation 5325 
ft. ) is connected with the mill by 3800 ft. of aerial-tram- 
way of the gravity type, carrying 18 self-dumping buck- 
ets, each of one-quarter ton capacity, and a set of timber- 
hooks. The tram-grade is approximately 30%, and 100 
tons can be lowered to the mill in 8 hours. All mine- 
supplies and equipment are raised from creek-level to the 
lower terminal on an inclined tramway operated by an 
air-hoist. A new cable was placed in position, spliced, 
and the buckets re-hung in 40 hours last July. 

Mill. The tram-buckets dump automatically into a 
75-ton bin, whence the ore passes over an 8 by 3-ft. 
grizzley, the bars of which are spaced If in. and are set 
at an angle of 60°. The undersize falls to the battery- 
bin, which has a capacity of ,350 tons. The oversize is 
crushed in a Blake jaw-crusher (12 by 18 in.) to 1A in. 
All labor in connection with crushing is performed by 
the tram-tender, on day-shift, whose other duties include 
the loading of supplies to the buckets and hooks, as well- 
as the drying, cutting-down, and crushing of mine-sam- 
ples to i in. For this duty a wood-burning dryer and a 
sample-grinder operated by a small Pelton wheel are pro- 
vided. Lime is added to the ore in the upper bin as re- 
quired. Eack-and-pinion ore-gates and Challenge feeders 
control the flow of ore to the stamps. 

The stamp-battery is of the South African pattern, 
with an individual water-line to each die — a feature that 
is not utilized. The ten 1050-lb. stamps drop 6J in. at 
the rate of 100 per minute. Cams of the usual self- 
tightening type are used. Breakages are few ; only one 
stem was broken during 1920. Square-opening J-in. 
mesh screens are used ; these last from 15 to 20 days. 

The ore is crushed in solution, the ore-solution ratio 
being 1 to 3 ; 60 to 65 tons passes through the stamp-mill 
per day of 16 hours, indicating a stamp-duty of 0.406 
ton per hour. The discharge flows into an Alderson 
modification of the Akins classifier, the resulting over- 
flow passing direct to a Dorr thickener. The coarse ma- 
terial, carrying 45% moisture, is sent to an Allis-Chal- 
mers 5 by 20-ft. pebble-mill. The product from this flows 
to a sump, from which it is lifted by a Frenier pump to 
a Dorr duplex drag-classifier, the overflow passing to a 
Dorr 10 by 30-ft. thickener, with a capacity of 220 tons 
of water. The oversize is returned to the tube-mill. 

Difficulty in procuring Danish pebbles compelled the 
use of substitute material from the mine-waste and from 
the hillside near the mill. This material gave trouble, 
and the use of it has prevented the attainment of maxi- 
mum output. The overflow from the Dorr thickener is 
passed through a Merrill clarifying press of 10 frames ; 
a pressure of from 4 to 8 lb. is used ; from here it passes 
to sumps. The thickener product is lifted by a 3-in. 
centrifugal pump to the first of four Pachuea agitation 

vats, connected in series, and of an effective capacity of 
20i tons of water each; air at 30-lb. pressure is used. 
The density of the pulp may be reduced as required by 
adding barren wash. Agitation is continued for six to 
eight hours. 'Aero' brand cyanide is added to the first 
Pachuea ; the cyanide strength is maintained at 1.1 lb. 
per ton, and the alkalinity at 0.3 lb. per ton. Extraction 
of gold and silver from the solutions is satisfactory. The 
slime from the Pachucas goes to a 20 by 10-ft. mechanical 
agitator, which serves as a reservoir, thence to the presses. 
The presses are of the usual Merrill type, each with 35 


Pregnant solution 

Barren and wash solution 


( | Aerial ropeway 



Mine compressor 


frames ; they have a capacity of 85 cu. ft. each ; 10-oz. 
canvas is used, the life varying according to the quality 
procurable. The pressure during filling varies from 18 
to 22 lb. ; the maximum wash-pressure is 32 lb. ; air at 
15-lb. pressure is used. A water-pressure of 60 lb. per 
square inch is maintained to discharge the residue. 
Periods of time for washing and air-displacement vary 
with the age and the condition of the cloth, and with the 
texture of the cake. The rich pregnant solution goes to 
the gold-sump ; other solutions are elevated to the bat- 
tery-tank, on the battery-floor, by means of a 5 by 7-in. 
triplex pump. The pregnant solution is pumped, by a 
second triplex pump of the same size, to a Merrill 10- 
frame 36-in. triangular precipitation press, placed at the 
top of the mill. The solution from this discharges to two 

January 14, 1922 


20 by lo ft. sumps immediately beneath the pn u 

The preoipHanl used, 'merrillite', is fed by a Berew- 
conveyor type ol feeder to a 12 by 24-in. pebble-mill, 
where, after emnlsification with barren solution. ; >lus a 
drip of lead-acetate solution, it is fed to the triplex-pomp 


red] t the results being iinsnt isfai-tory ; the null runs 

seldom cover more than Bve or six months out of the 
twelve; the remainder of the time is lost, as aerial tram 
operation is restricted to the capacity of the bin, when 
milling ceases. The plant is equipped with a 10 by l- in. 
single-stage compressor, delivering air 
;it 60 pounds. 

i'i.ea.v-i'I's are made at bi-monthly 
intervals; air at 60-lb. pressure is 
passed through the press till a mois- 
ture content of ahout 4d', may 1 x- 

peeted ill the precipitate to he re- 

moved. The precipitate as removed 

from the press falls into a tray, on 
castors, that is placed directly be- 
neath, and is carried from here to the 
refinery in fibre tubs. Each tnbful is 
weighed, passed through a J-in. sieve, 
and coned; when the cone is complete, 
the mass is pipe-sampled. 

The refixery is equipped with a 
large English cupelling furnace, a 
power-agitated acid-treatment tank, a 
monteju. and a Merrill 12-leaf 24 by 
24-in. clean-up press. A furnace, con- 
structed on the property, is fired by 
two 2'|-in. Cary burners, supplied with 
gasoline as fuel ; the pressure of air is 
GO lb., and a No. KM) crucible i> used. 

suction, at the rate of 3.5 oz. per ton 
of solution. Eight tons of solution per 
hour is precipitated. During the final 
clean-up last October the pipe between 
the triplex pump at the foot of the 
mill and the precipitation "press was 
taken down, and the incrustation re- 
moved by hammering. The precipi- 
tate recovered yielded $1600 in gold. 
Filter-paper is used on the press 
cloths. The air and solution pass 
through readily ; the precipitated solu- 
tion assays a trace almost up to the 
hour of the clean-up. The pressure in 
an empty press is from 5 to 6 lb. : in a 
loaded press, from 15 to 25 pounds. 

Cyanide and Pebble Consumption. 
The consumption, per ton of ore 
milled, equals NaCN, 1.55 lb. ; CaO, 
2.45 lb. ; 'merrillite', 0.55 lb. ; lead ace- 
tate, 0.002 lb. ; quartzite pebbles, 20 lb. 
Extraction is from 97 to 98%. 

Power. The plant is operated by 
eight Pelton wheels, impelled under a head of 650 ft. and 
a pressure of 350 lb., and developing a maximum of 400 
hp. Water for power and all other purposes is secured 
from the north and south forks of Sheep creek, being 
brought to the mill through 11,000 ft. of 15-in. steel and 
stave piping. The available water-power depends, for 


A block-and-tackle is used for hoisting and pouring 
the metal. Formerly, following Mother Lode practice, 
the crude precipitate was fluxed and melted direct, 
producing a base bullion with a fineness of 250 to 500 
parts per 1000. The crucibles lasted one heat or less. 
This base bullion was unwelcome at the mint at Van- 

duration and quantity, on climatic conditions, in this eouver; the assays and controls failed to cheek. Since 



January 14, 1922 

August last, acid-treatment has been adopted; the pro- 
cedure at present consists of treating the precipitate 
with acid, filtering, washing, and air-drying the residue. 
About 14. to If lb. of commercial sulphuric acid pel- 
pound of precipitate is used. 

After drying, the precipitate is removed from the 
press, a moisture determination being made, and a flux 
is calculated. 

A typical flux may consist of: 


Precipitate 100 

Borax-glass 45 

Sodium carbonate 18 


Silica 20 

Calcium fluorspar 3 

Potassium nitrate 4 

After thorough mixing, the mass is smelted. Slag and 
metal are poured into large conical molds; the resultant 
buttons are cleaned, weighed, sampled by hack-saw cuts 
for assay, and shipped. The bullion obtained carries 
from 700 to 825 parts of gold per 1000. The matte 
formed assays as follows: gold, 1760 oz. per ton; silver, 
5250 oz. per ton; and copper, 44.5%. Matte and slag 
are shipped to the Trail smelter for treatment. All 
crucibles are pulverized through a 10-mesh screen and 
are rocked through a double-aproned cradle of the Ne- 
vada type, the extraction being practically complete after 
the first rocking. The mill-crew consists of a crusher- 
man (day shift), two battery-men, two solution-men, and 
three press-men, who act also as compressor-men; and 
the mill foreman. The staff includes Harold Lakes, 
superintendent ; Arthur Lakes, geologist ; George H. 
Shepherd, assayer and chemist ; with Harry Gamble and 
Jack Chapman, mine and mill foremen, respectively. 


There have been no direct imports of platinum from 
Russia since 1919, states the 'Boston News Bureau', but 
Russian platinum is undoubtedly coming into the United 
States through England and, in a lesser degree, through 
Sweden. A trading agreement was made between Eng- 
land and Russia in February 1920 ; since April of that 
year there have been shipments of platinum to London. 
It is therefore of interest to note that during July, 
August, and September of this year, out of 7916 oz. im- 
ported from "other countries" 4293 oz. was from Eng- 
land. The subjoined table gives imports of platinum into 
the United States in troy ounces since 1911. The 1921 
figures are for nine months : 

Other Average 

Year Russia Colombia countries Total price 

1821 22.538 20.787 43,325 

1920 28.757 54.124 82.881 S110.90 

1919 30.000 35.000 2,180 67.180 114.61 

1918 25.000 35.000 2,283 62.283 105.95 

1917 50,000 32.000 1.067 83.067 102.82 

1916 6.3.000 25.000 1.041 89.941 83.40 

1915 124.000 18.000 1.163 143,163 47.13 

1914 341.000 17,500 1,848 260,348 45.14 

1913 250.000 15.000 2.233 267.233 44.88 

1912 300.000 12.000 1.529 313.529 45.55 

1911 300,000 12,000 1.128 313.128 42.12 

The production of Colombia has been on the increase 
during the third quarter of this year. Imports from Co- 
lombia during the first six months of 1921 averaged 2244 
oz. per month. Imports from Colombia for July, August. 
and September were 2985, 2126, and 3961 oz.. respec- 

tively. Prices this year have been erratic, ranging from 
$58 to $79 per ounce. The surprisingly large quantity 
received from other countries in 1920 was derived from 
the unloading of scrap accumulated by European govern- 
ments. The United States government has also sold 
13,915 oz. of platinum since the Armistice at $105 per 
ounce. When this platinum was purchased in war-time 
an average price of $105 was paid. The trade was prac- 
tically compelled to sell stocks to the Government; and, 
under the circumstances, the Government thought it 
right to give a pledge that in event of unloading after the 
War the selling price would not be over $105. In this 
way trade demand has been met, but not in a measure ap- 
proaching the pre-war consumption. Normal consump- 
tion in the United States is 160,000 oz. per year. Of 
this less than 60,000 oz. is re-issued scrap. Thus normal 
demand for new platinum exceeds 100,000 oz. As pre- 
viously shown, supply of new platinum is less than that. 
Unlike European countries, 60% of United States con- 
sumption is for jewelry. Demand for platinum jewelry 
has decreased enormously. Therefore, diminished sup- 
ply has met demand, and price still remains at $85 per 
ounce. Present holdings of the War Department will 
not be sold unless existing policies are changed. All 
former belligerent governments are holding stocks of 
platinum for strategical reasons. It is expected any 
future war would be fought largely with chemicals, and 
platinum is indispensable for their catalysis. 

Reckoning as new platinum the imports from Colom- 
bia, England, Sweden, and Canada during September, 
the present supply is shown to be 6237 oz. per month, or 
74,844 per year. This compares favorably with imports 
of new platinum at any time since 1917. With more effi- 
cient dredging operations shortly to be initiated in Co- 
lombia and the pressing need of the Soviet government 
to establish credits abroad, production may be expected 
to increase. Under normal industrial conditions Russian 
placer mines will be exhausted within 15 years, but the 
present rate of 10% of pre-war production is no criterion 
of actual potentiality. Several attempts to finance the 
industry have been made during the War and since the 
War. In 1916 the National City Bank of New Tork 
offered $15,000,000 for the control of one mine. This 
move came to nothing. In 1917 a French bank offered 
$25,000,000 for a 50% interest of all the mines. The 
offer was accepted by the Kerensky government. Cor- 
poration stock was sold, and mining was started. Then 
came the Bolsheviki and confiscated the mine and na- 
tionalized the industry. Afterward they tried to negoti- 
ate with Americans, but no trade resulted. 

The trade with England of February 1920 affects eon- 
cessions and exports only. British imports into Russia 
have actually fallen since the agreement from 14% of 
the total to 8%, whereas American imports have in- 
creased from 35% to 70%. But England is getting the 
Russian exports, including platinum, although Russia is 
not sticking to her bargain. Gold concessions are being 
offered elsewhere. If the United States will not take 
them, they are likely to fall into the hands of Japan. 

January It. 1922 



Mining in Alaska in 1921 

■The value of Alaska's mineral outpul in 1 !'2l was 
abort $16,109,000, aa compared with $23,803,757 in 1920. 
This was the lowest annual value since 1904. The de- 
• v.a- .in. to a decline in all forms of lode mining, 
ally thai nt' copper, for the output of the gold 
placers was somewhat larger than that lit' tlw preceding 
year, and a little progress was made in the development 

of th.' coalfields. The Stagnation of Alaskan mining i- 
1'Ut a reflection of the world-wide depression of the in- 
dustry and is not caused primarily by local conditions. 

Value of Min.-r.iU Produced In Alaska In 19S0 unci 1021 

1920 11121 

Gold $s.a.; S8.O1 00 

Copper 18,060.100 -0.071.000 

Silver 1.039.364 -lilii. I 

Lead 140.000 46.000 

Platinum and killed metals 160.117 5.000 

Tin 16.112 1.000 

Coal 355.86S 480 

Petroleum, marble, irrpaum. quicksilver, etc. '.''i-; B30 140.000 

S23.303.TJ7 JIB. 100.000 

The dominant features of the year's mining are (1) the 
decrease of both copper production and development 

work, owing to the low price of the metal ; (2) the closing 
of the Perseverance mine, one of the three auriferous 
I'd. mines at Juneau; (3) continuation of activity in 
auriferous quartz prospecting in the Sitka. Juneau. 
Salmon River, and Willow Creek districts; (4) a revival 
of placer mining; (5) continuation of systematic pros- 
pecting for coal in the Matanuska field by the Naval Coal 
Commission; (6) the many examinations made in Alas- 
kan petroleum fields by oil companies, with the purpose 
of drilling. The discovery of a new deposit of galena and 
other sulphide ores in the Kantishna district is worthy 
of special note. 

The Kantishna district, just north of Mount MeKinley, 
has long been the scene of a little placer mining, as well 
as of small developments of gold- and silver-bearing 
lodes. Two years ago a galena deposit was opened up, 
and since then about 1100 tons of ore has been shipped. 
The district is 50 to 70 miles west of the Alaska rail- 
road, but it has no road connection with that line, and 
the ore had to be transported by horse-sleds to Kantishna 
river and thence by small steamers to the Tanana. This 
method was so expensive that only the richest ore could 
be mined. Therefore the galena ore was hand-picked, 
the grade of shipments being thus brought to an average 
of about 182 oz. of silver and $3.20 in gold, in addition 
to the lead and copper. The lode from which this ore 
came and others near-by are at or near Eureka creek. 
The deposits lie in well-defined fissures traversing schis- 
tose rocks, and are associated with granitic intrusives. 
Some of the orebodies are 8 to 15 ft. wide, hut the rich 
galena is in shoots from 6 in. to 2\ ft. wide. Gold-bear- 
ing quartz veins of similar type are also found in this 
part of the district, as well as some deposits of antimony 

* Advance statement by U. S. Geological Survey. 

(stibnite). The few openings made indicate that the 
lodes are fairly persistent along the strike. 
In liiL'l sulphide-bearing lodes were discovered in the 

foothills of the Alaska range, 20 miles south-east of 
Eureka creek in tin- Kantishna district, by O. M. Grant 

and K. B. Jiles. who staked 22 claims. They lie some 14 
miles from timber, but lignite beds arc close at hand. 
They are readily accessible to pack-horses. The construc- 
tion of about oil miles of wagon-road would connect the 
locality with the Alaska railroad at Riley creek. Qrano- 
diorite is the prevailing country rock of the region and 
is found both in large areas and as dikes. Banded and 
massive quartzites. with some limestones and slate cut by 
granodiorite dikes, constitute the formations in which the 
ores have been found. The sedimentary beds are much 
deformed and trend a little north of west. 

The orebodies are distributed through a zone that 
trends a little north of east and thus apparently cuts 
across the bedding of the sediments. It has been traced 
about two miles and is reported to be longer. As de- 
termined by present discoveries, its width is from one- 
fourth to one mile wide. This zone is characterized by 
an abundance of sulphide minerals, concentrated in well- 
defined orebodies; some of these have definite walls; in 
others the ore grades into the country rock. They occur 
chiefly in the quartzites. but some are in the granodiorite 
and others at the contact between the two. As no ex- 
cavation has been done it is difficult to give exact state- 
ments as to width. At some places there is evidence of 
sulphide mineralization over a width of about 100 ft., 
but in these* places the rich sulphides appear to lie lim- 
ited to certain shoots. Most of the lodes are much smaller 
and consist of shoots in zones 10 to 25 ft. wide. The ore 
consists chiefly of galena, chalcopyrite, zinc-blende, iron 
pyrite, and bornite; galena seems to dominate. A gran- 
ular intergrowth of galena with chalcopyrite evidently 
forms the typical ore, but larger masses of pure galena 
are also found. The gangue consists of quartz, and 
the country rock is chiefly quartzite. In the absence of 
sampling, or even of cuts exposing the ore, a definite 
statement of metallic content is not justified. The grab- 
samples taken by owners of claims have yielded from 
0.2 to 270 oz. of silver and from a trace to $8 in gold 
per ton. Three samples carried from 1.17 to 8.87% 
copper. No work had been done on the Grant and Jiles 
claims when they were examined, nor on the other pros- 
pects reported in the same region. Their value cannot 
be predicted, but the surface exposures fully justify 
careful prospecting. 

Gold Placers. Alaskan placer mines produced gold 
to a value of about $4,090,000 in 1921 and .$3,873,000 in 
1920. This increase is to be credited chiefly to the Kus- 
kokwim placer districts. At the end of 1921 the Alaskan 
mines had produced a total of $328,000,000 worth of 
gold, of which $222,000,000 came from placer mines. A 



January 14, 1922 

number of new finds of placer gold were made during 
1921, but these were all in known fields of auriferous 
alluvium. The most promising of these discoveries is on 
Wilbur creek, a tributary of Tolovana river, about seven 
miles due east of Livengood creek. The finding of coarse 
gold on this creek indicates that there may be a second 
belt of mineralization in the Tolovana area. Another 
deposit of placer gold was found on Kokomo creek, a 
southerly tributary of Chatanika river, 10 miles east of 
Cleary. This discovery is significant chiefly because it 
indicates an eastern extension of the auriferous area. 
In 1921 placer mining was begun on gold prospects that 
had been found in 1918 on Stuyahok creek, a tributary 
to Bonasila river, which flows into the Yukon 10 miles 
below Anvik. 

Returns on dredge production, especially from Seward 
Peninsula, are as yet incomplete, but it appears that 
22 dredges were operated in 1921 and recovered about 
$1,500,000 worth of gold. In 1920 the same number of 
dredges produced gold to the value of $1,130,000. The 
increase in dredge-gold production in 1921 is to be 
credited to the eight dredges outside of Seward Penin- 
sula — two each in the Fairbanks and Iditarod districts, 
and one each in the Innoko, Circle, Yentna, and Mc- 
Grath districts. The most successful dredge in 1921 was 
on Candle creek, in the McGrath district. 

The average gold recovery by dredging in the Yukon 
and Kuskokwim districts in 1920 was 96c. per cubic 
yard, whereas that of Seward Peninsula was only 48c. 
This difference alone will account for the search for 
dredging-ground being directed largely to inland Alaska, 
where the richest dredging-placers have been developed. 
The Kuskokwim basin has been especially investigated 
for dredging-placers, but during 1921 considerable atten- 
tion has been given to the development of dredge mining 
in the Fairbanks, Rampart, and other Yukon districts. 
The facilities for communication provided for inland 
Alaska by the completion of the Government railroad 
and the increase of wagon-roads will give further im- 
petus to rh 5 ge mining. Cold-water thawing, now being 
so success iy used by many widely distributed Alaskan 
dredges, gieatly reduces fuel consumption, and is thus 
an important element in economical operation. The 
Seward Peninsula dredges are now working under an 
enormous handicap of high fuel cost. In 1921 the cost 
of coal at Nome was $35 per ton, .and that of coal de- 
livered at the placer mines was probably on an average 
at least $50 per ton. In comparison with this, many of 
the inland dredges are paying from $8 to $15 per cord 
for wood. No doubt an increase of business and the com- 
pletion of the harbor for scows will lower the cost of 
freight at Nome, and, together with the building of a 
wagon-road, will decrease the cost of land transportation. 
Another project to lower dredging costs on Seward 
Peninsula, however, will always be hampered by the 
fact that the first steamers in summer do not arrive until 
at least a month after the dredging season opens. 
Eventually this situation will be relieved by an automo- 
bile road giving communication with the Government 

railroad. In spite of the present handicaps, dredge 
mining will increase on Seward Peninsula. It is to be 
expected that the advances will be made by large com- 
panies operating many dredges, with power furnished 
by central stations run by hydro-electric power or fuel. 
An experienced operator estimates the operating cost of 
dredging on Seward Peninsula, with cold-water thaw- 
ing, as low as 18c. per yard, even under present adverse 
conditions. There can be no question of a large expan- 
sion of the present gold-dredging industry of Alaska. 

Value of Placer Gold Traduced in Alaska in 1920 and 1921 

Pacific Coast region: 1920 1921 

Copper River S201.105 521.5.000 

Cook Inlet and Susitna Basin 55.432 180.000 

All other districts 10.091 4.000 

S266.62S S399.000 
Yukon Basin: 

Fairbanks district S584.218 S460.000 

Iditarod district 508.954 500.000 

Tolovana district 200.893 270.000 

Ruby district 171.213 150.000 

Circle district 55.506 100.000 

All other districts 488.284 376.000 

S2.009.068 Sl.856.000 

Kuskokwim region 309.320 550.000 

Seward Peninsula and north-western Alaska 1.315.474 1.2S5.000 

Grand total S3.900.490 S4.090.000 

Gold Quartz Mining. Four large and about twenty 
small auriferous lode mines and prospects in Alaska prq- 
duced about $3,900,000 worth of gold in 1921. In 1920. 
seventeen gold-lode mines and five prospects produced 
$4,473,687 worth of gold. This decrease of output is 
chargeable to the closing of the Perseverance mine, near 
Juneau, on June 1. Since the beginning of Alaskan 
gold-lode mining this industry has produced about 
$100,000,000 worth of gold, of which $80,000,000 came 
from the large low-grade deposits of the Juneau district. 
Under the present high cost of operation, interest in this 
form of mining has declined, and attention is being given 
to the smaller deposits carrying ore of higher value. 
Although mining in the Juneau district has declined, 
there is still much systematic prospecting of gold-bearing 
veins in the region, notably on Admiralty island. The 
Chichagof mine, in the Sitka district, made about its 
normal output during 1921, and there was much active 
development of auriferous lodes in the adjacent region. 
Work was also continued at the Kasaan gold mine, in 
the Ketchikan district. Important advances were made 
in prospecting gold- and silver-bearing lodes of the 
Salmon River district, in the Portland Canal region. 
Small shipments of ore were made from this district. A 
little gold-quartz mining was carried on in the Yaldez 
district of Prince William Sound and in the Hope dis- 
trict of Kenai Peninsula. 

The Willow Creek district, tributary to Anchorage, 
produced about $100,000 worth of lode gold. This came 
from seven small mines, many of which are equipped 
with mills more remarkable for their novelty than for 
their efficiency. The lodes of the district occur in well- 
defined fissures traversing dioritic rocks. Most of these 
veins are remarkably persistent, though some are faulted. 
Within these lodes are rich ore-shoots, and mining has 
been limited to the search for and extraction of the rich 

January 14. L982 



ore from these shoots. In general the lodes have not been 
systematically developed to block out an ore tonnage, 
owing to lack of technical knowledge and. of sufficient 
capital for the work undertaken. As a consequence most 
of the mines are being worked on a hand-to-mouth basis. 
Plans have been formulated for larger-scale operations. 
and above all for more systematic exploration of ore- 
bodies. The surface indications mine than warrant the 
careful underground exploration of the lodes already 

Quartz mining at Fairbanks is still limited to the pros- 
pecting of some small lodes relatively rich in gold. Gold 
ore taken from five or six different properties was mined 
and milled. Between $30,000 and $40,000 worth of gold 
was recovered from these operations ; the largest develop- 
ments were on the Smith & McGlone property. The 

reported thai a rich ore-shoot of chalcocite »;is uncovered 
by J. K. Barrett on the Green property, i>n McCarty 

creek, in the Chitina basin. 
Miscellaneous Metals. The Alaskan mines produ I 

about 742,000 oz. of silver in 192] and 963,546 OZ. in 

1920. The silver was produced chiefly as a by-product 

of gold and copper mining, hei the output declined 

with that of these other metals. Some of the silver pro- 
duced came from galena ores, of which about 450 tons 
was mined in 1921. The Alaska lead output, derived 
from gold and galena ores, was about 510 tons in 1921, 
as compared with 875 tons in 1920. Owing to the low price 
of tin, the mining of that metal in Alaska almost ceased 
in 1921, and the total production is estimated to have 
been only about 1£ tons, as compared with 16 tons in 
1920. No tin was shipped, and the output came chiefly 


Alaska Treadwell Co. continued systematic exploration 
of its gold-lode mines in the Nixon Fork basin of the 
upper Kuskokwim region. In connection with this de- 
velopment work some ore carrying gold, silver, and cop- 
per was mined and shipped by river and ocean boats. 
The outlook has been found sufficiently encouraging to 
justify the installation of a small reducing plant for the 
treatment of this ore. 

Copper Mining. In 1921 the Alaska mines produced 
about 56,214,000 lb. of copper, valued at $6,971,000, as 
compared with 70,435,363 lb., valued at $12,960,106 in 
1920. In 1921 the copper production came almost en- 
tirely from the three large mines of the Kenneeott group, 
in the Chitina basin; the Beatson-Bonanza, on Prince 
William Sound; and the Rush & Brown mine, in the 
Ketchikan district. There was little exploration for cop- 
per ore during the year, but work was continued at the 
Dickey and Mcintosh properties, on Prince "William 
Sound, and on other claims in several districts. It is 

from the Hot Springs district of the Tam«a region, 
vihere it was recovered incidentally to gold^lacer min- 

No reports have been received of any mining during 
1921 in the York district of Seward Peninsula, which in 
the past was the principal source of Alaskan tin. Work 
was suspended during 1921 at the Salt Chuck palladium- 
copper mine. As this property was the principal source 
of the platinum and allied metals produced in Alaska, the 
total output of these minerals was only about 65 oz. in 
1921, as compared with 1479 oz. in 1920. The platinum 
output in 1921 was all derived from gold-placer mining 
mainly on Dime creek, on Seward Peninsula. Two quick- 
silver properties were under development in Alaska dur- 
ing 1921 — the Parks mine, on lower Kuskokwim river, 
and the Swift mine, 20 miles south-west of Iditarod. 
Some quicksilver was produced at the Swift mine. No 
antimony, tungsten, chromite, or molybdenite was mined 
in Alaska during 1921. 



January 14, 1922 

Lead and Zinc During 1921 

By C. E. Siebenthal and A. Stoll 

•The output of lead from mines and smelters in the 
United States during 1921 fell off about 20%; that of 
zinc declined nearly 60%, according to reports and esti- 
mates by producers and others. Data for the Western 
States are taken from the advance statements issued by 
the Geological Survey's Western offices. Statistics of 
imports and exports are taken from the records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce for 11 
months, and an estimate is made for December. 

Mine Production of Lead. The output of soft lead 
by mines of the Mississippi Valley was about 231,000 
tons, and that of argentiferous lead by mines of the 
Western States was about 170,000 tons, a total of 401,000 
tons. The corresponding figures for 1920 are 251,816 tons 
from the Mississippi Valley (including the small output 
of the Eastern States) and 259,070 tons from the Western 
States, a total of 512,865 tons. The South-Eastern Mis- 
souri district made the largest output and was the only 
■district to make a gain. Its output was 178,000 tons, as 
•compared with 161,258 tons in 1920. The Coeur d'Alene 
district of Idaho came next, with about 96,000 tons, as 
against 118,105 tons in 1920. Utah output was about 
45,000 tons, a decrease from 70,419 tons in 1920. The 
imports of lead in ore were about 7000 tons, furnished 
chiefly by Canada, Mexico, and South America, and those 
of lead in bullion were about 41,000 tons, almost wholly 
from Mexico, as compared with a total of 62,796 tons in 
1920. The lead content of lead ore in bonded ware- 
houses on November 30 was 7648 tons and of base bullion 
16,207 tons, as against 16,462 and 34,758 tons, respec- 
tively, in 1920. Part of this lead, however, may have 
been smelted or refined but not shipped and thus may be 
included in smelter stocks. 

Mine Production of Zinc. The recoverable zinc con- 
tent of ore mined in 1 920 was about 250,000 tons, as com- 
pared with 584,772 tons in 1920 and 549,242 tons in 1919. 
The output of the Eastern States was 68,000 tons, that 
of the Central States about 168,000 tons, and that of 
the Western States 14,000 tons, as compared with 102,242, 
337,652, and 144,878 tons, respectively, in 1920. The 
loss in output of the Eastern States was one-third, that 
•of the Central States one-half, and that of the Western 
-States over nine-tenths. The Upper Mississippi Valley 
3-egion is credited with an output of about 4000 tons and 
the Joplin district with an output of about 164,000 tons. 
Oklahoma made the largest output, about 116.000 tons, 
twice as large as that of any other State. In 1921 Mon- 
tana (the Butte district almost wholly) apparently pro- 
duced about 11,000 tons, as compared with 91,906 tons in 
that district in 1920. 

The imports of zinc in ore decreased from 22,487 tons 
in 1920 to about 2700 tons in 1921 , most of which was im- 

*From U. S. Geological Survey. 

ported from Mexico. The zinc content of zinc ore in 
bonded warehouses on November 30 was 14,292 tons, as 
compared with 25,650 tons at the end of 1920. Some of 
this ore may have been smelted but not shipped and thus 
may be included in smelter stocks. 

Early in January zinc concentrate containing 60% 
zinc was selling in the Joplin district at $28 per ton, 
having dropped from $60 per ton at the beginning of 
1920. The price dropped to $21 by the beginning of 
March, rose to $26 by the beginning of May, dropped to 
$21 by the middle of June, and remained at that point 
until late in August, when it reached bottom at $20 per 
ton. Through the last quarter of the year there was a 
considerable improvement in price and at the end of the 
year concentrates were selling at $28 to $30 per ton. 

It would be natural to suppose that zinc smelters, with 
Joplin concentrate selling for $20- per ton, would stock 
up fully. However, if the output of domestic primary 
zinc, 194,000 tons, is subtracted from the mine produc- 
tion of recoverable zinc, 250,000 tons, 56,000 tons is left 
to furnish the zinc content of pigments. But pigments 
made in 1920 contained 110,695 tons of zinc, and the out- 
put of pigments in 1921 was probably not greatly below 
that of 1920. Apparently, therefore, smelter stocks of 
concentrate were depleted rather than increased in 1921. 

The lack of demand led to considerable storage of con- 
centrates at mines, and the stocks of concentrate in the 
Joplin district are estimated at about 70,000 tons and 
those in the Upper Mississippi Valley region at about 
25,000 tons, figured at 60%, concentrate. Stocks in other 
districts would probably bring the grand total for the 
country to 150,000 tons. Even so, this quantity is small 
in comparison with the stocks of Australian zinc concen- 
trates, which were reported recently as 700,000 tons, con- 
taining about 47% zinc. The Rhodesia Broken Hill dis- 
trict of Africa is credited with stocks of zinc ore amount- 
ing to nearly 50,000 tons. 

Refinery Production of Lead. The output of pri- 
mary domestic de-silverized lead in 1921 was about 190,- 
000 short tons of soft lead about 145,000 tons, and of de- 
silvered soft lead about 55,000 tons, making a total out- 
put from domestic ores of about 390,000 tons of refined 
lead, as compared with 476,849 tons in 1920, which was 
made up of 220,327 tons of de-silvered lead, 189,854 tons 
of soft lead, and 66,668 tons of de-silverized soft lead. 
The output of lead smelted and refined from foreign ore 
and bullion was about 50,000 tons, as compared with 
52,808 tons in 1920. The total lead smelted or refined 
in the United States was thus about 440,000 tons, as pom- 
pared with 529,657 tons in 1920. The output, of anti- 
monial lead was about 8000 tons, as against 12,535 tons 
in 1920. The exports of lead of foreign origin were 
about 33,000 tons and of lead of domestic origin about 

January It. 1922 



us. as compared with 23,538 tons and 2730 tons, 
respectively, in 1920, an increase of about 7000 tons in 
the total exports. The imports of refined pig-lead, which 
for the years 1916 to 1919, inclusive, had been a little 
over 5000 tons per year, and which had jumped in 1920 
to 35,719 tons, maintained that high level in 1921, being 
about 32,000 tons. These heavy importations wore the 
result of the relations between the New York ami Eu- 
ropean prices and the rates of exchange. 

Svui.m; Pboduotidn OF Zinc. The output of pri- 
mary metallic sine from domestic ores in 1921 was about 
194.000 tons and from foreign ores about 2500 tons, a 
total of 196,500 tons, as compared with 450.045 tons from 
domestic ores and 13.332 tons from foreign ores, a total 
of 463,377 tons in 1920. In addition to primary zinc 
there was an output of about 17,000 tons of re-distilled 
secondary zinc, as compared with 21.371 tons in 1920, 
making a total supply of distilled zinc and electrolytic 
zinc in 1921 of 213,500 tons, of which 31,500 tons was 
high-grade and intermediate, 32,000 tons select and brass- 
special, and 150.000 tons prime Western. The output of 
the corresponding grades in 1920 was 114,606, 59,811, 
and 310,331 tons, respectively, a total of 484,748 tons. 
Of the total output of primary zinc in 1921, about 48,000 
tons was made in Illinois, as against 109.056 tons in 1920 ; 
40.000 tons in Oklahoma, as against 110,500 tons: and 
36,000 tons in Pennsylvania, as against 74,234 tons. 

The imports of foreign slab-zinc amounted to 6674 
tons, as compared with 15 tons in 1920. Of these im- 
ports. England furnished 4200 tons, Germany 1456, 
Netherlands .360. and Belgium 452. The condition of 
the world market in the last four months of 1920, which 
permitted the sale in the United States of domestic zinc 
that had been previously exported, continued through 
the first quarter of 1921. .during which period 731 tons 
of zinc was returned, as against 8162 tons in 1920. Not 
included in the imports given above is 6529 tons of sheet- 
zinc imported and entered for consumption in the first 
nine months of 1921. But a few hundred tons of sheet- 
zinc has been imported annually heretofore, and but a 
few tons since 1915. 

The exports of zinc made from foreign ores were about 
1260 tons and those of zinc made from domestic ores 
were about 3200 tons, as compared with exports of 28,368 
and 85,898 tons, respectively, in 1920. The exports of 
domestic zinc included about 1800 tons of sheet-zinc, as 
against 11,852 tons in 1920. The stocks of zinc at smelt- 
ers and in warehouses at the end of November was 74,000 
tons, as against 94,747 tons on June 30, 1921, and 71,037 
tons at the end of 1920. The apparent consumption of 
primary zinc during 1921 was about 196,000 tons, as 
compared with 323,044 tons in 1920. 

At the end of November, 38,700 retorts were reported 
in operation out of a total of 150,462 retorts, as compared 
with 36,000 out of 123,528 on June 30, 1921, and with 
56,197 out of 158,625 at the end of 1920. Advices late in 
December put the number of retorts expected to be in 
operation at the end of the year at about 41,500, or a 
little more than one-fourth of the total. 

The average quoted price tor prime Western sine for 
immediate delivery at st. Louis in l!'2l was nearly 1.7c. 
per pound, as compared with an average Belling price for 
all grades of 8.1c. in 1920. The price of prime Western 

zinc began the year at 5.6c. in the St. Louis market, but 
had declined nearly to 4. tic by the middle of April. After 
a slight recovery the price continued to decline until 
l.'ie. was reached at the mid-year. After remaining prac- 
tically stationary for three months, the price rose through 
the last quarter of the year and closed at about 4.7c. 
From the middle of May until the last of October the 
average weekly quotation for prime Western zinc was 
lower than that for lead. The two largest zinc-rolling 
mills have added zinc-shingle machinery to their equip- 

Foreign Lead and Zinc Industry. The output of re- 
fined lead in Canada in 1921, estimated from the year's 
output in British Columbia and 9 months output in 
Ontario, was about 30,000 tons, as compared with 14,360 
tons in 1920. Burma and Rhodesia, as estimated from 
the output for 9 months of the year, produced about 
36,000 and 19.000 tons, respectively, in 1921, as against 
26,680 and 16,354 tons in 1920. The best information 
available indicates that the world's output of work-lead 
was a little over 800,000 metric tons, of which the United 
States smelted 40%, as against 900,000 metric tons in 
1920, of which the United States smelted nearly 50%. 

The output of electrolytic zinc in British Columbia in 
1921 is given at 26,500 tons, as compared with 16,798 tons 
in 1920. The zinc smelter output of Belgium, in 1921, as 
estimated from the output for 10 months was about 
70,000 tons, as against 92,880 tons in 1920. The world's 
smelter output of zinc in 1921 is estimated at about 
400,000 metric tons, of which the United States smelted 
45%, as against a little over 700,000 metric tons in 1920, 
of which the United States smelted 60%. 

The labor strike at Broken Hill, in May 1919, com- 
pelled the great lead smelter at Port Pirie, Australia, to 
close in July 1919, for lack of ore. It started up again 
after the strike settlement in November 1920, but the 
sintering plant was destroyed by fire in January 1921, 
compelling the smelter to close again. The reconstructed 
sintering plant which was completed in August 1921 has 
but one-half its former capacity, so that a similar reduc- 
tion is entailed in smelting capacity, amounting to about 
70,000 tons annually. 

The Burma Corporation has discontinued the erection 
of the new lead smelter, which was planned to have a 
capacity of 60,000 tons, and will extend and improve 
the existing plant so that it will have a capacity of 
45,000 tons annually. Likewise, the plans for a zinc 
smelter near Calcutta have been abandoned for the 
present. Half of the Risdon (Tasmania) electrolytic- 
zinc plant, which has a rated capacity of approximately 
20,000 short tons, was started in December 1921. It is 
expected that the other half will be completed by the end 
of 1922. As a result of the award of the League of Na- 
tions, Poland will make 86% of the production of zinc 
ore and 77% of the production of lead ore. 



January 14, 1922 

Company Reports 


Report for the year ended June 30, 1921. 

Financial: Receipts, $1,333,193.28; disbursements, $1,- 
412,310.39; net operating loss, $411,113.76. 

Development: 3.2 miles. 

Production: 128,960 tons, producing 8,456,062 lb. cop- 
per, 1,463,182 oz. silver; 2608.214 oz. gold; 2,127,290 lb. 
lead; and 5,060,368 lb. zinc. 


Report for the year ended June 30, 1921. 

Holdings: The company's holdings in the Cia. de Santa 
Gertrudis and the Cia. Beneficiadora de Pachuca remain un- 
altered. The company also holds shares in other Mexican 

Financial: Receipts plus balance brought forward, £30,531 
0s. 9d.; balance carried to balance-sheet, £453 4s. 4d. Dur- 
ing the period under review an issue of £300,000, 8 % , 5-year 
notes was made. 

General: The directors report with regret the resignation 
of W. J. Cox as the company's advisory engineer. 


Report for the half-year ended June 30, 1921. 

Property: Tailings treatment plant in Australia. 

Financial: Receipts by sale of concentrates and sundries, 
£150,934 19s. 5d.; balance to profit and loss account, £127 
0s. lid. 

Production: 128,646 tons of tailing was treated for a 
yield of 37,201 tons of zinc concentrates and zinc-slime con- 
centrates, assaying 46.4% zinc, 7.9% lead, 13.8 oz. silver; 
also 815 tons of lead concentrate and lead-slime concen- 
trates, assaying 49% lead, 39.2 oz. silver, and 18.1% zinc. 

General: Reduced output was due to the non-delivery of 
tailing, under agreement, from the Broken Hill South prop- 


Report for the year ended June 30, 1921. 

Property : Diamond mines and plants in South Africa. 

Financial: Suspense profit account, plus sundry income, 
£4,542,336 18s. 8d.; expenditure, £2,711,507 5s. 9d.; bal- 
ance, £1,830,829 12s. lid.; dividends, £1,240,000; balance 
undistributed, £464,731 16s. lid. 

General: The directors report that for several months 
during the year there was a cessation of diamond sales. 
Operations have been curtailed and economies effected, 
which unfortunately necessitated the retrenchment of large 
number of employees. The company, however, has paid to 
the preference shareholders the usual dividend of 20 shill- 
ings and to deferred shareholders, 10 shillings per share. 


Report for the year ended June 30, 1921. 

Property: Mines, mills, and railway in Mexico. 

Financial: Net profit, £74,383 3s. 6d.; dividends, £57,375. 

Production: 383,043 tons of ore was treated of a gross 
value of $7.63; bullion produced realized $2,545,446. 

General: General and economic conditions in Mexico have 
shown improvement, it is stated. In consequence, and in 
conjunction with further economies at the mine, due to ex- 
tremely watchful management, working costs have been re- 
duced by about $1 per ton. This has rendered it possible to 
maintain an average rate of profit per ton of ore, and at the 
same time to bring under treatment ore of lower grade. 
Taxation remains oppressive. The sum paid for State and 

Federal taxes in Mexico amounted to $333,297. The net 
earnings from the operation of the company's railway during 
the year amounted to $203,526. The company's officials are 
to be congratulated on the appearance of an informative and 
frank statement of theoretical extraction of gold and silver, 
as compared with actual recovery. 


Report for the year ended June 30, 1921. 

Holdings: Shares to the value of £4,500,000 in the New 
Consolidated Gold Fields company, which in turn is a holder 
of stock in a large number of British and American com- 

Financial: Income, £3608 6s. 5d.; balance from previous 
year, £162,635 12s. 3d.; dividends paid, £108,901 6s. 5d.; 
amount to credit of present years profit and loss account, 
£57,342 12s. 3d." 

General: The manager of the New York advisory com- 
mittee states that, world conditions during the year being 
unfavorable to the inception of any mining business of mag- 
nitude, the company has confined itself to taking, at a small 
cost, interests in several promising ventures in which a large 
or dominant interest may be secured ultimately. 


Report for the year ended June 30, 1921. 

Property: Mines and mill at Pachuca, Mexico. 

Operating Staff: C. A. Lantz, general manager; F. H. 
Walsh, general superintendent; W. E. Crawford, milling 

Development: 14,295 ft. at El Bordo, and 2362 ft. at 
Malinche; ore-reserves, 1,319,617 tons, containing 61,543 
oz. gold and 14,651,459 oz. silver. 

Production: Crushed and treated by cyanide, 475,360 tons. 
Bullion recovered contained 21,680 oz. gold and 4,533,338 
oz. silver. 

General: The extension of the milling plant from 1500 to 
2000 tons per day was commenced and nearly completed; 
work was suspended last February when the power-shortage 
developed. The work completed included the extension of 
the crusher building, and the preparation of the foundations 
for primary and secondary crushers; extension of the mill 
building, to accommodate two additional 8-ft. ball-mills; the 
installation of a 300-leaf vacuum filter plant; and the addi- 
tion of miscellaneous pumping and other equipment. 


Report for the year ended December 31, 1920. 

Financial: Receipts from sales of lead and silver, sundry 
profits and receipts, £1,206,757 6s. 8d.; balance to appropri- 
ation account, £455,516 3s. 5d. 

Ore-reserves: Ore-reserves as at December 31, 1919, 
4,402,218 tons containing 23.9 oz. silver, 25.7% lead, 17.9% 
zinc, and 1.2% copper. 

Development: 3648 feet. 

Smelter Operations: Tons smelted, 136,450; lead, 
29.57%; silver, 26.72 oz.; zinc, 15.5%; hard lead produced, 
28,484.7 tons; refined lead produced, 23,821.14 tons; fine 
silver produced, 2,869,727.24 ounces. 

General: The directors decided to stop the construction 
of the zinc works in India, as financial considerations pre- 
vented the Government of India from contributing the antici- 
pated loan, and the Tata Iron & Steel Co. desired to limit its 
participation. They also decided to discontinue the erection 
of the new lead smelter, and to rely on extension and im- 
provement, at a much smaller cost, of the existing smelter. 
All further expenditure on the Namma coalfield will be 
stopped. The present program is based on an annual out- 
put of 45,000 tons of refined lead and 4,500,000 oz. silver. 

January 14. 1922 




- \v 


•4 1 




Byron O. Plekard. district mining engineer for the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines, stationed at Berkeley, California, desires 
to notify superintendents of mines in California of the most 
desirable method of communicating with the Bureau in the 
event that assistance of the Mine Rescue Service is desired 
In case of disaster. The preferable method Is to use the 
long-distance telephone, endeavoring to get the following 

B. O. Plekard. (office hours) Berkeley 7100 

B. O. Plekard. (after hours) Piedmont 2124-J 

A. C. Moore. Berkeley 4071-J 

Dr. C. E. Kindall. Berkeley 7780-J. 

It Is advised that the above numbers be tried in the order 
given. If it is necessary to use the telegraph, it is requested 
that as much detail as possible be given in order that the 
officials of the Bureau may intelligently plan and route the 
rescue crew. Telegrams addressed to Mr. Pickard, care of 
the Bureau of Mines, will be delivered at his home after 
office hours, but it is urged that the telephone be used. 


The smelter production of copper in 1921 from ore mined 
in the United States, as shown by the actual production for 
the first 11 months and by estimates made by smelting com- 
panies for December, was about 461,000,000 lb., according 
to the U. S. Geological Survey. The refinery production as 
similarly shown was about 601,000,000 lb. from domestic 
material and about 320,000,000 lb. from foreign material. 
The exports for the first 11 months totaled about 567,000,- 
000 lb., of which about 538,000,000 lb. was new refined 
copper and 29,000,000 lb. was manufactured. 

The total new supply of primary refined copper for the 
year was about 989,000,000 lb., which includes refined cop- 
per produced from foreign and domestic material as well 
as imported refined copper. The stocks of refined copper in 
the hands of domestic refineries on December 31, 1921, ex- 
cluding those in transit, as estimated by the refining com- 
panies, were about 496,000,000 lb. The stocks of blister- 
copper on December 31, 1921, including material in process, 
in the hands of smelters, in transit to refineries, and at re- 
fineries were estimated by refining and smelting companies 
at about 297,000,000 pounds. 

The quantity of primary refined copper withdrawn on do- 
mestic account during the year was about 572,000,000 lb., 
calculated as follows: 

Refinery production from domestic sources. . 
Refinery production from foreign sources. . . . 344.000.000 

Imports of refined copper 109.000.000 

Stocks of new refined copper on January 1 



7r.. nno (Kin 

059.000 11(111 

Total available supply 1.655. 000. 00C 

Exports (exclusive of manufactured copper) . 553.000.000 587.000.000 
Stocks on hand on December 31 659.000.000 496,000.000 

Total withdrawal on domestic account . 
. 572.000.000 

House Committee on Mines and Mining on the bill Intro- 
duced by Representative Samuel S. Arentz of Nevada "to 
revise, amend, and codify the laws of the United States re- 
lating to the location of mining claims on the public domain, 
and for other purposes". Arentz says that codification of 
laws relating to mining claims has for several years been 
recognized as a necessity by the Bureau of Mines and by 
the legal fraternity. Existing laws, he states, are widely 
scattered and fragmentary, and date from the California 
gold rush of 1849. A preliminary conference on the bill re- 
cently was held by Arentz with H. Foster Bain, Director of 
the Bureau of Mines, other officials of the Bureau, and 
Senators and Congressmen. 

Arentz, who is a mining engineer, has approximately 200 
communications, resolutions, and memorials from associa- 
tions of engineers, miners, and prospectors from various 
parts of the West, most of which condemn the bill. The 
Bureau of Mines also has received many letters in support 
of the measure. While primarily a codification, it proposes 
some radical changes in existing laws. Prominent among 
these changes are the abolition of the mooted 'apex' or 
'extra-lateral rights' law, location without discovery, and 
the option of cash payments into the United States Treasury 
in lieu of annual assessment work on claims. 


When operations on a restricted scale are resumed in the 
mines of Butte on January 16, the wage-scale will be re- 
duced 50c. per day from that prevailing during the past 
year. The following table shows comparative wages paid 
at different times: 

Miners Laborers 

1914 $3.50 $3.00 

1918 5.75 5.25 

1921 4.75 4.25 

1922 4.25 3.75 

At the start only four of the Anaconda company's mines 
will be opened but these will call for the employment of 
6000 or 7000 men. The smaller mining companies in the 
district, to protect themselves against a labor shortage, have 
set forward their date for re-opening. During the suspen- 
sion of copper production in Butte there has been a thinning 
of the ranks of mine workers, many going to Mid-Western 
industrial centres. Announcement is made that the Butte & 
Superior company plans resumption of production by about 
January 15, just as soon as the mill is in shape. Working 
forces will be increased gradually up to 1000. The North 
Butte. Davis Daly, and Tuolumne companies announce they 
will resume operations on January 16. 


Hearings are scheduled to start this month before the 


The statement recently issued by Chile Copper Co., cov- 
ering operations for the third quarter of this year, showed a 
production of 12,023,000 lb. of copper at an operating cost 
of 11.41c. per pound and a deficit for the three months of 
$270,000. after interest but before depletion and deprecia- 
tion had been charged. The three quarterly reports issued 
by the company this year indicate a production in the first 



January 14. 1922 

nine months of 42,031,000 lb. of copper at a cost of 11.46c, 
and an operating deficit, after bond interest, of $1,023,000. 
Depletion and depreciation charges in this period increased 
the deficit to $3,206,000. In 1920, the company produced 
111,000,000 lb. of copper at a cost of 10.7c. per pound and 
reported net profits of $2,056,000 before depletion charges. 
It is significant that costs in the current year have increased 
but slightly, while production has been cut in half. Chile's 
plans call for an increase in plant capacity from 15,000 tons 
to 35,000 tons per day as soon as conditions warrant. This 
should give the company a capacity for producing 300,000,- 
000 lb. of copper per annum and on the basis of the 1920 
cost of producing little more than one-third of this amount, 
it is estimated that Chile should then turn out its copper 
for 8 c. per pound or lower. 

Assuming a cost of 8c. per pound and a 15c. copper mar- 
ket, an annual production of 300,000,000 lb. would pay 
present bond interest requirements of $3,150,000 and $4.50 
per share on the stock. Furthermore, present developed ore- 
reserves of 690,306,106 tons, the largest in the world, would 
be sufficient to maintain this output 3 65 days in the year for 
54 years. There are 3,800,000 shares of stock outstanding, 
also $15,000,000 7% bonds, due March 1923, and $35,000,- 
000 6% bonds, due April 1932. Both issues are convertible 
into stock, the 7s at $25 and the 6s at $35. Should all bonds 
be converted, there would be 5,400,000 shares of stock out- 


From out of the heart of the Congo there was shipped to 
Europe during 1921 approximately 70,000,000 lb. of copper, 
representing the output of the Tanganyika Concessions. The 
progress of Union Miniere — operating the copper properties 
of the Tanganyika Concessions — is indicated in the following 
tabulation of production, the figures being in pounds: 

1911 1,994,000 1917 54,924,000 

1912 4,984,000 1918 40,474,000 

1913 14,816,000 1918 46,008,000 

1914 21,444,000 1920 38,000,000 

1915 28,108,000 1921 70,000,000 

1916 44,298,000 

Total 365,050,000 

Robert Williams of London, who has been with the prop- 
erty since its inception, had a contract for a salary equal to 
10% of any dividends distributed to stockholders; and in 
the event of his death 10% of surplus assets over liabilities. 
The directors have now made Williams managing director 
for life and given him 200,000 shares of stock in considera- 
tion for which he surrendered his earlier profit-sharing 
scheme. The arrangement provides that he shall retain at 
least one-quarter of the shares until his death. 


At the recent annual meeting of the Mexican Corporation, 
Ltd., the following remarks were made by the chairman, F. 
W. Baker. "During the last year China has taken a large 
amount of silver and India has had a good monsoon, though 
the full benefit has not been felt owing to trading difficulties 
and the general trade depression. Trade depression and 
chaos on the Continent and the aftermath of war have no 
doubt lowered the demand for industrial purposes, and 
there has been no demand for renewal of coinage of some of 
the large Continental countries. These two last-mentioned 
factors should not he exaggerated in importance; it is the 
demand of India and China which plays the big role. Look- 
ing toward the next two years the big cloud in the sky ap- 
pears to me to be the possibility of still further Continental 
liquidation on a large scale. Even if given reasonably good 
demand from the East, a quantity of silver may come into 
the market which cannot be absorbed. It is not known how 

long and to what extent this liquidation process will go on. 
It will no doubt be largely influenced by the political events 
of the next year. It is difficult to find out what the position 
will be. That is the dark side of the picture. On the other 
hand if the Continental outpouring dies down and Eastern 
demand is normal, with the help of the world's low produc- 
tion and the operation of the Pittman Act, we have a good 
chance of seeing prices higher than at present. 

"It must be recognized that while the present price of sil- 
ver appears high in comparison with the pre-war price, it is 
low by comparison with the difference between cost of pro- 
duction all over the world in the present and pre-war times. 
The New York price for five years pre-war was 55.8c, it is 
now 6 5c There is a much greater difference in price in all 
the material required for the mining of silver. This factor 
of silver prices so far as Mexico is concerned may possibly be 
affected by a matter to which I would like to draw your 
attention, and which the Mexican government a short time 
ago had already under consideration, and upon which they 
had, as we are informed, consulted various mining authori- 
ties, but which unfortunately for us they dropped — namely, 
the question of subsidizing by a guaranteed minimum the 
price for Mexican silver, in behalf of the silver producers in 
that Republic. An enormous amount of capital has been and 
is being invested today in the development of mines in 
Mexico, with the result that the production of silver from the 
Republic represents one-third of the total silver production 
of the world, and will probably almost represent one-half 
for the current year. This silver is obtained either from 
silver mines or from mines where silver is associated with 
base metals or with gold, and because of this a great deal 
of money finds its way into the country. A large amount of 
labor is employed with very beneficial results to the Govern- 
ment and the population as a whole, and I venture to sug- 
gest it would be a wise step for the Mexican government in 
these times, when the fluctuations in the price of silver have 
a prejudicial effect on the development of their silver min- 
ing industry, to stabilize the price. 

"The cost to the Government would be trifling compared 
with the direct and indirect advantages of maintaining this 
industry, and would keep in employment an appreciable por- 
tion of the population, particularly at a time when the coun- 
try is going through a period of evolution resulting from the 
disturbed revolutionary period covered by the last ten years 
or more." 


Ajo. — A hoist has been moved from the Bisbee-Ajo mine 
to the C. P. Sheehan property, adjoining the old Gunsight. 
The 400-ft. shaft is to be deepened and lateral development 

is to be started on the 300-ft. level. A company composed 

of Bisbee and Douglas mining men, known as the Ajo Mines 
Corporation, is developing the old Black Prince mine, 43 
miles east of Ajo, a shaft having been sunk 150 ft. with an 
opening of a good lead-silver orebody and indications of 
copper. The company has a good mill-site and adequate 

Douglas. — Though no official intimation is given as to the 
time for resumption of production, the Copper Queen smelter 
is being put in condition for operation. Percival G. Butler, 
for 15 years connected with the plant, has been promoted 
from assistant to general superintendent. He has placed a 
number of men at work on repairs, which include a new 

roof for the main smelter building. The Golden Rule 

quarries, 40 miles from Douglas, have been leased by a San 
Francisco corporation, the Painted Desert Mining Co., repre- 
sented by Ernest Lisherness. About $25,000 already has 
been spent in opening faces of what is declared the highest 
grade of building marble, the outcrop covered by 24 mining 

claims. About fifty men are to be employed. J. H. 

Huntsman has sued in Pima county for judgment in the sum 

January 1 1. 1922 



of $37,000 against the Dm GatMBM Gold Ridge MlnliiK Co., 

ol which he is president and \v a. Julian is secretary 

urer. There Is allocation Ol default In the payment of a 

number o( notes made on behalf of the corporation. 

Mh At 600 ft . the main shaft of the Verde Central 

mine is bottomed In ore. This Is at a point 2no ft. deeper 
than the drift where the apparent apex of an orebody was 
cut. and several hundred feet distant laterally. A station is 
being cut and lateral development will be started along the 
United Verde fault, in the direction of the ore already 
found. A large part of the operating company's stock is held 
by Calumet & Arizona Interests, and was purchased at 70c. 
liy the sale ample capital was secured for the development 
work planned by W. F. Staunton, the manager, who pre- 
ferred to drift at depth, rather than to sink downward 
through the ore found In the upper drift. A 47-ton car- 
load of ore shipped by the Shea Copper Co. to El Paso has 
given a net return of $3412. The copper averaged nearly 
', and the silver nearly 100 oz. per ton. 

Katherlne. — In the Katherlne Extension mine a new find 
has been made in the north cross-cut on the 250-ft. level. 
Development has not yet revealed the limits of the ore-shoot. 

A discovery in the Gold Chain mine demonstrates the 

downward continuation of the vein, opened several months 
ago on the 100-ft. level. The vein was opened for the 
second time In the shaft at a point about 3 5 ft. below the 
100-ft. level. The ore Is similar to that exposed east of the 
shaft on the 100-ft. level. It is proposed to continue sinking 
to a depth of 200 ft., where the vein will again be cross-cut 
and developed. With 200,000 tons of ore said to be in sight 
above the 100-ft. level, and the vein showing strong and 
well-defined in the shaft below, the outlook is encouraging. 

Ray. — Plans for the reorganization of the Ray Hercules 
Copper Co. call for the formation of a new company to be 
known as the Ray Hercules Mines, Inc., with an authorized 
capital of 1,200,000 shares of stock having a par value of $5 
each, together with $1,000,000 in first mortgage 6% bonds. 
Creditors of the present company and those directors who 
advanced the company money aggregating $2,287,562 to 
complete construction and development are to be given 
$1,000,000 In first mortgage 6% bonds and 250,000 shares 
of stock in the reorganized company. It is impossible to 
avoid wiping out the present stock of Ray Hercules, of 
which about 1,500,000 shares are outstanding, but the hold- 
ers will be offered 750,000 shares of new stock of $5 par on 
cancellation and surrender of their present stock in the ratio 
of one new share for every two shares now held at $1 per 
share on or before January 31. In his report to the di- 
rectors Robert Linton, president of Ray Hercules, estimates 
total ore indicated by churn-drilling and underground work, 
in ground wholly or partly developed, to be 3,916,000 tons 
averaging 2.42% copper. From this there has been mined 
172,000 tons of ore averaging 2.20% copper, leaving the net 
available ore 3,744,000 dry tons averaging 2.43% copper. 


Kennett. — According to O. G. Egleston. local manager for 
the U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., further improve- 
ment in the price of copper will be necessary before his 
company can resume operations here. The cost of labor and 
of coke and other supplies has been reduced, but no definite 
date can be set for resumption. 

Portola. — Work has been started at the Plumas-Chilcoot 
copper mine. A 30-ft. head-frame has been erected, and as 
soon as a compressor has been installed shaft sinking will be 
resumed from the 75-ft. level. Improvement in the outlook 
for marketing copper has encouraged the owners to resume 

Quincy. — Control of the old Valentine property near 
Mohawk has been acquired by George Stephan, of Quincy. 

and associates. The Valentine for many years was a profit- 
able ylolder of gold and silver, but bni I n tdlt (Ol '•" years 

because of litigation. The ovnerfl plan to send a new 

shaft In a depth of several hundred feet and to conduct min- 
ing on a broad scale. 

Walker Lake. W Harrison Whitacre. defendant in a suit 
instituted by Mary Means Gale, who charged that the com- 
pany now operating a plant at Mono lake for the extraction 
of gold and other valuable minerals from the water of the 
lake, has been awarded a verdict by Judge Parker of the 
Superior Court. Mrs. Gale sued to recover $2000 that she 
had invested in the enterprise, on the ground that the under- 
taking was a fraud. According to reports, various assayers 
and chemists analyzed samples of the water and found gold 
content amounting to as much as $3.60 per ton. Whitacre 

.Map Showing Part of the Belgian Congo 

claims to have perfected a process for recovering the gold. 
Judge Parker, apparently, was convinced that the defendant 
company was acting in good faith. 

Westport. — A 30-ton mill is running steadily at the 
Columbus mine, near Westport. The vein is 10 ft. wide. 
The working-tunnel has been driven 450 ft., with ore dis- 
closures reported particularly good in newly opened ground. 
Water-wheels, receiving 30 miner's inches with a 1000-ft. 
drop, are used to operate the' mill and compressor. The 
water is taken from the Volcano ditch and piped directly to 
the mine. 


Aspen. — Towers for the Park tramway are rapidly near- 
ing completion and the tramway will shortly be moving ore 
from the 100,000-ton reserve to the mill of the Silver Mines 

Company of America, that is now handling custom ores. 

Good progress is reported made in the Hurricane tunnel by 
the Denver company headed by Archie Adams and asso- 
ciates. The main vein is not far distant and some rich ore 
is being mined from other veins cut as work advances. 

The Richmond Hill M. M. & L. Co. is continuing opera- 
tions through the winter and with the mill remodeled is re- 
ported making greater recovery. High-grade ore is com- 
ing to the portal of the Hope tunnel, while the tunnel is 
being advanced in low-grade lead ore. The mine is now 

electrically equipped. The Silver Mines Company of 

America is reported planning construction of a cyanide plant 
to handle ores not suitable for flotation. The company, un- 
der the management of J. T. Boyd, is using the Brown flota- 
tion process at its mill and is handling low-grade ore suc- 

Breckenridge. — Operations will be shortly resumed by the 
Wellington Mines Co. if suitable freight-rates can be secured. 
The mine is shut-down and in charge of watchmen, but if 
work is resumed, as is reported, about 30 additional men 

will be given employment. The Royal Tiger Mines Co. 

continues operating with a reduced force. The Tonopah 

Placer and the Blue River Placer dredges are still operat- 



January 14, 1922 

ing; the first named is close to the north boundary of the 
townsite and the Blue River dredge is two miles north. 

Central City. — A report is in circulation that the Gregory 
and Bobtail mine of the Fifty Gold Mines Corporation, of 
Black Hawk, will be taken over by a company in course of 
formation, and that the several shafts will be drained and 
operated both on company account and under a liberal leas- 
ing system. Another rumor is that the Gilpin Eureka 

mine and mill, closed on account of litigation, are shortly to 
resume. The mine has produced a good ore containing gold, 
silver, copper, and lead. The mill is equipped with 10 

Cripple Creek. — Including the December production of 
$425,000 the district is accredited with $5,288,334 for 1921, 
and a grand total of $411,057,340 to date. Due to in- 
activity in the copper districts many old miners have re- 
turned, and it is estimated that 700 men have returned dur- 
ing the last few months. At the present time between 1300 
and 1400 miners are on the payrolls, and lease operations 
are steadily increasing. 

Durango. — The Durango smelter of the American Smelt- 
ing & Refining Co. in 11 months of 1921, December not in- 
cluded, treated on an average 118 tons of San Juan basin 
ore, or a total of 39,048 dry tons, valued at $3,070,689, ac- 
cording to a report just issued by R. P. Reynolds, manager. 
Recoveries were as follows: gold, 50,466 oz., worth $1,039,- 
317; silver, 1,762,316 oz., $1,745,494; lead, 9,348,824 lb., 
$238,878; and copper, 1,177,568 lb., $46,949. San Juan 
county mines shipped 1316 tons dry weight, worth $122,844; 
La Plata county, 1257 tons, worth $60,917; Dolores county, 
365 tons, worth $14,170; Ouray county, 137 tons, worth 
$17,170; San Miguel county, 30,800 tons, worth $2,753,309; 
Mineral county, 1355 tons, $43,186; Lake county, 2128 tons, 
$20,811; and Eagle county, 1750 tons, $39,301. 

Idaho Springs. — Samples of the shoot recently opened by 
the Frank J. Hayes Mining Co. indicate that the ore con- 
tains several ounces of gold and more than 100 oz. of silver 
per ton. The company is developing a group of four claims 
known as the Queen Elizabeth, Tomboy, Independence, and 
Lucky Lad. F. A. Brown is in charge of the work. 

Leadville. — Mines of the Leadville district produced 
14,669 oz. gold, 1,038,722 oz. silver, 3,936,063 lb. lead, 
1,247,081 lb. copper, and 3,725,000 lb. zinc, valued at 
$1,965,707, during 1921, a decrease of 54.88%, or $2,388,- 
760, as compared with the yield of 1920. Leadville has pro- 
duced to date $491,667,188. 

Rico. — The Robert Pellet sub-lease on the Emma mine at 
Dunton, owned by the A. E. Reynolds estate, has been pur- 
chased by H. M. Little of Denver and associates for a price 
reported to be "well into five figures". The property is 
under lease to the Dolores Silver Mines Co., from whom the 
Pellet lease was secured. A large tonnage of ore is re- 
ported blocked out and regular shipments will commence in 
the spring. In the meantime development will be continued 
under J. H. Litchfield, who has been> retained as superin- 


Coeur d'Alene. — Dividends for the year' 1921 totaled 
$1,811,000. The heaviest producer and the best dividend- 
payer is the Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining company, which 
has paid $981,000. Next to this comes the Federal Mining 
& Smelting Co., which has paid $590,000 on its preferred 
stock. The Hecla has paid $500,000. The Hercules is a 
close partnership and its dividends can only be estimated, 
but it is supposed to have paid $200,000 early in the year. 
The mine has been closed down for several months. One 
other Coeur d'Alene corporation, the Marsh, paid a dividend 
of $40,000 following the settlement of its litigation with the 
Hecla company. 

The Marsh Mines Consolidated will begin at once opera- 
tions to explore the famous Russell vein in its own ground. 
W. G. Harris, superintendent, will direct the work. Ar- 
rangements have been concluded with the Hecla Mining 
Co. to enable Harris to explore the Russell vein from the 
east workings of the Hecla at an elevation of about 260 ft. 
above the Hecla No. 3 tunnel and approximately 950 ft. 
below the Russell tunnel. It is proposed to follow the south 
branch of the Russell vein from the 30th floor, which ex- 
poses a well-defined fissure with some mineralization in the 
face. It will be necessary to drive about 400 ft. through in- 
tervening Hecla ground before reaching the Marsh. 

Coleman & Ward, lessees of the Bluebird mine, owned by 
the Blacktail Mining Co., are working steadily and expect 

to ship 3 5 tons of high-grade ore by January 15. The 

belief is that the Tamarack & Custer mine at least will re- 
sume operations by January 16. Several other properties 
may resume in the near future. From 30 to 40 work-horses 
are used by the Tamarck & Custer management when the 
plant is in operation to haul supplies up to the mine and mill. 


Houghton. — Copper Range is now operating on a 60% 
basis, compared with the normal years of 1915 and 1916. 
Working forces are being gradually built up, particularly at 
Champion, which added about 75 men to its underground 
force in December. Champion production has been steadily 
increasing from month to month, the daily tonnage now 
being 2400, or approximately 62,000 tons per month. The 
yield here has fallen off only slightly and is now about 3 9 
lb. per ton, refined. Baltic is hoisting around 16,000 tons 
of rock per month and Trimountain, 13,000. There is no 
change in yield in these mines and Trimountain is maintain- 
ing the improvement in quality of rock that has been in 
evidence for several months. Production, refined, is esti- 
mated at 2,700,000 lb. per month for the three mines. The 
amount of drifting being done is increasing each month at 
Champion and Baltic as more men are employed, and a full 
program of opening work likely will be under way at both 
of these mines in another month. 

Arcadian Consolidated has reached a depth of 1050 ft. in 
its new sinking operations in the New Baltic shaft, which is 
being deepened from the 9 42-ft. level to a depth of about 
1100 ft. to correspond with the 1050-ft. level of the New 
Arcadian shaft. 

Calumet & Hecla shipped over 2,000,000 lb. of copper by 
rail in December. The smelter is now working on a big 
order for copper cakes, presumably for export to Germany. 
Over a million pounds of wire was shipped from the Dollar 
Bay wire-mill last month. 

No. 2 Gratiot sLaft of the Seneca will be one of the most 
modern shafts in the district. It will be of three compart- 
ments, with two skip-ways and a ladder-way. Work of pre- 
paring the shaft for resumption of sinking is progressing. 
The 'collar-house' is up and the steel work for the collar, 
which will extend down through the overburden, is com- 
pleted and ready for the pouring of concrete. Work in the 
shaft below the collar is under way, but will be stopped tem- 
porarily while the concrete is setting. It will be necessary 
to clean out the shaft, widen it, and put in new timber be- 
fore sinking can be resumed. For this work the old hoist 
will be of ample capacity. The new hoist equipment is -at 
Mohawk, near Seneca, and will be delivered shortly to the 
site selected for it. The survey for the railway to the 
Gratiot shaft was recently completed. It is expected the 
shaft will be ready for sinking and the new hoist installed 
by spring. Meanwhile, opening work continues in the 
Seneca shaft, with encouraging results in all levels from 
the third to the seventh, inclusive. The third level, north, 
toward Gratiot No. 2. continues in the same good grade of 
rock which has characterized this opening from the start. 

January 14. 1922 


Mayflower roports an Improvement In the north drift at 
(he 1450-ft. level. This opening, however. Is In but a short 
distance All efforts will now be centred in this drift at this 
level, work in the south opening having been temporarily 
suspended At the 1750-ft. level work is still proceeding in 
the cross-cut through the fault In the south drift. 


Ituttc. — Th« Crystal Copper Co. during the first week in 
January shipped two cars of silver-gold ore from the Gold- 
smith mine that netted $2715 and $3689 respectively. 
Three other cars have been shipped but have not yet passed 
through the sampler at the smelter. A substantial tonnage 
of ore has been blocked out between the 500 and 700-ft. 
levels. The company Is also shipping from the Crystal mine 
at Basin, the ore from which contains copper, silver, and 

are driving a tunnel on the company's ground to tap two 

promising veins that have been opened on the surface. 

M. L. Cooper of San Francisco and associates, who recently 
acquired control of a group of claims, are preparing to start 
development under the name of the Royston Piedmont Min- 
ing Co. Over two feet of $50 ore has been opened on the 

Silver & Jones lease on the Aztec claim, and the ore has been 
exposed in trenches for a distance of 200 feet. 

Tonopah. — During the first half of December Tonopah 
mills yielded approximately $300,000 In bullion and the total 
production of silver and gold for the month Is expected to 
exceed $600,000. This includes some ore produced by mines 
at Ooldfleld, Royston, and Divide, but the great bulk of the 
treated product came from the Belmont, Tonopah, Tonopah 
Extension, and West End mines. The outlook for a record- 
breaking production period in 1922 is exceptionally bright, 

Reduction Plant at the Braden Mine in Chile 

gold. Ore has accumulated for many months and there is a 
good supply on hand to be shipped. 


Royston. — Twenty-five thousand dollars worth of ore has 
been produced from the discovery shaft started about three 
months ago on the Betts lease on the Golden Eagle claim of 
the Hudson Mining Co. Numerous other rich discoveries of 
silver ore have aroused widespread interest in the district. 
Preparations for deep development of the district are being 
made by the Hudson Mining Co., which is controlled by the 
Walkers, of Salt Lake City, A. H. Jones of the same place, 
and W. H. Royston, and other mining men of Tonopah. The 
inclined shaft, which is now down 300 ft., is to be sunk to 
600 ft.; it will play an important part in demonstrating the 
persistence of the orebodies with depth. The contract for 

this work has already been let. Drifting has been started 

by the Super Six company, in which Los Angeles capital is 
interested, to prospect the orebody that has been followed by 
the shaft. This company is also sinking a vertical shaft 
near the Betts shaft, and is backing three sets of lessees who 

with recent work in the deep levels of all the principal prop- 
erties highly encouraging. 

Virginia City. — An option on the Middle Mines group has 
been taken by H. M. Ward, president of the Tonopah Exten- 
sion Mines Co., operating at Tonopah. Developments are to 
start immediately under supervision of Alexander Wise. 
Ward states that the option was taken for Philadelphia and 
New York capitalists, and that the Tonopah Extension com- 
pany is not interested. The Middle Mines group consists of 
several properties extending from the Consolidated Vir- 
ginia mine to the South-End group near Gold Hill, and com- 
prises 5000 ft. of the Comstock Lode. The properties com- 
posing the Middle Mines includes the Chollar, Best & 
Belcher. Hale & Norcross, Gould & Curry, Potosi, and other 


Gold Hill. — At the Gold Ridge mine, where operations 
were commenced last summer, mill runs are averaging from 
$1500 to $1700 in gold per week. The plant is a modern 
5-stamp amalgamating mill with a Wilfley concentrating 



January 14. 1922 

table; the tailing is being stored for cyanide treatment. A 
new ore-shoot is being opened up at the south end of the 
stopes and a raise is being driven from the 500- to the 400- 
ft. level. The vein follows the top of a steep ridge, giving 
an opportunity to reach it with short cross-cut adits. 

The Roaring Gimlet mine just below the Gold Ridge is 
being re-opened under lease by Mark Applegate and associ- 
ates of Medford, Oregon. This mine is an old-time pro- 
ducer; it has been idle for nearly 20 years, and is considered 
richer than the Gold Ridge. The lessees have driven a new 
shaft on the vein to a depth of 100 ft. and are drifting at 
that depth under the old workings to open a new orebody. 

The Millionaire mine two miles north of the Gold Ridge, 
which was re-opened two years ago by C. A. Knight and S. E. 
Heberline, has a crew of 20 miners employed. The mill is 
operated periodically. The old works are to be re-opened 
through the new 200-ft. shaft. About $100,000 has been 
spent on the mine in re-modeling the plant and in develop- 
ment. The mill has two 1500-lb. Nissen stamps with circu- 
lar discharge and two 10-ft. amalgamating plates, with a 
crusher and a Standard concentrating table, all driven by 
electric power. 

The Centennial placer diggings, a mile north-east of the 
Gold Ridge, has been re-equipped at an expense of $100,000 
and after an idleness of 15 years. Production has com- 


Bingham. — No mining district in Utah was so adversely 
affected during 1921 as Bingham. At the close of the year 
local mining companies had a total of but 585 employees, 
the smallest number on the payrolls since the pioneer days 
of the camp. The United States Mining Co. continued to 
operate throughout the year, shipping its lead ore to the 
Midvale smelter of the company and its copper ore to the 
Garfield smelter. The company now employs 350 men; 
Utah Consolidated, 50; Utah-Apex, 20; Bingham Mines, 65; 
Utah Copper, 60; Utah-Boston (formerly the New England), 
40. All men receiving more tha $3 per day will be reduced 
50c. per shift on January 16; those receiving less than $3 
will be reduced 40c. per shift. The population of the camp 
has decreased from 8000 in 1918 to about 2 500. It is be- 
lieved the Utah Copper will resume operation on a limited 
scale about April 1, and the Utah Consolidated and Utah- 
Apex will probably resume shortly thereafter. 

Eureka. — More than 70 lessees are now engaged at the 
Grand Central mine. Regular shipments to smelters were 
begun on December 29, by which time about 1000 tons of ore 
had been mined and was ready for shipment. The company 
has given a number of 'contract leases', by the terms of 
which the lessees are paid for footage made in drifts, raises, 
and winzes until ore of shipping grade is found. Thereafter 
the lessee pays for all materials and labor, and also pays 
the company a royalty. A large electrically-driven com- 
pressor has been received and is being installed. 

Ore shipments for the week ended December 31 totaled 
110 cars, as compared with 165 cars for the previous week, 
the decrease being due to the Christmas holidays. The 
Tintic Standard shipped 41 cars; Chief Consolidated, 28; 
Iron Blossom, 10; Victoria, 10; Eagle & Blue Bell, 6; 
Swansea, 4; Grand Central, 4; Dragon, 3; Colorado, 3; and 
Gemini, 1. 

An exceptionally rich find has been made by lessees in 
the Iron Blossom mine. A shipment of 5 tons, averaging 
750 oz. silver per ton, has been forwarded to a Salt Lake 
valley smelter. It is expected the net returns from this 
shipment will be approximately $3 5,000. 

The output of ore from this district during 1921 was the 
largest on record; 8042 cars being shipped, as compared 
with 7397 carloads for 1920 and 6921 for 1919. The largest 
shipper was the Tintic Standard; its output was 2778 cars, 

as compared with 1508 in 1920 and 931 in 1919. The 
Chief Consolidated shipped 1880 cars of ore during 1921, 
as against 1948 in 1920. The general feeling among local 
mining men is that 19 22 will be a more favorable year for 
the Tintic district than 1921. The re-opening of the Grand 
Central mine under a new leasing system; acquisition of 
additional territory by the Chief Consolidated Mining Co.; 
enlargement and improvement in the Tintic Standard mill at 
Goshen; increased activities of lessees, and the expectation 
of higher prices for lead and copper are the principal causes 
for optimism. More men are employed in the district today 
than at any time in its history. A wage cut of 50 c. per day 
will become effective on January 16. 

During 1921 the Tintic Milling Co. shipped about 50,000 
oz. of silver-gold bullion to the Denver mint. Two cars of 
copper-silver bullion were shipped to an Eastern refinery, 
while four cars of lead-silver product was shipped to a Salt 
Lake valley smelter. 

The Eagle & Blue Bell Mining Co. has had, for a number 
of years, a subsidiary company known as the American Star 
Mining Co., which it is proposed to consolidate with the 
parent company. Notices pertaining to the consolidation 
have been mailed to Eagle & Blue Bell stockholders. An 
important discovery has been made on the 2000-ft. level of 
the Eagle & Blue Bell, according to William Owens, superin- 
tendent. Ore has been cut for 30 ft. or more. This is the 
continuation of the immense deposit that has been worked 
on six of the lower levels. 

Park City. — Ore shipments for the week ended December 
31 totaled 1813 tons, as compared with 2602 tons for the 
preceding week; the decrease being due to the suspension of 
operations at all properties over the Christmas holidays. 
The Judge allied companies shipped 827 tons; Silver King 
Coalition, 616 tons; and Ontario, 325 tons. 

During 1921, mines in this district shipped a total of 
83,414 tons, as compared with 102,187 tons for the year 

1920 and 79,299 tons for 1919. The principal reasons for 
the decrease in 1921 shipments were the low prices of lead 
and zinc, and the controversy between the American Smelt- 
ing & Refining Co. and the Silver King Coalition and Daly- 
West companies, which resulted in the suspension of ship- 
ments for several weeks by the mining companies. Of the 

1921 shipments, the Judge allied companies produced 37,666 
tons; Silver King Coalition, 26,556 tons; Ontario, 18,092 
tons; Naildriver, 1005 tons; and New Quincy, 95 tons. 


Chewelah. — High-grade ore said to assay $200 per ton in 
silver has been found in the United Silver Copper company's 
mine, four miles north-east of here. The ore is on the 1400- 
ft. level, where a vein about 10 in. wide has been opened. 

Spokane. — Reductions of freight-charges on products 
from smelters at Tacoma, Northport, Idaho, and Montana to 
Eastern points, approximating $2 per ton, and effective 
January 5, have been announced by officials of the Great 
Northern railway. The reduction affects especially lead de- 
rived from ores of the Coeur d'Alene and shipped from the 
smelters at Kellogg, Idaho, and Northport, Washington. 
While of most interest to lead miners, it applies also to 
spelter, and to copper, silver, and gold bullion. The reduc- 
tion amounts to iV of a cent per pound. While not great in 
itself, it becomes important, according to mining men, when 
added to reductions in the cost of labor and materials. 


Benton. — Several suits for damages have been brought in 
local and Federal courts by farmers against the Wisconsin 
Zinc Co. In the country courts of Lafayette county, Thos. 
Dawson was awarded damage from fumes from the separat- 
ing plant amounting to $900 in settlement of claim brought 
for $3000. Wm. J. Curwen was given an award of $1000 in 

January 14, 1922 



the Federal court his claim being for $ 1 1' ,t A petition 

was tiled whii tin' conn praying (or ■ permanent injunction 
to restrain the Wiaconatn Zinc Co. from operating it ^ mag- 
netic Separators al New Diggings, A new zinc mine, ■>" 

the former Sally Waters leasehold, has been developed. At 
55 ft. a strong deposit of carbonate-zinc ore was opened: it 
was So ft wide and about 4 ft. thick. At 110 ft. several 
'blankets' of sphalerite were opened. 

Cuba rlty. — The Zinc Hill Mining Co.. operating the Big 
Dick mine, resumed active mining operations after a shut- 
down lasting nearly a year; 25 men were put to work. In 
order that marketing may be accelerated the company pur- 
chased the magnetic-separating plant, the property of the 
Linden Zinc Co. it was planned to enlarge and Improve 

this plant. The Connecting Link Mining Co. sold 1200 

tons of low-grade zinc concentrate and 1000 tons of pyrite 
to the National Separators and a fleet of automobile trucks 
was kept in action all month making delivery. 

PlatUnillc. — A decided turn for the better in the zinc- 
mining Industry is noted in the month of December; operat- 
ors express more confidence than for some time. Some mines, 
long idle, resumed active operation; better offerings for all 
grades of zinc ore stimulated selling, and all over the field 
could be found new organizations engaged in prospecting. 

A substantial advance in the price of high-grade blende 
in the Joplin district was reflected in the current offerings in 
the Wisconsin field; $30 per ton. base price, for 60% zinc 
had prevailed, but when this figure became established in 
the Mo-Kans-Okla districts the price in Wisconsin jumped to 
$33 per ton. The separating plants in operation came into 
the market promptly for more milled zinc concentrate; one 
company sold 1200 tons of low-grade zinc concentrate, and 
1000 tons of pyritic concentrate to the National Separators 
at Cuba City. Another company marketed 500 tons of low- 
grade zinc ore, and production was increased at mines pro- 
viding low-grade zinc ore used largely as base for the manu- 
facture of sulphuric acid. 

The price of lead ore was well maintained through De- 
cember, and the demand was good. Producers, however, 
were reluctant sellers, believing the price would go higher, 
and there was little marketing. Many out of employment, 
backed by local business interests, and encouraged in the 
belief that lead-ore prices will remain relatively permanent, 
sought leaseholds and began prospecting. 

There was held in reserve at the close of the year over 
10,000 tons of high-grade separator blende. Nearly all of 
this was in the hands of electro-magnetic separating plants. 
There was also in reserve at mines, over 15,000 tons of zinc 
concentrate of all grades. A conservative estimate places the 
lead ore held at about 3000 tons; of pyritic ore about 25,000 

The Zinc Roofing & Products Co. reported a fair busi- 
ness for zinc shingles and corrugated zinc, for building pur- 
poses in the Southern States. Extensive preparations were 
made for an enlarged business in the products of this con- 
cern over the year 1922. The building of a new 200-ton 
zinc-mill for the Block-House Mining Co. was continued and 
the installation of heavy machinery will prepare the plant 
for service early this coming spring. 


Ainsworth. — The Florence Silver Mining Co., which re- 
cently has been shipping the whole of its output to the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan smelter, has been making negotia- 
tions for the sale of part of its output to paint manufac- 
turing companies on the Coast. The Florence mill produces 
high-grade lead and zinc concentrates, both of which are 
low in silver. 

Alice Ann. — D. Jeremierson has let a contract for the 
hauling of 100 tons of ore from the Esperanza mine, which 
is situated one mile north of here, to the wharf, whence it 

will !>•• snipped t" Anyox. This shipment is an experiment, 
and. if it is found profitable, shipping will be continued. 
Ballna Brothers, the previous owners of the mine, madi 
eral small shipments when metal prices were hlghei 

Kelson, ii C. Thompson ami associates, lessees, have 

done repair work tit the tjtlca and are driving the long tun- 
nel that is expected to cut the main orebody at any time. 
Several good bodies of ore have been found in the old work- 
ings, so, from now on. the mine will lie making regular ship- 
ments to Trail. J. W. Mullhollnnd has started a crew at 

work on the Iva Fern mine; he will superintend the opera- 
tions himself. 

Penttcton. — C. Stevenson and Martin Ravey have made a 
reconnaissance of the Whipsaw district for a Vancouver syn- 
dicate, and it has been decided that a careful survey of the 
districts by competent geologists is to be made next spring, 
with a view to developing a new goldfield. This work has 
been started because the late George Dawson described It as 
a likely district. 

Quesnel. — The Provincial government, at the request and 
at the expense of the owners of the claim, has started drill- 
ing operations on the Lafontaine claim, with a view to re- 
discovering the lost channel. J. D. Galloway, resident min- 
ing engineer for the district, has planned the work which 
will be carried out by C. W. Moore, of Barkerville. 

Victoria. — Owing to returns made by the Premier Gold 
Mining Co. at the very close of the year, which it was antici- 
pated would not have been made in time to be included in 
last year's production, the mineral production of the 
Province will be considerably greater than was expected 
when the official estimate was made; it will reach $28,934,- 
848. The Premier, which has produced more than a million 
ounces of silver and more than 25,000 oz. of gold; will cause 
both the gold and silver productions to be greater than 
those of 1920. The zinc and lead output from the Sullivan 
mine are in excess of what previously was anticipated, so 
that the value of the total mineral output will fall only 
about 15% short of that of 1920. 


Chihuahua. — H. C. Meili and Francisco Chavez, operating 
extensively in the Parral district, have recently re-located 
La Boquilla and San Alberto mines in the Cordero district. 
The San Alberto is to be re-titled under the same name, 
while the Boquilla is hereafter to be known as the Libertad. 
Adjoining these properties are the Chicago, El Toro, San 

Pedro, and La Parcionera mines. Mrs. Adelina de Palma 

has taken up the Joyce, a group of four silver-lead properties 
in the Huerfano mountains, district of Jimenez, in the south- 
ern part of the State. Rosario H. Perez, of Agua Cali- 

ente, is developing some new claims in the municipality of 
Ocampo. He has also re-denounced the Juanita and La 
Esmeralda mines which were allowed to lapse through non- 
payment of taxes by the former owners. Salome 

Escandon has re-located the Guillermina mine in the Ocampo 
district; it is to be re-titled as the San Miguel. It is com- 
posed of six pertenencias bearing gold and silver ores. 

The mining agent at Ciudad Guerrero, in the western part 
of the State, has recorded the Esperanza group of twelve 
claims in the name of Emilio Portillo and Rufino Armenta, 
of Madera. The new claims are situated near the San 
Andres mines. 

Jose Fernandez and Ursulo Garza, of Chihuahua City, 
have applied for titles to their Mariposa group of silver-lead 
mines in the Santa Eulalia district. Development work is 
disclosing some good ore in the main vein of this property. 

Angel F. Campos, commission merchant of Palo Arm- 

arillo, has applied for titles to the Placer de Tojiachic group 
on which he has discovered some good ores of gold, silver, 
and lead. The San Vicente group, comprising five ad- 
joining claims, in the famous Batopilas mining region, has 



January 14, 1922 

been located by Vicente Real. The property is near the old 
Dos Cantones mine which was formerly owned by Yee San 
and Wong Chong. 

Nacozari. — A shipment of tour carloads of ore and con- 
centrate is being made from the Las Chispas mine ot Minas 
Pedrazzini Gold & Silver Co. One car of high-grade will net 
over $100,000 and the whole shipment will produce about 

$160,000. The work on the concentrator of the Mocte- 

zuma Copper Co. is going ahead at top speed. A number of 
men have been transferred here from the work on the 
Bisbee concentrator, and other mechanics and carpenters are 
coming in on every train. 

Torreon. — The Cia. Minera de Pefioles has blown in two 
furnaces of its Torreon plant and is employing several 
hundred men. A number of mines in this vicinity have re- 
sumed operations and are now shipping. The plant here has 
eight lead and one copper furnaces, the capacity of which 
has been increased during the past few months. 


Cobalt. — The annual report of the Coniagas for the year 
ended October 31 shows an output of 1,301,815 oz. of silver, 
as compared with 994,235 oz. in 1920. The profits were 
$422,238. Total assets stand at $6,267,955 as against 
$6,734,972. The tonnage of ore milled was 113,279 tons. 
Operating costs were 33.52c. per ton, as compared with 
48.99c. for the previous year. 

The La Rose is extracting from the 90-ft. level of the 
University the richest ore yet found on the property. On 
the 530-ft. level of the Violet 225 ft. of good ore has been 
opened. The company has enjoyed the most productive 
year of the last five, an advance estimate of profits being in 
the neighborhood of $150,000. 

Ore of a good grade has been cut in drifting on the 6 0-ft. 
level under Giroux lake, on the A 53 property in the Gillies 
Limit. The shoot is 40 ft. long. 

Kirkland Lake. — During November the Lake Shore pro- 
duced $54,343 from the treatment of 1810 tons of ore, being 
an average recovery of $30.02 per ton. The mill ran 92.36 % 
of the possible running time. Some of the ore extracted 
from development work at the 600-ft. level contained up- 
ward of $100 per ton. A report issued to the sharehold- 
ers of the Queen Lebel states that some 4000 ft. of trench- 
ing has been done and six veins opened. No. 5 vein has a 
width of 5 ft. and yields the best assays, running from $1 
up to $33 in gold and 37* oz. silver. It has been stripped 
for about 400 ft. with a test pit 10 ft. deep. 

Two big veins carrying high-grade ore have been opened 
by the Tough-Oakes at a point within 200 ft. of the western 
boundary. The deposits lie along the main break, which 
enters the Tough-Oakes from the Sylvanite, and is regarded 
as of much importance to the latter property, as the main 
break across it is approximately 1500 ft. in length. 

At the Bidgood the vein has been cut at the 400-ft. level, 
where the mineralization extends across a width of over 20 
ft., but the gold content is not so high as on the 300-ft. level. 

Porcupine. — The contemplated reduction of miners' wages 
has gone into effect. The Hollinger Consolidated has an- 
nounced a reduction of 6c. per hour, or 48c. per day, effec- 
tive on January 1. Other mining companies are making a 
similar cut. This is the first reduction made since the close 
of the War and will bring the rate down nearly to the level 

of the Cobalt silver mines. The Dome Mines treated 

about 30,000 tons of ore in November. The mill-heads av- 
eraged $8.40 per ton and the operating costs were about 

$3.50 per ton. The shareholders of the Porcupine Vi- 

pond-North Thompson on December 28 approved the sale of 
the unissued portion of the Treasury stock for 15c. per share. 

Out of six holes drilled by the Nipissing on the 

Rochester property, five showed encouraging gold content. 
One hole showed a section of 5 ft. that assayed $88 per ton. 


The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our readers. 

Louis S. Cates is at Los Angeles. 

W. J. Elmeudorf of Seattle is here. 

W. W. Mein is on his way back to New York. 

Edward Thornton recently made a trip to Nacozari. 

Scott Lintner has left San Francisco for Topia, Mexico. 

H. T. Darlington is at the Brown Palace Hotel, Denver. 

A. Harms, of Rock Island, Illinois, is now at Durango, 

W. O. Pray, recently at De Beque, Colorado, is at Stock- 
ton, California. 

T. W. Mather, who has been at Pacific Grove, California, 
is in New York. 

Joseph Irving was at Tombstone, Arizona, last week. He 
is now at Jerome. 

Mortimer L. Hall has moved from Pasadena, California, 
to Gold Hill, Nevada. 

A. B. Frenzel, formerly at Denver, is now residing at 
Pasadena, California. 

Waldemar M. Brvin has moved from Hesperia, California, 
to Socorro, New Mexico. 

A. L. J. Queneau is managing director for the Var Oil & 
Coal Co. at Boson, in France. 

J. Mackintosh Bell, consulting engineer to the Keeley Sil- 
ver Mines, Ltd., is in London. 

H. Foster Bain, Director of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, was 
in San Francisco early in the week. 

F. G. Jackson is now on the staff of the Bureau of Mines 
Experiment Station at Columbus, Ohio. 

William Loeh, Jr., of the New York office of the American 
Smelting & Refining Co., is at Salt Lake City. 

G. A. Joslin, managing engineer for the Ramshorn Mines 
Co., is now at the head offices at Salt Lake City. 

S. F. Shaw has completed examination of the properties in 
Mexico belonging to the Cia. Metalurgica Mexicana. 

Paul Billingsley, of the International Smelting Co. at Salt 
Lake City, has been inspecting mining properties in central 

William J. Cox has retired as manager for the Camp Bird 
company, and as advisory engineer to the Santa Gertrudis 

J. Walter Foote, mining engineer for the Nevada Consoli- 
dated Copper Co., at Ruth, Nevada, has been spending the 
holidays at Salt Lake City. 

William T. MacDonald, of Salt Lake City, has become mill 
superintendent for the Moctezuma Copper Co. at Nacozari, 
Mexico. He was at Los Angeles last week. 

Hugh M. Henton, formerly instructor in metallurgy at the 
Case School of Applied Science, has entered private practice 
as a consulting mining and metallurgical engineer, with 
headquarters at the National City building, Columbus, Ohio. 

P. H. Pernot spent the greater part of December in making 
examinations in the neighborhood of the Las Chispas mine 
in the Arizpe district, and is now looking over the various 
properties of the Sonora Development Co., in the Moctezuma 

John Dern, a pioneer mining man of Utah and Nevada, 
died at his home in Salt Lake City on January 2. He was 71 
years of age and a native of Germany. Last June he went 
to Europe to visit his old home, and returned in November. 
Shortly thereafter he was stricken with heart trouble, which 
was the cause of his death. He was one of the organizers of 
the Consolidated Mercur Gold Mines Co., and later became 
interested in the Tintic district and in several Nevada min- 
ing properties. He is survived by a son and a daughter. 

January 14, 1922 



metal mm 

San Francisco, January 10 

Aluminum-dust, cents per pound 65 

Aluminum sheets, cents per pound ©0 

Antimony, cents per pound 6.25— 8.25 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 14.75 15.25 

Lead. pig*, cents per pound 4.95 — 5.515 

Platinum, pure, per ounce $93 

Platinum. 10% iridium, per ounce $104 

Zinc, slab, cents per pound 6.75 7.75 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 9. 50 10.00 


(By wire from New York) 
January 0. — Copper is quiet and easier. Lead is inactive and steady. 
Zinc is dull and easy. 

Below are given official or ticker quotations for silver in the open market 
as distinguished from the fixed price obtainable for metal produced, smelted, 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Pittman Act such silver will be purchased by the United States Mint at $1 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eighths of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 
New York London 



3 64.12% 

4 65.00 

6 64.25 

6 64.87% 

7 64.87% 

8 Sunday 

9 66.25 





34.87 % 




Average week ending 
28 67.55 

6 67.27 

12 65.46 

10 66.08 

26 65.60 

2 64.82 

9 64.90 

Monthly averages 


Jan 101.12 

Feb 101.12 

Mch 101.12 

Apr 101.12 

May 107.23 

June 110.60 






July . 


. . .111.35 


Sept. . 

.. .113.92 


Oct. . 



Nov. . 

. . .127.57 


Dec. . 






Average week ending 







PriceB of electrolytic, in cents per. pound. 

Jan. 3 13.62% Nov. 

4 13.62% Dec. 

5 13.62% 

6 13.50 

7 13.50 

" 8 Sunday Jan. 

9 13.50 

Monthly averages 

1920 1921 1919 

19.25 12.94 July 20.82 

19.05 12.84 Aug 22.51 

18.49 12.20 Sept 22.10 

19.23 12.50 Oct 21.66 

19.05 12.74 Nov 20.45 

19.00 12.83 Dec 18.55 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 


Jan 20.43 

Feb 17.34 

Mch 15.05 

Apr 15.23 

May 16.91 

June 17.53 




3 4.70 

4 4.70 

5 4.70 

6 4.70 

7 4.70 

8 Sunday 

9 4.70 

Monthly averages 



Average week ending 












Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 
1920 1921 
62.74 35.94 
59.87 32.16 
61.92 28.87 
62.17 30.36 
54.99 32.50 
48.33 29.39 


Jan 71.50 

Feb 72.44 

Mch 72.50 

Apr 72.50 

May 72.60 

June 71.83 


July 70.11 

Aug 62.20 

Sept 55.79 

Oct 54.83 

Nov 54.17 

Dec 54.94 





. 4.70 

. 4.70 

. 4.70 

. 4.70 

. 4.70 

. 4.70 

. 4.70 



Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery, 
in cents per pound. 


3 r> 17>_. 

4 6.17M 

5 6.1TM 

6 6.18 

7 5.15 

8 Sunday 




Average week ending 



.. 7.44 
. . 6.71 

Mch 6.53 

Apr 6.49 

May 6.43 

June 6.91 



Monthly averages 










5 14 

.-> ■:* 

.-. 31 

.-, 1 II 


.') 10 

4 41 

4 74 

5 09 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 

Date I Dec. 27 48.00 

Dec. 13 52.00 Jan. 3 50.00 

" 20 62.00 I " 10 50.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 103.75 

Feb 90.00 

Mch 72.80 

Apr 73.12 

May 84.80 

June 94.40 




July 100.00 

Aug 103.00 

Sept 102.60 

Oct 86.00 

Nov 78.00 

Dec 96 00 


49 50 


R. L. Agassiz. president of the Calumet & Hecla Mining. Co.. in an article 
in the New York Tribune' of January 1. 1922. said in part: "The copper 
industry is not a charitable institution. Neither is it a mendicant. Having 
plenty of copper in a refined state for any domestic or foreign demand that 
was likely to materialize, it closed most of the mines, and today only a few 
properties actually are operating. How soon the mines will open again 
is a question I shall not attempt to answer. It is a matter that must be 
carefully studied, keeping in mind the thought that if a re-opening of the 
vast producing properties anticipates a demand, which later fails to mani- 
fest itself, the industry is in danger of again creating the very condition 
that it has been wrestling with for the last three years. 

"This condition has been referred to from time to time as one of over- 
production. Actually it is a condition of under-consumption. in part brought 
about in this country by the substitution of cheaper metals and materials 
during the war period, when copper, brass, and bronze were not to be had 
for commercial purposes, and in Europe by a lack of funds wherewith to 
buy our metals. Domestically the situation is steadily improving. Slowly 
but surely copper, brass, bronze, and copper products generally are coming 
back into their own. Europe will buy when Europe has money. Mean- 
while, as is well known, the copper-producing interests, through the agency 
of the Copper Export Association, have done all that they could to help out 
the stricken nations across the water with the raw materials to start some 
of their industries moving. 

"In building enterprises copper and brass have a place that cannot 
profitably be taken by substitutes, just as other metals and materials have 
places in common-sense construction work that copper and its products 
would not be expected to fill. This is gradually coming to be understood 
by those who put their money into building enterprises, and it is one of 
many encouraging developments of the last eighteen months. The orgy 
of cheap substitution seems to be disappearing, and not only in building 
but in other forms of investment our people are realizing that there is no 
real economy in short-lived materials which require constant upkeep and 
replacement charges, no matter how attractive and tempting the slightly 
lower initial cost may be. The electrical industry is regarded today by 
experts ae being in its infancy, however marvelous the developments of the 
last two decades may seem to most of us. Copper has run side by side 
with American inventive genius in bringing this great industry where it is 
at present. 

"The two are inseparable, and we may expect a continued large absorption 
of copper as present electrical enterprises expand and new ventures in this 
field are started. Not only in this country but in South America and Europe 
we hear with great frequency nowadays of new projects having electrical 
power for their base being undertaken. Within a month announcement was 
made that the telephone interests of the United States would spend $80.- 
000,000 during the coming year for additional equipment, a large part of 
which necessarily will be copper. Chile, a few weeks ago. placed a $7,000.- 
000 order in this country for materials to be used in the electrification of 
her railways, and Japan, which has 6000 miles of government-controlled 
railways, began a program of electrification by placing a $5,000,000 order 


Foreign quotations on January 10 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 4.23% 

Demand 4. "4 

Franc, cents: Cable 8.42 

Demand 8.44 

Lira, cents : Demand 4.38 

Mark, cent: 0.62 



January 14, 1922 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, January 4. 

The year commences with the tone of all the markets 
good; there is optimism as to future activity. Prices are 
firm to strong. 

The copper market is temporarily inactive, but prices are 
firm to strong. Moderate activity characterized the closing 
days of the old year with prices firm. 

The lead market is steady and fairly active with no change 
in prices. 

Demand for zinc is very light, but changes in quotations 
are slight. 

Antimony remains lifeless and stationary. 

The steel trade enters upon the new year in a spirit of 
hopefulness, says 'The Iron Age'. It expects 1922 to be 
better than 1921. The fact is emphasized that the country 
has been swept bare of steel and that consumers, having 
used considerably more material in 1921 than the mills 
shipped them, now have the mills as their sole dependence. 
While capacity will continue well in excess of demand, a 
60% scale of operation at some time in the new year is not 
considered too much to expect. 

The year 1921 goes down in the records as a 38% year 
in steel. Ingot production probably exceeded 19} million 
tons, against 40,881,000 tons in 1920. The immediate 
future of demand and prices is not clear. 

Holiday banking of blast-furnaces amounted to much less 
than was looked for. Production in December was 1,649,086 
tons, or 53,196 tons per day, as compared with 1,415,481 
tons in November, or 47,183 tons per day. The daily in- 
crease was about 6000 tons, or 13%. Six furnaces blew-in 
last month and one blew-out, the number active on January 
1 being 125, against 120 one month previous. 

The last week or two of the old year has been quiet both 
as to buying and inquiry for copper. The price has main- 
tained its stability, however, and quotations for electrolytic 
copper are quite firm at 13.62ic, New York or refinery, and 
13.87Jc, delivered, for early or January delivery. For first 
quarter the minimum is probably 13.75c, New York, or 14c. 
delivered. A few large producers are asking more. Rumors 
that 13.87}c, delivered, could be or had been shaded Jc. 
were not confirmable yesterday and it is doubtful if this is 
true. At any event, the amount thus available was prob- 
ably small. Optimism rules as to the future. Prospects are 
excellent for good domestic demand and continued excellent 
foreign buying. Mining operations in some quarters are to 
be resumed as rapidly as the necessarily slow process can be 


The last week of the year was a moderately active one. 
While very little business was done in future-shipment 
Straits tin, there were fairly good sales of early-arrival 
metal and spot-delivery shipment, although even this total 
was small. The London market yesterday was £2 per ton 
under quotations a week ago at £168 12s. 6d. for spot stand- 
ard, at £170 10s. for future standard, at £170 per ton for 
spot Straits. Deliveries into consumption in December are 
returned as 3710 tons, of which only 110 tons is credited to 
Pacific ports. Metal in stock on December 31 was 516 tons 
with 1180 tons landing, a total of 169 6 tons. Imports for 
the year 1921 are reported as 24,758 tons or less than 50% 
of the 1920 imports of 50,563. Of the 1921 imports, 20,319 
tons came from the Straits Settlements. 

The last two or three days of the old year were featured 

by brisk sales by a few producers on a basis of 4.40c, St. 
Louis. A firmer market at St. Louis is the result and is the 
only change, the New York price of the independents and the 
leading interest remaining at 4.70c, which has been the 
quotation of the latter since some time in September 1921. 
The London market continues strong. 


Demand has been and is light as the new year opens. 
There is not a broad market in sheets as yet and this affects 
the spelter market. However, there is some buying, mostly 
of carload lots, which has been done at 4.82$ and 4.85c, St. 
Louis, depending on the seller. The market for early de- 
livery is quoted at 4.82ic, St. Louis, or 5.12Jc, New York, 
for January, with five points advance over the 4.85c level 
both of February and of March. While but little new busi- 
ness is in sight, the tone of the market is by no means pessi- 
mistic, for the stocks in consumers' hands are not large. 
Price liquidation was complete in 1921. With the high for 
the year at 6.10c, New York, in January and with the low 
at 4.62ic, New York, in August, the closing price of 5.12Jc. 
compares with 5.76c. and 5.27c in 1913 and 1914, re- 


Quotations for wholesale lots for early delivery are un- 
changed at 4.50c, New York, duty paid, with little buying 


The leading producer quotes wholesale lots of 15 tons at 
19.10c. per pound, f.o.b. plant, which is 10 points higher 
than quotations in 50-ton lots. The same grade, or im- 
ported metal, 98 to 99% pure, is quoted by importers at 
17 to 18c, New York, duty paid. 


Tungsten: There are no features or developments and 
quotations remain nominal at $2 per unit and higher, de- 
pending on the grade, etc. 

Molybdenum: Nominal quotations prevail of 45 to 50c. 
per pound of MoS. in regular concentrates containing 85% 

Manganese: There is absolutely no interest, in the market 
and prices are nominal at 20c. per unit, c.i.f. Atlantic ports. 
Imports in November were only 8620 tons, bringing the total 
to December 1 to 386,454 tons as compared with 542,189 
tons to December 1, 1920. 

Chrome: No demand from consumers is reported and 
nominal quotations prevail of $20 to $28 per net ton, c.i.f. 
Atlantic ports. 


Ferro-manganese: Sales are confined to carload lots at 
prevailing quotations of $58.35 per ton, seaboard, for both 
British and American alloy, except that of the Steel Corpora- 
tion which sells at $60, Pittsburgh, when in the market. 
Imports to November were only 270 tons, making the total 
8818 tons to December 1 against 53,830 tons to December 
1, 1920. 

Splegeleisen : An inquiry for 150 tons is the only de- 
velopment except sales of carload lots at $26, furnace, for 
the 20% alloy. 

Perro-tungsten : Business is flat at nominal quotations of 
40 to 45c per pound of contained tungsten in the domestic 
alloy, with the foreign quoted at 50c, seaboard. 

Ferro-silicon: The 50% alloy market is quiet with quo- 
tations unchanged at $55 to $57 per ton, delivered. 

Ferro-chromiuni: No change is recorded in a dull market. 
Quotations are 11 to 14c. per pound, delivered, depending on 
the grade, quantity, and composition. 

Jai uary H. 1922 







During late years the builders of steam-driven air-com- 
pressors have made little effort to improve the steam- 
economy of their machines. The development of the steam- 
driven air-compressor has not kept pace with the develop- 
ment of the steam-engine — today the steam-consumption 
per unit of work of the former is much higher than that of 
the most modern steam-engine built for general service. 
There has been an urgent need for improvement in com- 


The foremost feature is the steam-cylinder, which is so 
designed and constructed that initial condensation is almost 
entirely eliminated, resulting in a great saving in steam. 
Initial condensation is one of the greatest preventable losses 
in steam-engines of the old counterflow or compound types; 
it is caused by the cooling of the cylinder-walls and cylin- 
der-head by the comparatively cool exhaust steam as it 
washes over them in leaving the cylinder through the same 
port by which it entered. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co.'s Dual-Flow Steam-Driven Air- Compressor 

pressor design and this need has been greatly increased by 
th widespread and ever-growing use of superheated high- 
pressure steam. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. has taken an initial step 
in meeting present-day demands, and is now producing a 
steam-driven air-compressor in which far better steam- 
economy is obtainable than has heretofore been found pos- 
sible and which meets, as does no other, the conditions im- 
posed by superheated high-pressure steam. 

The steam-end of the 'dual-flow steam-driven air-com- 
pressor', as the new machine is called, is entirely new and 
distinctive — yet it is not an experimental innovation. The 
design is based upon principles which have already proved 
their soundness and superiority in steam-engine practice. 

In the dual-flow cylinder, the exhaust steam does not 
wash back over the walls and head, but leaves through a 
port in the centre of the cylinder. Thus the interior sur- 
faces of the cylinder remain at nearly the same temperature 
as the entering steam, and initial condensation is reduced to 
the absolute minimum. The exhaust port is uncovered by 
the piston when the latter has traveled about half its stroke. 
The exhaust is controlled, however, by a patented steam- 
tight poppet valve, which opens when the piston is near the 
end of its stroke and closes again (if the machine is run- 
ning non-condensing) when the piston covers the port on 
the return stroke. When running condensing, the valve 
closes early in the return stroke. 

The dual-flow cylinder has several advantages over uni- 



January 14. 1922 

flow types. In the first place, it enables a material saving 
in steam-consumption when running non-condensing. Since 
the piston of a uniflow engine covers the exhaust-port at 
the start of the return-stroke, some provision must be made 
for preventing excessive compression. This usually takes 
the form of large clearing spaces. If there is any back- 
pressure, there must be still greater clearance. Compres- 
sion in the dual-flow cylinder, on the other hand, does not 

nected to the steam-valve eccentric, and by changing the 
throw of the latter it changes the point of the cut-off of 
the steam entering the cylinder. This method is far su- 
perior to the old scheme of merely throttling the steam. 
Variations in speed may be made by adding or removing 

Unlike the old counterflow engines, which were regulated 
economically by slowing down during the unloaded periods 
of the compressor, the dual-flow is a constant-speed machine, 
and shows the best steam-economy when operating at its 
greatest speed. Regulation is therefore effected by two-step 
capacity control: two differential unloaders connect with the 
inlet-valves, and reduce the capacity of the compressor in 
two steps. One unloader holds open the inlet-valves on the 

Sectional View of Compressor 

begin until the piston has traveled half the return stroke. 
The result can be plainly seen by referring to Fig. 1, in 
which the diagram of a dual-flow cylinder is superimposed 
upon that of a large-clearance uniflow machine. 

The area 'A' is lost by the uniflow machine, owing to early 
compression; it must be offset by the area 'Z', which means 
the addition of more steam, later cut-off, higher release, and 
less expansion. 

Secondly, the dual-flow design permits of shorter cylinder 
and much shorter piston, hence the weight of the recipro- 
cating parts is considerably less. 

Thirdly, there is less friction and the cylinder can be 
more easily lubricated. 

Valve-leakage probably causes a greater steam loss than 

(A) (B) 

Fig. 1. Steam-Diagrams 

any other single factor. Especially is this true of installa- 
tions where superheated high-pressure steam is used; in 
fact the faults common in most of the valves now used, such 
as leakage, excessive clearance, necessity of valve lubrica- 
tion, etc., have served to defeat the advantage to be derived 
from the use of superheated steam. 

The valve problem has been solved in the case of the 
dual-flow steam-driven air-compressor by the adoption of 
the Skinner steam-tight double-seat poppet-valve (patented) 
for both admission and exhaust. This valve will remain 
steam-tight indefinitely and will seat perfectly, regardless 
of the pressure or temperature under which the cylinder is 
operated. It has been known to keep steam-tight with one 
grinding, with 159 lb. pressure and 150°F. superheat and 
also with saturated steam at 100-lb. pressure. No lubrica- 
tion is required. 

Inequalities of expansion of the metals forming the valve 
and seat, due to different co-eflicients of expansion, are 
entirely compensated for; and there is no side-thrust im- 
posed upon the stem by the lifting mechanism. 

The governor is mounted in the flywheel and operates by 
centrifugal force and inertia. The governor-arm is con- 

Sectional View of the Steam-Cylinder 

crank-end of one cylinder and the head-end of the other; 
the second unloader holds open the inlet-valves at the 
opposite ends. This is one of the simplest, most positive, 
and most efficient methods of regulation known. 

The air-valves are of the well-known Simplate independ- 
ent-disc type. 


Industrial Works, of Bay City, Michigan, is distributing 
catalogue No. 113, illustrating and describing the Type BC 
'Industrial' crawling-tractor crane of 20,000 lb. capacity. 
This crane is adapted to the needs of road contractors, lum- 
ber and coal dealers, gravel, sand, and stone producers, 
foundries, and other moderate-size industrial plants. 

It is generally conceded that the year now opening will 
bring in its course the beginning of the long-heralded boom 
in electric-light and power-plant construction. As an indi- 
cation of this approaching activity, Dwight P. Robinson & 
Co., engineers and constructors of New York and Chicago, 
have secured important contracts from the Duquesne Light 
Co. of Pittsburgh and the New Orleans Railway & Light Co. 
The work for the Duquesne Light Co. includes the installa- 
tion of the second unit of 60,000 kw. at the Colfax Power 
Station, together with three additional substations along the 
company's lines in the Pittsburgh district. The Colfax sta- 
tion is designed ultimately to be one of the largest steam 
stations in the country, containing six 6 0,000-kw. units. 
The first unit was put in operation last year and the installa- 
tion of the second unit now authorized is a part of the com- 
pany's plan to provide additional facilities as the demand for 
power increases. The New Orleans Railway & Light Co. is 
proceeding with extensive additions to its power-plant and 
distributing systems, including the installation of a 20,000- 
kw. turbine and auxiliaries. 



Rick* ho. editor 


Associate Editors 


Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 
Member Assoc lit tod IHisdnMl 1 'spurs, Inf. 


Ptibihhr,' n' ;■. u r ' ' St, San Frnnctoco. 
/>y tftr Dewy Publtohtno <'<'mpanv 


C.T. Hutchinson, manaqkr 

E. h. Leslie. 000 dsmcr boo , chicaso 

F. A. WEisle, 31 Nassau St., New York 

"""""""""' mm hi tjinmmimmimmiiiimim 1 11111111111111111111 iimmiimiimiimiimiimi mm imimmii iiiimiiitmimiimiimiiii iimtmimiimiiiimiimimiimi 


Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 21, 1922 

$•1 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 





The coating of various materials with metal by 
spraying. History of the invention. Material 
used. Application of the process. M. & S. P.. 
Jan. 21, 1922. 


Washington Conference. Exchange. Attitude of 
Prance. The so-called German menace. Alliances. 
Looking forward. M. & S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 

Comparing the human machine with a power-plant. 
Consumption of fuel. Air used in each case. Ex- 
perimental work. Results. Importance of physi- 
cal fitness. Efficiency. Average fitness. Definite 
statistics. M. & S. P.. Jan. 21, 1922. 



By C. W. Purington 

Communistic principle. The Russian laborer. 
Early history. Production of Alaska. Coloniza- 
tion. Japanese influence. Influence of Norse stock. 
M. & S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 


By R. Allison Purvis 

An experience under soviet conditions. 
Jan. 21, 1922. 

M. & S. P., 






By A. C. Halferdahl 83 

Reply to Mr. Fahrenwald. Gibbs' equation. Dy- 
namic and static value of surface-tension. M. & 
S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 


By William Crocker 84 

Observations in Arizona. Root structure of the 
plant. M. & S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 


By Harai R. Layng 84 

Chloridizing volatilization at Randsburg. A sug-' 
gestion. M. & S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 



By Walter S. Weeks S5 

Utility of magnetic instruments. Descriptions. 
Operation. Comment on a recent article. M. & 
S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 


By A. W. Allen 90 

Locality. Details of the installation. M. & S. P., 
Jan. 21, 1922. 


By J. K. Turner 93 

Geology. Metals produced. History. M. & S. P., 
Jan. 21, 1922. 


By V. C. Heikes 95 

Value of production. Gold. Silver. Copper. Lead. 
Zinc. Dividends paid. M. & S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 



M. & S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 


M. & S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 

M. & S. P., Jan. 21, 1922. 









Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Press; name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. 

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Cable address: Pertusola. 



January 21. 1922 

These Companies Know The Advantage 
Of The Low Pulp-Line Features 
Embodied In Marcy Mill Construction 

USE Marcy Mills to secure economy 
and efficiency in your ore-reducing 

The Marcy Ball-Mill will take coarse feed 
and reduce it to any fineness. The size of 
the product is determined by a classifier or 

The Marcy Roller-Mill takes finer feed 
than the Ball-Mill and is particularly 
adapted as a grinder for table concentration 
— making a uniform product with a mini- 
mum amount of slimes. When operated 
in conjunction with a mechanical classifier 
it will produce a flotation product. 

After prolonged and exhaustive tests the 
Phelps- Dodge Corporation selected the 
Roller-Mill for all its plants. 

Bulletins describing the Marcy Ball-Mill and 
the Marcy Roller-Mill gladly sent on request 




Cerro de Pasco 


Silver King 






Real del Monte 

American S. & 
R. Company 

Copper Co. 

The Mine and Smelter Supply Co. 


New York Office: 

42 Broadway 

Salt Lake City 

El Paso 

Pacific Coast Office: 

Mills Building, Sao Fraoc'sco 


Marcy Ball-Mill Installation 


Marcy Roller-Mill Installation 

January 81, L922 




mini iiiiini iniUIIIIIIUIIimillllllHIl 

DESUMPTION of mining operations is announced 
-*•*■ from the Lake Superior copper region. The Calu- 
i ii<- 1 & Ilr, la. Ahmeek, Allouez, and Isle Royale will start 
again on April 1. Men will be put to work from time to 
time before that date to repair the plants and restore 
tin- equipment. It is not expected that production will 
lie more than half the normal at first, but it will be in- 
creased as rapidly as the market for copper improves. 

A X important though perhaps selfish reason for the 
** cementing of the ties between the great . English- 
speaking peoples may be found in the statistics recently 
issued by the Department of Commerce, and reproduced 
in our news columns, on the export trade of the United 
States with the remainder of the world. Great Britain 
was our best customer during 1921, buying goods to the 
value of about $940,000,000 ; our sales to Canada during 
the same period were the next highest and totaled about 
$600,000,000. Volume of business, by and large, may be 
taken as an indication of goodwill and an evidence of 
international amity. 

rPHAT arbitrary restrictions limiting individual effi- 
■*• ciency have had a pernicious effect on industrial 
progress is the opinion of Mr. George H. Bruns, who 
discusses the question of wages in a recent issue of the 
'Annalist'. Limitation rides promulgated by labor- 
unions tend to destroy all pride of performance on the 
part of the worker. Increase of output is essential if 
high wages are to be maintained. On the other hand, a 
rate of pay that is disproportionate to the cost of living 
has been shown to result in poor physique, as well as 
low standards and ideals of living; it leads to limited 
education and lessened efficiency as a result of dimin- 
ished vitality, causing slack work and restrained produc- 
tion. If a high standard of output be attained by Labor, 
there need be no fear as to the rate of wages that Capital 
can afford to pay. 

QUITE as essential as the knowledge of the purposes 
for which an instrument is useful, is the apprecia- 
tion of its limitations. Judging from the character of 
the questions asked in sundry letters we have received 
recently, the article in this issue on 'Magnetic Pros- 
pecting' should serve a double purpose, for there ap- 
pears to be some misapprehension as to the applica- 
bility of the various instruments, in which the magnetic 

• - Editor 


needle is the essential element, for ascertaining the ex- 
istence and position of orebodies. Mr. Walter S. Weeks. 
Associate Professor of Mining in the University of Cali- 
fornia, is known to our readers by the valuable series of 
articles on mine-ventilation that we published about a 
year ago. As might be expected, Mr. Weeks goes to the 
root of the problem, explaining in plain terms the theory 
of the various instruments and the methods of using 
them. He advises the non-technical prospector not to 
attempt to use any of the instruments except the dip- 
compass. We invite engineers who have been successful 
in using the magnetometer, or any kindred device, to 
send us detailed data regarding their methods and the 
results obtained. These will supplement the excellent 
article we now publish. 

/~~* REEN spectacles and orange spectacles make the same 
^-7 thing look different. We are reminded of this truism 
by a letter received from a metallurgical engineer resid- 
ing at Wallace, Idaho. He calls attention to an "error" 
appearing in a recent article in which was described an 
ingenious method of welding, at the Bunker Hill smelter, 
sundry broken cast-iron pots by the oxy-acetylene process. 
The article in question appeared under 'Industrial Prog- 
ress' and was written by an engineer for the firm that 
devised the scheme for successfully making the weld. He 
stated that the repair was made on an 8-ton pot, that 
being the approximate weight of the iron of which the 
pot was composed. Our metallurgical friend writes to 
correct the statement ; the pots, he says, were 50- and 
60-ton pots. Both engineers have in mind the same pots, 
and both are right. The welder with orange spectacles — 
we believe that is the color of the goggles he wears — saw 
an empty pot composed of 8 tons of cast-iron ; the smelter- 
man, whose mental spectacles were different in color, pic- 
tured the same pot full of molten metal, the weight of 
which, he knew, was about 50 tons. 

OUR attention was drawn recently to a number of 
definitions of metallurgical apparatus that appear 
in 'A Glossary of the Mining and Mineral Industry', 
published in 1920. We select one of these to indicate the 
need for a revision before a second edition is published : 
"Dorr Classifier. A machine to diminish the amount of 
water required for classification by raking the heavier 
grains up an inclined plane against a light current of 
water, which washes away the lighter material. It is 



January 21, 1922 

of the intermittent type". This travesty of an attempt 
to define a machine of sueh well-known characteristics as 
the Dorr classifier was taken from a handbook, a second 
edition of which has recently appeared ; in this it is to 
be noted that no correction has been made to modify the 
definition to conform to current knowledge or interpre- 
tation. The handbook in question was written by a well- 
known and esteemed engineer ; but, like all human effort, 
it is far from perfect. Several defects would be notice- 
able to a specialist in one of the many phases of chemical 
and metallurgical work, particularly in reference to de- 
scriptions of apparatus, all of which appear to have been 
transferred bodily into the 'Glossary'. The repetition of 
mistakes in second and subsequent editions of text-books 
is becoming increasingly common, and is due almost 
wholly to the dislike of critical reviews by those who pro- 
claim that a reviewer who discloses error or mis-state- 
ment is merely advertising his knowledge as a specialist 
in order to triumph over the author. 

^INC or copper shingles, for roofing houses or other 
*-* buildings, have many advantages. They are almost 
indestructible and require no protective coating. Re- 
pairs are unnecessary and maintenance costs are nil. They 
are now designed to meet the taste of either the utili- 
tarian or the ajsthete, and are oxidized at the plant in 
such a manner that color and texture can be produced to 
suit the fancy of the most exacting. Being of metal, the 
hazard of fire is avoided ; moreover, they are easy to lay. 
No soldering is necessary, one nail per shingle being all 
that is necessary. The cost of the base metals is never 
likely to be so low again as it is at the present time. 
Copper shingles are made of what is known as nine- 
ounce sheeting, and roofing of this material weighs but 
84 pounds per 100 square feet ; the cost is about twice 
that of wood. Zinc is even cheaper, shingles of this 
metal being obtainable for little more than 15% in excess 
of the cost of wooden shingles, according to Mr. Harold 
Blake of the Anaconda company. Engineers in charge 
of new construction, house-builders, and those who fore- 
see the need of repairs to their roofs in the near future 
would do well to study the comparative advantages of 
the various types of all-metal shingle being manufactured 
and now on the market. . 

I" AST week, in our news columns, we published sundry 
-*- J remarks on the status of the silver , market, taken 
from a speech delivered by Mr. F. W. Baker, chairman 
of the Mexican Corporation, Ltd., at its annual meeting 
in London. By the way, it is a pleasure to note that Mr. 
Baker has recovered from a recent severe illness and is 
able once more to attend to his many duties in the City. At 
the Camp Bird company's annual meeting, he made fur- 
ther reference to the silver market, emphasizing the point 
that the predominant factors are the trade balance of 
India and the needs of China. Upon the demand in the 
Far East the price of silver depends now as in the recent 
past. If this Eastern demand becomes normal and if 
European liquidation ceases, then, with the help of the 

Pittman Act, there should be a good price for the world's 
silver output. Mr. Baker made an interesting reference 
to a proposal, on the part of the Mexican government, to 
subsidize silver by means of a guaranteed minimum price 
for the silver produced in Mexico. He appears still to en- 
tertain some hope of this suggestion being put into effect. 
The melting of old silver and the liquidation of silver 
reserves in Europe have had a depressing influence dur- 
ing the last three or four years ; it is reasonable to hope 
that this process of reduction is nearly at an end and 
that, per contra, the time is coming when the European 
governments will take steps to strengthen their monetary 
systems by adding to their silver coinage. 

C* CONTRIBUTIONS to 'Discussion' this week start with 
^ an interesting and comprehensive account of the de- 
velopment of industry on the East Siberian littoral by 
Mr. Chester W. Purington, who, on account of his pro- 
fessional work in that part of the world, is thoroughly 
familiar with the regions that face each other across the 
North Pacific ocean. In order to enable the reader to 
follow his description we have caused a map to be pre- 
pared ; this in itself will be of value by showing the 
geographic relations between Alaska, Japan, and Eastern 
Siberia. Mr. Purington wrote on his way to Yokohama. 
Next comes a timely letter from Mr. R. Allison Purvis, 
who writes from La Salada, in Colombia. He gives a 
vivid description of his experiences under the Soviet 
government, referring more particularly to the efforts to 
re-start the Russo-Asiatic enterprise, as reported in our 
issue of November 12. The flotation researches of Mr. 
Fahrenwald are discussed by Mr. A. C. Halferdahl, an- 
other specialist in that branch of technology. Mr. Wil- 
liam Crocker writes from Phoenix, Arizona, on the dis- 
tribution of plants as an indication of ore deposits, and 
links the presence of particular plants in particular lo- 
calities with the character of their roots. Mr. Harai R. 
Layng advocates the use of volatilization methods in the 
treatment of the silver ore at Randsburg. 

rpHAT the efforts to reorganize, the world on a peaceful 
-*- basis excite the interest of engineers is shown by the 
action taken a few days ago by the San Francisco Elec- 
trical Development League. The president of this or- 
ganization is Mr. Robert Sibley, editor of the 'Journal of 
Electricity and Western Industry'. At a meeting on 
January 9 the following resolution was passed : "In view 
of the fact that Senator Hiram W. Johnson. United 
States Senator from California, has publicly stated that 
he is not in favor of the present limitation of armament 
as proposed at the national capital and is openly criti- 
cizing the proposed articles that have been drawn up by 
the Disarmament Conference, be it resolved by the San 
Francisco Electrical Development League, composed of 
700 men interested in the development of central Cali- 
fornia, that we by open vote in our organization show 
our disapprobation of Senator Johnson's public utter- 
ances regarding the Disarmament Conference and hereby 
express to Secretary Hughes and his associates our whole- 

January L'l. 1922 


hearted end enthusiastic endorsement of the disarmament 
work of the i lonference". With tliis resolution, of course, 
we agree cordially. Senator Johnson's function in pub- 
lic life is chiefly vituperative; he is destructive, nol 
constructive; his usefulness is largely at a discount at a 
time when must earnest men are co-operating for the 
purpose of rehabilitating a civilisation that has been 
shattered by shell-shock. We join with the Electrical 
Development League in endorsing the good worh done 
by the President ;i n « 1 Mr. Hughes at Washington. In the 
furtherance of their purpose lies the hope of restoring 
industry, and bringing peace to a troubled world. 


naving With Atomized Metal 

The increasing appreciation of the usefulness of corn- 
el air has facilitated research in connection with 
the application of protective coats of various kinds of 
adhering materials. Painting is now don,, by a system of 
atomi/ation and spraying; the fire-proofing and the pro- 
tection of timbers underground arc effected cheaply by 
the use of the 'cement-gun': the latest use of spraying is 
seen iii the Schoop process, by which metal may be 
atomize, | and deposited by air on the surface of the article 
to be coated. The inventor, Mr. M. U. Schoop, describes 

the development of the idea in a recent issue of the ' ( 'om- 

pressed Air Magazine'. Among the earlier tests was one 
in which lie employed a small cannon to shoot tin and 
lead granules against sheet-iron plates, the idea being to 
form a protective coating. Later, molten metal was used 
in such a way that a thin stream was diffused and de- 
posited by the atomizing action of superheated steam or 
air at high pressure. Subsequent work showed that satis- 
factory diffusion could be obtained with air at a com- 
paratively low pressure. The use of metal in the form of 
dust or powder was the second step in the development 
of a practicable system, the material being projected by a 
stream of compressed air that was blown through a Run- 
sen burner of concentric design, the flame from which 
rendered the metal soft or molten. The primary idea 
was to find a means to utilize powdered zinc, which is 
available and cheap, for the galvanizing of iron and 
steel. The inventor next used metal wires, which could 
be melted by an oxy-acetylene flame, or by means of an 
electric current, and then sprayed and deposited by the 
impulse of expanding gases or by compressed air. Elec- 
tricity proved to be the more flexible heating medium, be- 
cause the temperatures obtainable by the use of the arc 
make it practicable to use a larger variety of metals for 
the purpose, some of high melting-points. The 'pistol' 
that is used carries two metal terminals, connected with 
the source of current ; these are brought together and 
then separated so that an arc is formed. A suitable 
mechanism feeds the wires forward at the requisite speed. 
As the metal is melted it is blown, toward the object to be 
coated, by means of a jet of compressed air, delivered at 
a pressure of about three atmospheres. 

In some eases powdered metal is obtainable at a low- 
price, and is then used in place of the wire. The dust is 
delivered by compressed air into the flame of a specially 

designed 0x3 acetylene burner, or an incandescent elec- 
tric arc in which carbon electrodes are used. Mr. Sidney 

Mornington, who discusses the process in the 'Magazine', 

states that the projection and adherence of the metal 

takes place faster than do the reactions that are neces- 
sary to promote oxidation. It has been demonstrated re- 

peatedl] thai lead can be fused and sprayed by means of 
a stream of heated oxygen, to form a homogeneous layer 
of metal, and without evidence of any oxidation having 
occurred. The 'pistol' weighs but 3.3 pounds; the elec- 
tric machine consumes 40 amperes at 25 to :{() volts, 
together with about 18 cubic feet of compressed air per 
minute. The apparatus is mounted on a portable truck, 
which can be moved wherever spraying operations are 
necessary. A skilled workman can coat one square yard 
of surface in about six minutes. 

The process has found extensive application for the 
galvanizing, as a protection against rusting, of bridges 
and railroad cars, the thickness of zinc deposited varying 
from 0.003 to 0.005 of a millimetre. High-tension por- 
celain insulators are partly coated with copper to ensure 
a satisfactory contact. Iron containers are protected 
with a deposit of aluminum, and thus the expense of the 
solid-metal article is avoided. Lead surfacing is adopted 
to protect apparatus from the corrosive effects of acid; a 
further use for the process may be predicted in connection 
with the eoating of equipment that is used for the leach- 
ing of copper ores. An interesting application has been 
described in connection with the coating with lead of 
Pelton-wheel buckets. In one Swiss hydro-electric power- 
station it was found that the buckets were abraded by 
the sand and gravel in the water; experiments then 
demonstrate^ that buckets that had been coated with 
lead by the new process were peculiarly resistive to the 
abrasive action of the sand, the explanation being that 
the impact serves only to hammer the lead more deeply 
into the minute crevices on the surface of the casting. 
Other applications will doubtless be discovered, all of 
which will serve to emphasize the growing importance of 
the mining of copper, lead, and zinc, and the fact that 
expanding civilization and inventive genius will demand 
an ever-increasing supply of these primary essentials to 
industrial and domestic progress. 

The Land of Our Children 

We do not hesitate to refer to the Washington Con- 
ference again, even in a technical paper such as ours, 
because the subject is one that must engage the attention 
of every earnest citizen in this and in other countries. 
Moreover, the success of the Conference is exerting, and 
will continue to exert, a powerful influence upon the trend 
of business, including that of the mining industry, because 
the market for metals, especially in foreign countries, is 
linked with the restoration of amicable relations between 
the peoples of the earth. That reminds us of the pro- 
posed Economic Conference to be held at Genoa in March, 
when, it is hoped, measures will be taken to stabilize in- 
ternational exchange. This hope will not be realized 
merely by conversations across a table nor even by the 



January 21, 1922 

signing of agreements. Many writers on this thorny sub- 
ject seem to imagine that international exchange can be 
regulated by arrangement ; one might as well try to make 
a summer by boiling the thermometer. Exchange is a 
symptom ; it registers a condition ; it is neither a theory 
nor a condition, but merely an indicator of the state of 
business between countries. What is needed to correct 
exchange and to prevent the fluctuations that now under- 
mine international trade is a disarming of the bellicose 
peoples of Europe not only materially but mentally. So 
long as France asserts her intention to base her security 
on her strong right arm, and so long as the countries of 
eastern Europe threaten each other with armies the cost 
of which is sending them down the slippery slope to bank- 
ruptcy, there can be no exchange favorable to trade with 
the United States and other countries that are trying to 
put their own house in order and are endeavoring to per- 
suade others to do likewise. Of France and the stand 
made by her representatives at Washington, we speak 
more in sorrow than in anger. She has gone far to wreck 
the Conference by her cynical pose, but that pose is an 
evidence of consistency, for ever since the War it has been 
claimed by her statesmen that the talk of international 
goodwill and world peace was mere idealistic piffle in face 
of a resourceful and unrepentant Germany waiting to re- 
deem the recent failure of an effort to crush France and 
dominate Europe. Yet today France is beggaring herself 
by maintaining the biggest army in the world and is 
striving to supplement that army with a navy of excessive 
size, thereby spending not only her meagre funds but 
withdrawing from productive industry her young men, 
who ought to be engaged in useful work, while, across the 
border, Germany is spending nothing in mfa or money 
on army or navy, and therefore is able to apply her entire 
manhood to productive industry, the result of which in- 
evitably will be to aggrandize Germany at the expense of 
France. To this a Frenchman would answer: We con- 
cede the point, but what is France to do in face of the 
German menace ? The logical corrective, we submit, is an 
undertaking by England and the United States to protect 
France in the event of German attack. That is the one 
step that would do most to ensure peace. We have the 
Pacific pact, why not a similar European agreement ? It 
is well enough for some of our people, represented by a 
powerful group in the Senate, to object to foreign en- 
tanglements, but what folly it is to object to such agree- 
ments during times of peace when it is inevitable that we 
will be drawn into them during times of war ! Is it not 
better to undertake now to defend France from attack, 
and so prevent the attack, than be obliged later to join in 
a war resulting from the lack of such an understanding 1 
If France and Germany fight again, the next war, like 
the last, will entangle the rest of us; why not therefore 
have a peaceful entanglement rather than another bloody 
Armageddon in the years to come ? Surely the idea that 
we can remain detached from a world war is out of date ; 
we are members of a comity of nations and we can no 
more escape the danger of participation in the next con- 
flict than we were able, with the best intentions, to avoid 

entanglement in the last. Wireless telegraphy, the aero- 
plane, and the submarine have drawn the nations to- 
gether with a nearness that is pleasant during times of 
peace but deadly during periods of strife. Surely that is 
one of the lessons of the Washington Conference. We 
have not only realized our place in the comity of nations 
but we have awakened to our responsibilities as the rich- 
est and most fortunate of all the nations. One reason 
why relatively we are the most prosperous nation today 
is that we escaped the full consequences of the War; 
we entered late ; we made an enormous amount of money 
out of the belligerents before we entered ; and the War 
ended soon after we entered ; so our loss of manhood was 
comparatively slight, and even the cost of our military 
participation was compensated by our gains before and 
after we joined the belligerents. That is why today the 
United States is in a dominant position. The President 
and his administration realize the facts; they are avail- 
ing themselves of our national predominance in their 
effort to restore peaceful conditions and to prevent fur- 
ther trouble. In all these matters it would be better if 
we could form the habit of looking at our country as the 
land of our children. It is well enough to be proud of 
the "founding fathers", as the President calls them, and 
it is natural that we should regard our progenitors with 
pride, but, after all, what we do now will not affect them. 
We hark back to the past too much, we look forward too 
little. Let the dead past bury its dead ; the past is irre- 
trievable, the future is measurably in our hands. 
Whether we agree to do certain things with Japan or with 
France, with England or with China, these agreements 
will not erase the history of which we are proud but it 
will determine our destiny in the years to come, and, more 
particularly, the happiness of our children, and of their 
children. This is the land of our children just as much 
as it is the land of our fathers. Because George Washing- 
ton, at the birth of this republic, facing conditions that 
have changed entirely, voiced the proper desire for de- 
tachment from European squabbles, shall we today allow 
civilization to commit suicide, and permit conditions to 
arise that will involve the misery of our sons and daugh- 
ters? This thought is truly American in that it brings all 
of us. native-born and alien-born, into close sympathy; 
for. whatever our own origin, our children are American 
and to them belongs the future of the United States. 

Physical Work and the Human Machine 

Engineers have devoted painstaking attention to all 
but one of the prime-movers in general use ; the excep- 
tion is the human machine — the most ubiquitous, com- 
plex, delicate, expensive, and troublesome of all. Fa- 
miliarity with that engine, and the slight knowledge that 
is acquired so readily concerning its possibilities and 
limitations, accounts to a large extent for the neglect to 
study the problem. The engineer has been content to 
leave the matter to the physiologist, being unwilling to 
trespass on another's domain; but this view is challenged 
by Dr. H. Briggs, who recently contributed to the In- 
stitution of Mining Engineers an interesting paper on 

January 21, H'l'l' 



thf relation between physical work ami the efficiency of 
the human machine II- Beee do reason for barbed-wire 

fences between the sciences; he believes thai ai casional 

venture across the border is stimulating; do one would 
deny the benefit that has accrued to the mining industry 
from the inouraiona of such an eminent physiologist as 
Dr. Leonard Hill. 

The human being is a complete portable plant that is 
capable of consuming fuel, of developing heat-energy 
by virtue of the chemical union of oxygen with the car- 
bon and hydrogen of thai fuel, and of converting a part 
of the heat-energy into mechanical energy. So far there 
is a parallelism between the human engine and a plant 
that consists of a boiler and a steam-engine. The likeness 
becomes more apparent when consideration is paid to 
the methods adopted in each case to avoid loss of heat ; in 
both cases a lagging, of non-conducting material, is used. 
although the human being prefers to refer to his lagging 
as clothes. Here, however, the resemblance ends. The 
principle difference between the two plants — an impor- 
tant one — is in regard to the temperature at which 
chemical action occurs between the fuel and the oxygen. 
In the ease of animals that temperature is low; and it is 
h'xed with such definiteness that if it be altered to the 
extent of even a few degrees, either up or down, the 
organism is disabled. One effect of the relatively low 
temperature at which the vital processes proceed is that 
t he amount of clothing worn must vary with the external 
temperature. In hot and damp places the need to expose 
as much of the skin as possible is so imperative that the 
nature of the clothing affects both the capacity for work 
and the safety of the worker. Too much lagging in such 
cases may wreck the machine. On the other hand, oxygen 
is consumed only in the boiler of an engine-and-boiler 
plant, not in the engine; -in the animal the oxidation 
occurs over the entire system, particularly in muscles 
that are doing physical work. Air in both cases is 
absorbed and used continuously ; the boiler is fed with 
fuel more or less continuously, but the man takes his 
fuel-supply at relatively long intervals, and finds it 
almost, essential to cease work during the operation of 
stoking. He has a great storage capacity for fuel, but 
little for oxygen. If need be he can work for a long time 
after his supply of fuel is consumed ; but he dies in a 
few moments if the supply of oxygen be stopped. 

A striking difference is to be observed when air that 
contains a high percentage of oxygen is used in place of 
normal air. A furnace, if fed with such enriched air. 
would burn with greater intensity ; it would consume a 
greater weight of coal per square foot of grate-area; it 
would produce little or no smoke ; the output of steam 
would be increased. Nothing comparable with this occurs 
when a man breathes oxygen or highly-enriched air. 
Notwithstanding the popular belief to the contrary, he 
does not become intoxicated ; there are no paroxysms of 
uncontrollable energy, to be followed by lassitude. If 
the air in a room be removed and replaced by pure 
oxygen of the same temperature and humidity, no one 
at work there would be the wiser if the change were 

effeoted surreptitiously. When a mine-rescue apparatus 
is osed Underground, for example, the mixture that is 

inhaled often contains 80 or 90% of oxygen; do dele- 
terious results ensue, In his experiments on tie' subject 
Dr. Brigga found that, instead of a more rapid consump- 
tion of tissue, the breathing of cylinder oxygen made 00 
difference in that respect when the person was at rest; 
it actually resulted in a slightly reduced consumption 
when lie was doing work on a bicycle dynamometer; in 
other words, most people are a little more efficient as 
working machines when they respire enriched air. The 
human organism takes the oxygen it needs, and expires 
the remainder as though it were inert gas. It has been 
shown that when a healthy man starts to perform physi- 
cal labor, the brain responds by accelerating the speed 
and pressure of pumping by the heart ; the arteries in or 
leading to the muscles are dilated, to increase the circu- 
lation of blood in those parts. The extra supply of 
oxygen to the muscles at work is therefore derived, in 
the first place, from the passage of a greater amount of 
gas from the air in the lungs into the blood, and, in the 
second place, as the result of a more rapid transport of 
the oxygen, by the blood, from the lungs to the muscles. 
This question of the supply of oxygen to the muscles lies 
at the root of the study of physical work. To make hard 
work possible there must be an efficient co-operation of 
brain, heart, and lungs, in addition to a normal muscular 
development and the provision of sufficient nourishment- 
Most of Dr. Briggs' experiments were performed with 
an ergometer, or bicycle dynamometer. This consists of 
the frame, seat, pedals, and chain-drive of an ordinary 
bicycle, which is supported on a wooden stand. The 
front wheel is absent, and in place of the back wheel 
there is a fly-wheel, around the rim of which passes a 
linen belt that acts as a brake. Adjustable springs are 
attached to spring balances. The gearing of the bicycle 
is such that when the pedals are turned at 56 revolutions 
per minute the increase registered by the spring bal- 
ance multiplied by 1000 gives the work done in foot- 
pounds per minute. If a man does work on this machine, 
and if his exhaled air be collected, metered, and analyzed, 
certain facts are observable. It is found, for instance, 
that the proportion of carbon dioxide in the expired 
breath is not constant ; it is lowest when the subject is at 
rest, and it rises as the rate of work increases, until the 
maximum is reached ; and then, if harder work be given, 
the proportion of carbon dioxide present is found to 
diminish. It has been shown that there are conditions in 
mining that affect capacity for exertion ; these are seldom 
found in other occupations. For example, the under- 
ground worker may have to labor in air that contains 
much carbon dioxide and an excess of nitrogen. The 
presence of carbon dioxide is supposed to militate con- 
siderably against effective physical work, but recent re- 
search indicates that its influence in this respect has been 
greatly exaggerated. The addition of, say, 2% of carbon 
dioxide alone is not detrimental; its effect is merely to 
augment the depth of breathing, and thus promote rather 
than impede the transfer of oxygen to the blood, A large 



January 21, 1922 

proportion, such as 5 or 6%, added alone to normal air, 
reduces stamina and induces headache and fatigue; but 
with the percentages noticeable in the air underground 
nothing is to be feared from carbon dioxide by itself. 
Unfortunately it usually appears accompanied by other 
deleterious gases; it is always associated with a much 
larger and variable amount of nitrogen. It is only in 
connection with the use of mine-rescue apparatus that 
one can deal with carbon dioxide as the onlj' intruder in 
the air respired. For those engaged in normal physical 
work it is more important that the percentage of oxygen 
in the air breathed should not fall below 19 than that 
the amount of carbon dioxide should not exceed 1J%. 
It is difficult to work for long periods in an atmosphere 
that contains only 19% of oxygen; in all but exception- 
ally fit young men a drop of even 2% in the proportion 
of oxygen present reduces the stamina of the worker and 
induces fatigue. 

It will be agreed on all hands that the importance of 
physical fitness can scarcely be exaggerated in its bearing 
upon manual work. Other things being equal, the output 
of a fit man exceeds that of an unfit one ; he performs 
the day's labor with less fatigue. Physical fitness and 
dexterity often go together, but the two should not be 
confused. Deftness is the result of training the brain 
and the muscles for a special task; it can only be ac- 
quired by practice. The training needed teaches one 
how to obtain the desired effect with a minimum of 
muscular effort, and therefore with a minimum waste 
of energy in the form of heat. Fitness, on the other 
hand, is a much more general bodily attribute. It can 
be developed — and indeed is best developed — by exercise, 
combined with close attention to certain common-sense 
rules of living. The human machine is most efficient when 
dexterity and fitness go hand in hand. Recent tests 
have shown that fitness is a measure of the efficiency of 
oxygenation of brain, heart, and muscles during exertion. 
A numerical rating of this can be found by the use of 
the ergometer, and by metering and analyzing the gases 
inhaled and exhaled. So far as Dr. Briggs' observations 
to date are concerned, the fitness of the healthy miner is 
over 70%, but no underground worker over 45 years of 
age was examined. This method of measuring fitness 
was adopted for army purposes in Great Britain in 1918. 
An analysis of the results of testing 100 persons, drawn 
from all grades of society, showe*d that the number 
of those whose physical fitness was below 40% was nil ; 
between 40 and 50% it was 7 ; between 50 and 60% it 
was 12; between 60 and 70% it was 27; between 70 and 
80% it was 23; between 80 and 90%, it was 24; and be- 
tween 90 and 100% it was 7. The mechanical efficiency 
of the human machine has been investigated by several 
physiologists, whose results are in fair agreement: the 
most efficient manner to measure the input of energy is 
by means of an estimation of the consumption of oxy- 
gen, one cubic foot of which is able to develop a defi- 
nite number of heat-units, which are expressed easily 
as units of work, depending on the proportion of oxy- 
gen going to form carbon dioxide and the proportion 

going to form water. The gross efficiency is ascer- 
tained by dividing the figure so obtained by the ex- 
ternal work that is done while the oxygen is being con- 
sumed. To return to an afore-mentioned analogy, the 
gross efficiency is equivalent to the brake-horsepower de- 
veloped by the engine, divided by the power that is put 
into the boiler-furnace and is determined from the rate of 
burning of the coal and its calorific value. Considerable 
difficulty has been experienced in estimating efficiency in 
the case of over-load exertion, for the oxygen required is 
not all taken in during the period of exertion ; a great 
deal is supplied during the panting period that ensues 
after the work ceases. Normal breathing is not resumed 
until several hours after a short spell of very hard labor ; 
the condition resembles that which arises when an engine 
is given an unusually hard task and succeeds in doing it, 
by drawing upon the steam that is stored in the boiler ; 
after the effort it is compelled to stop or to slow down 
until the pressure and reserve of steam have been re- 
stored. If, in these circumstances, the power transmitted 
by the crank-shaft were to be divided by the power gen- 
erated as heat in the furnace while the engine was run- 
ning, an erroneously high figure of efficiency would be 
obtained. If the gross efficiency of the human machine 
be corrected, when necessary, by taking into considera- 
tion the excess of oxygen that is consumed during the 
post-work period, and if the efficiencies as ordinates be 
plotted against loads as abscissae, a dome-shaped curve 
results: in other words, the gross efficiency increases up 
to the maximum and then declines. For most people the 
maximum efficiency obtainable when breathing normal 
air is about 20 to 23% ; in the case of highly-trained men 
the efficiency may be much higher. The highest efficiency 
recorded during Dr. Briggs' experiments was 37%, which 
referred to a football player when doing work on the 
ergometer at the rate of 6500 foot-pounds per minute. 
Unfortunately the human machine cannot be worked for 
long periods at an efficient rate, because fatigue inter- 
feres. It is doubtful if the gross efficiency of most kinds 
of heavy manual labor exceeds 10%. Some kinds of work 
are performed more efficiently than are others. In gen- 
eral it may be stated that the efficiency is a little higher 
when breathing oxygen than when breathing air; the 
efficiency of the fit man exceeds that of the unfit one ; 
and the efficiency of the person who is working at a task 
to which he is accustomed is greater than that of a man 
that is put to work on a job that is strange to him. The 
study of the relation between physical work and the 
efficiency of the human machine is leading to a better 
appreciation of the value of statistical data that will bear 
the acid test of critical scientific analysis. The human 
machine has been sadly maltreated, if one considers the 
care and attention that is paid to the regular and sys- 
tematic indication of the efficiency of, say, an ordinary 
steam-engine; but it is evident that vague generalities, 
based on biased personal impressions and convictions, 
must eventually give way to definite statistics that are 
based on impartial research and the application of com- 
mon-sense principles. 

January 21, 1922 



D I 3 

>S 3 I 


IB j. 'ii.iiiiiiiiiiinTnvmnr 

=*\ II 

. 1 1 1 1 , , J I . » 

•ftr h 

The East Siberian Littoral 

The Editor: 

Sir — Many persons appear to be under the delusion 
that since the murder of the Czar of Russia and his 
family and associates, the governmental fabric of the 
Russian empire has disappeared. Nothing could be fur- 
ther from the truth. The cloth is rent and torn in many 
places, but it is not destroyed ; nor, to one who knows 
Russia intimately', does this fact bring any cause for 

The communistic principle has always obtained in the 
Slav nature and mode of settlement, and was even re- 
marked by Herodotus in his comments concerning the 
Scythian hordes. These ancient Scythians, the counter- 
part of the blonde Russian Slavs of today, herded them- 
selves together in collections of huts just as their de- 
scendants herd together in villages today. When a mi- 
gration was made it was made collectively by the entire 
commune just as in modern times entire Russian villages, 
not individuals, migrated to Siberia. The Russian Slav 
knows no form of land tenure except the holding of land 
in common with the others of the village. He desires no 
other form. 

The Government, for many years, tried to induce the 
Siberian immigrants to pick out land for themselves, and 
live on it, each man and family on his own selection. The 
effort was a failure. Such efforts will always fail with the 
Russian Slav. He is the reverse of an individualist. He 
is not a home-seeker as much as he is a herd-seeker. As a 
rule he is not a pioneer, and has none of the qualities that 
go to the making of an adventurer. 

The communistic principle in the days before the rend- 
ing of the imperial structure was sometimes extraordi- 
narily successful. The co-operative butter societies estab- 
lished by the Siberian peasants of the Obi region did 
business amounting to millions of pounds sterling with 
Denmark and England. The Loan Credit peasant banks 
paid high dividends and did great good among the farm- 
ers. Doubtless in European Russia, co-operative societies 
handling the grain, lumber, flax, and other commodities 
of their members were equally successful. 

As regards the Russian laborer, countless examples 
could be cited to show that he could not work by himself, 
any more than be could live by himself. In order to get 
rid of a loquacious or lazy workman in Russia without the 
necessity of paying him for two weeks overtime in case of 
discharge, as the law required, it was only necessary to 
set the man at a task remote from his comrades, and be 
would quit within twelve hours. In 1914 at the Lenskoie 

gold mines, spacious and commodious bunk-houses were 
built for unmarried laborers to replace the old ones where 
seven or eight men were housed in one room with a stove 
in the middle, where cooking was done. Clean boarding- 
houses, after the fashion of American mining camps, were 
built for these men to eat in, meals being served as near 
cost price as possible. The men, after a short trial, re- 
fused to use either the bunk-houses or the boarding-house, 
preferring to herd in the old houses and in the old 

The small band of Norse pirates who set up a strong 
central government in Russia in the tenth century at the 
ancient town of Novgorod were keen enough to recognize 
the herding spirit of the Slav millions. They did not 
combat this; they encouraged it, on the principle that it 
is easier to govern ten thousand villages than five million 
householders living on separate farms ; in fact they estab- 
lished a government that endured, with one or two inter- 
mittent periods of anarchy, for a thousand years — and 
this in spite of raids and rapine by hordes of Mongolians, 
Tartars, Turks, Poles, and violent internal dissentions. 
How did this small nest of aliens at Novgorod, and their 
progeny later at Moscow and St. Petersburg, gradually 
through ten centuries extend the power of Russia over 
one-fifth of the surface of the earth, from the Baltic to 
the Pacific, and from the Arctic to the edge of Afghan- 
istan? Simply this, by allowing the development of the 
commune within small limits, but never the spread of the 
commune beyond recognized limits. Russia, therefore, as 
we knew it in 1914 consisted of one hundred thousand re- 
publics, in each of which the individual could talk himself 
to death if he so desired. 

The unrestricted use of the printing-press, the mega- 
phone, and the moving-picture machine has changed all 
this. Similar machinery working among any other Asi- 
atic people may quite conceivably be anticipated to 
achieve the same results, and the poison of bolshevism is 
already impregnating the body politic of Afghanistan, 
India, and the East Indies, fertile soil in which the soap- 
box orator may sow his noxious seed. 

We come now to the status and achievement of the Rus- 
sian on the Pacific coast of Asia. What has this achieve- 
ment been? Practically nothing. In 1639 a party of 
Cossaks founded Anadyrsk, a fort 300 miles up the 
Anadyr river, and 800 miles from what is now Cape 
Nome. This was shortly after the English landed in what 
is now Massachusetts. In 1688, the year of the Revolu- 
tion in England, Okhotsk was founded, and Petropavlovsk 
shortly after. These towns still exist, so do Boston. New 
York, and Philadelphia. They have had an equal time to 



January 21, 1922 

grow. The settlements of the Russians on the east coast 
of Asia are today collections of a few huts. Those of the 
Englishmen and Dutchmen on the east coast of America 
are great cities, and from them has emanated a great and 
powerful people. 

In the 18th century a few intelligent pioneers of 
Irkutsk (for even a horde of Scythians can produce a few 
pioneers) built ships at Okhotsk and Petropavlovsk and 
spied out Alaska for hunting the sea-otter. Vitus Bering, 
the Dane, was sent by Peter the Great to explore the 
coast, as were Krusenstern, Eotzebue, Chichagof, and 
Golofnin. A few Russian villages were squatted over the 
land, at Sitka, Saint Michael, Bogoslov, Unalaska, and 
even a Russian mission was established on the Yukon. 
There the Kamchadale and Sibiriak peasants brought 
their axes, their ikons, and their samovars, and built their 
monotonous wooden huts. There they sat, and their de- 
scendants are still sitting. The world witnesses no 
stranger sight than that of the bizarre imitation of By- 
zantine church domes modeled on Santa Sophia at Con- 
stantinople, rough-hewn with an axe, and still standing 
upon the bleak shores of Alaska. 

In the early 'forties of the 19th century a spasmodic 
awakening at St. Petersburg was directed to the develop- 
ment of Russian interests on the Pacific. Port Ross, or 
Russ, was founded in the Spanish territory of California, 
a considerable jump southward from Fort Wrangel. the 
southern Alaskan point. Doroshin, a mining engineer, 
was sent to find gold in Alaska. But the Russians, having 
established Fort Ross, went away never to return, and 
Doroshin, having spent two years and found only a little 
gold in Turnagain Arm, went back to the capital and 
wrote a two-volume book explaining why he did not find 
more. In 1867 someone in St. Petersburg decided it was 
high time to terminate the farce of Russian colonization 
in Alaska, and it was sold — for a mess of pottage. 

The Seattle Chamber of Commerce estimates the total 
production of Alaska between 1867 and 1920, in minerals, 
fish, and furs, at $1,008,356,000. Who did this? Who 
thus added to the wealth and food production of the 
world? Americans, the descendants of English, Irish, 
and Scotch colonists, Scandinavians, Germans, French 
Canadians, Italians, Englishmen, even Russians and 
Poles, acting under the stimulation of individual effort : 
not acting as herds or droves. And still the Russian 
priest chants at Seldovia, at Unalaska, to his tiny flock. 
and the Aleut choir-boys intone Gregorian hymns. 

We have seen that the system of colonization by village 
hundreds made no progress in Alaska or in north- eastern 
Siberia. Did it make any more on the southern Pacific 
littoral? It did not. In 1858 and 1860 Russia forced 
China to cede to her the whole of the left drainage of the 
Amur, and the Primorsk, 1500 miles of coast-line south 
of the 54th parallel, to the Korean border, a territory al- 
together as large as California and Oregon combined, and 
comprising one of the most fertile grain districts of the 
world. This was by virtue of the treaty of Aigun in 
1858, and the treaty of Peking in 1860, at a time when 
China was hard-pressed by wars with England and 

In 1853 Russian villages were established on Sakhalin 
island, and in 1855 a treaty was begun with Japan with ; 
the object of acquiring it. It was not until 1875 that this 
was concluded, the island being exchanged for the 
Kuriles. In 1903 the half south of the 50th parallel re- 
verted to Japan by the treaty of Portsmouth, and in 
1920, as penalty for the massacre of 800 Japanese at' 
Nikolaievsk by Russian 'partizans', Japan re-occupied 
the northern part. Neither Russians nor Japanese have 
colonized the island, the Russians finding no better use 
for it than a convict settlement, and the Japanese in 
nearly twenty years of recent occupation of the south 
half have only established a few fishing villages, two 
wagon-roads, and 40 miles of narrow-gauge railway. 

In 1860, Nikolaievsk on the Amur and Vladivostok on 
the Pacific were founded. With customary lack of fore- 
sight the Russian government located both these towns in 
the wrong places. Nikolaievsk, situated on the north 
bank of the Amur, 25 miles from its mouth, is ice-bound 
for seven months, while bars of shifting sand allow 
steamers of only 14-ft. draft to enter. Up to April 1920 
it remained a mere fishing station, with a few government 
buildings of brick, with a 'naval port' a few miles below 
on the same side of the river. In 1920 the entire town was 
destroyed, 800 Japanese and 3000 Russians being mas- 
sacred by the local Bolsheviks who were known as 

Vladivostok was not founded as a commercial port but 
as a military and naval base, and it remains to this day a 
hideous barracks, its background of forest cut down for 
100 square miles in area, with no drainage, no water sys- 
tem, and no commerce, although occupying a magnificent 
harbor-site. The proper entry to the Amur river is 100 
miles south of Nikolaievsk, at De Kastri bay, where seven 
months of open water obtains, with deep and safe anchor- 
age for the largest ships, and where a 12-mile canal would 
give entrance to the Amur by way of Lake Keezee, allow- 
ing vessels of 15-ft. draft to proceed 500 miles up the 
river to Khabarovsk and the mouth of the Sungari, on 
which is situated the city of Harbin. Of this the Rus- 
sians have talked for fifty years. 

The proper entrance to Manchuria from the Pacific is 
not Vladivostok, but Possiet bay, 60 miles south, just to 
the north of the Tiumen river, the boundary of Korea. 
A railway line from Possiet bay would pass at 40 miles 
through the populous city of Hun Chun, then direct to 
Kirin, Chang Chun, and so across Mongolia to Urga, 
entering Siberia at Kiakhta, not at Manchuria station, as 
does the present Chinese Eastern railroad. This line 
gives access from the Coast to the grain, tobacco, and 
soya-bean areas of Manchuria without the necessity of 
crossing the heavy grades of the Mali Khingan range, as 
does the present Vladivostok line to Harbin. 

Experience has proved that Vladivostok cannot com- 
pete with Dalny as an export point for beans from Man- 
churia. The reverse would be the case with Possiet, on 
account of the shorter rail-haul from the loading-points, 
as compared with Dalny, and the easier grade as com- 
pared with Vladivostok. The probability is therefore 
that in the future Vladivostok while continuing to func- 

January 21, 1922 



tinn ;is sea-port for the Dssuxi valley grain, and for the 
Amur railway points, will be of secondary importance, 
and thai the great Pacific port north of Fuaan will be at 
Possiel bay. 

We are considering a territory more than twice the 
size of Alaska, from tbe Lena river to the Pacific Ocean 
ami from the Arctic Ocean to the border of Korea. Si- 
beria has been described as tbe land of "unlimited possi- 
bilities". As tliis is true not only of the capacity of its 

burg won for the Scythian peasant hordes a vast area and 
coast-line on tl oaten can. which they i ived with- 
out enthusiasm. On the huge ohi ss board of the Russian 
empire certain pawns in the shape of peaaanl villages were 
moved, partly as exiles, partly as subsidized emigrants, 

to the eastern edge, and a few policemen were sent to keep 
(hem there. Bui the Slav, as he loves the prairie, has a 
terror of the sea, and of the mountains. The Steppe calls 
to the Ussuri peasant-farmer; to him the East is a weary 

inhabitants for political experiments, but of its natural 
resources, we may leave it at that. This area of roughly 
one and one-half million square miles remains as a re- 
serve for humanity. Future generations will probably 
live to thank the crawling Russian bear for his sleep of 
centuries at the door of this treasure-house, and for his 
ability to bluff the world for three hundred years into 
letting him keep it. 
A few diplomatic pen-strokes at Peking and St. Peters- 

land. Yet there exist Siberian-born men, or Sibiriaks, of 
energy and intelligence who have already wrought pio- 
neer work, sometimes under well-nigh incredible diffi- 
culties. These men will be a factor in future develop- 
ment, and their stock will endure. Both they and their 
women possess a surprising ability to undergo cold and 
the rigors of the land in which they live. It is indeed 
conceivable that they will become the nucleus of a state 
that will command the respect of foreign governments. 



January 21, 1922 

Curiously, it is not in the cities, but in remote towns and 
villages off the lines of communication that these men and 
women are more often found. They do not know their 
own strength, and meantime their land is torn apart with 

It has been suggested that the Japanese might contem- 
plate a colonization of the TJssuri and Amur districts of 
Siberia, To any one having the slightest familiarity with 
the habits of the Japanese peasant, this suggestion ap- 
pears in the highest degree ridiculous. A campaign of 
education extending over at least one generation would 
be necessary in order to teach the Japanese rank and file 
to grow and eat temperate crops such as wheat, rye, buck- 
wheat, potatoes, and oatmeal; and to raise cattle and 
sheep. The great handicap to the Japanese government 
today in finding an outlet for the congested population of 
south and central Japan is rice. Rice is grown and is 
eaten. The Japanese will go where he can grow rice, and 
where he can catch fish, but not where he has to endure 
the cold of, say, Winnipeg, or has to labor in the wheat 
field, or in punching cattle. If he would willingly lead 
the life of a temperate or rigorous climate, even such as 
the north of Scotland affords, there is plenty of room for 
the congested Japanese peasantry in Korea, in Hokkaido, 
or in Sakhalin. Any number of examples could be cited in 
proof of the above statements. As a matter of fact, it 
would be a most excellent thing, and would aid in the sup- 
port and feeding of millions of people, if the Japanese 
could be induced to populate the great wheat-lands of the 
Ussuri and Zeya, to take the place of the slothful and in- 
competent south Russian peasant immigrants who now 
raise indifferent crops in those valleys. The peasants 
would be more than willing to sell out to them as they 
now sell out to the Chinese. Here would be a suggestion 
for the solution of the Japanese immigration problem, so 
thoroughly discussed in western America. But the de- 
sirable state of affairs above outlined is not likely to be 

It is even difficult to get the Chinese, far more adapt- 
able to new conditions, to farm the wheat areas of north- 
ern Manchuria adjacent to the Sungari river. An Amer- 
ican farm expert has been in Harbin for several years 
trying to induce such colonization, but with poor success. 
Neither of these races inclines to a meat and fat diet, and 
without such it is impossible to support the cold. 

Yes, you will say, all this is very interesting, but where 
are we getting 1 "We are getting to this : That as it was 
the Norse stock which in the old days brought order out 
of chaos among the Scythians, from Moscow to Byzan- 
tium, it will probably be the Norse descendants — rather 
than the Slav, Mongol, or Malay descendants — who will 
bring economic order and development in Eastern Si- 
beria. The ideal government for such a region is such an 
one as is administered in western Canada, with a mini- 
mum of physical and a maximum of moral force. As it 
is not easy to get up flag-waving enthusiasm concerning 
a country in which there is less than one-half an inhabi- 
tant to the square mile, it matters little by what nation 
the government is administered, so long as the individual 
is allowed to pursue his vocation with a reasonable 

amount of safety for his undertaking. It also matters 
not at all what nationality shall predominate among the 
miners, farmers, timber-men, and fisher-men of Eastern 
Siberia so long as they are actuated by individual in- 
centive, as has been the case in northern Canada and 
Alaska. Russia tried to dominate the Pacific littoral by 
village communes interspersed with barracks, and made 
one of the most signal failures in history. Now after 
three centuries north-eastern Asia has baffled her, and 
remains as inscrutable as in the days of Ghengis Khan. 
The conquest of this last great treasure-house of the 
earth's surface will consume years, possibly generations. 
It will be effected by the tools of industry, not by the 


On Board S. S. 'Tyndareus', November 27, 1921. 

Conditions in Russia 

The Editor: 

Sir — It was with very great interest that I read the 
correspondence you published in your issue of November 
12 with reference to the negotiations which have recently 
taken place between the Russo-Asiatic Consolidated and 
the Soviet government of Russia. All of us who have 
lived in Russia and have got to know and understand the 
people of that immense country must have the deepest 
sorrow and sympathy for the milli ons who are suffering 
for the sake of a few idealists and followers of men like 
Marx and Lenin. Mr. Urquhart in his letters to the 
shareholders and to Krassin clearly defines the reasons 
why it is impossible to resume operations under a govern- 
ment that rules with such tyranny. 

I, myself, am an old employee of the above-mentioned 
company, was in charge of the Ekibastus mine until 
November 1919, when the Bolsheviks re-captured Omsk 
and it was necessary to get out. In January of 1920 I 
was captured, along with the British and American rail- 
way engineers who had been operating with the Kolchak 
government at Krasnayarsk, between Omsk and Irkutsk. 
After suffering severe hardships, and when the last of our 
personal belongings and clothing that could be spared 
had been sold or exchanged for food, we were compelled 
by hunger to register with the committee that had been 
formed for the purpose of reorganizing labor. By a 
decree issued by Lenin in January 1920 anybody who had 
not registered with this Central Committee of the Peoples 
"Welfare was liable to be shot without trial. After regis- 
tration, one option was given either to work where the 
Committee decided to send you, or enlist in the Third 
International. 1 myself was referred to the Mining De- 
partment and given employment under the Geological 
Department, the president of which was a Russian of the 
old regime and a member of the Geological Academy of 
Petrograd, and who like myself had been compelled to 
join or starve. I spent an idle time drawing my daily 
food-allowance and doles in cash whenever I applied. I 
was unable to leave the town, otherwise I had absolute 
freedom, until one night about 11 p.m. I was rudely 
awakened by the most villainous looking individual in 

January 81, 1922 



civilian dress accompanied by three armed soldiers and 
ordered to go with them. By instinct 1 recognized them 
as members of the dreaded Cherka; I was treated most 
brutally, scarcely being allowed to get into the few scanty 
clothes I possessed. At their headquarters I was stripped 
of everything while my clothing was searched; not find- 
ing anything, however, and being able to give an account 
as to how I came to be in the town (they knew I had been 
at Ekibastus) , I was turned out into the street. The next 
day many members of what might be termed the pro- 
fessional committees were missing, including the presi- 
dent of my Department. I applied to the Central Com- 
mittee to act on his behalf but was informed that they 
had no power to act in any matters concerning the 
Cherka. I was arrested on two more occasions, but each 
time, after being insulted, was liberated, the fact that I 
was a Britisher and a foreigner probably helping me. 
Many mining men I met would suddenly be missing ; in 
some cases they would turn up, but many of them were 
never heard of again, some being murdered, while others 
were sent away to other places where, for political rea- 
sons, they were considered less dangerous. 

After living in this atmosphere of uncertainty I was 
ordered by the Central Mining Committee to go to a place 
called Archinsk to make a report on some coal outcrops. 
All the Committee could do for me was to give me a 
document as tc my errand requesting the commandant 
of the town to give a pass to leave, while he in turn gave 
me a chit to the commandant of the station asking him to 
allow me a place on the first train leaving for the west. 
After a great deal of trouble I managed on the third day 
to see the station commandant, who said that he could not 
tell me when a train would be leaving, it might be to- 
morrow, it might be next day, next week, or most likely 
next month ; in any case I .would have to arrange with 24 
others to share a horse-car as there was no other available 
space. All the other rolling-stock was requistioned for 
transporting troops and foodstuffs into Russia, which 
was suffering from famine even then. I reported to my 
committee, but they were powerless to assist. 

Later, I managed to get a further document allowing 
me to travel anywhere in Soviet Russia ; so, armed with 
this, my appointment on the Mining Department, and 
my pass to leave the town, and with the assistance of a 
few friends I had made of the Bolsheviks themselves, in 
June of the same year I slipped across the Japanese lines 
at Chita getting back to England by way of China and 
the United States. 

Apparently, after reading Mr. Urquhart's letters and 
noting the reasons he gives for the decision adopted by 
his company, the conditions under which one is able to 
work have not altered since the time I was there, and as 
long as such a government, which encourages murdering, 
looting, nationalization of property, amid the most appal- 
ing chaos, exists, it is just as well to keep out of the 

"When I look back on the prosperous days in Russia, 
especially the years 1911 to 1914, and its rapid down- 
fall, commencing about 1916 until the present day, leav- 
ing millions to die of famine and disease, I can only say 

that the conditions are like a nightmare to the privileged 

few wlm have survived it and got out of the country. It 

is still a glorious country, however, and the Russian is a 

man I have the greatest admiration for. and I think the 

majority of us who have lived with them, are looking 

forward to the day. I hope in the near future, when we 

can go back and help. _ 

R. Allison Purvis. 

La Salada, Antioquia. Colombia, December 8, 1921. 

Surface-Tension in Flotation 

The Editor : 

Sir — I wish to thank Mr. Fahrenwald for his excellent 
discussion of surface-tension in your issue of November 
5. The matter is elusive. 

Referring to Gibbs equation, 17= ^f*, where U is 
the concentration at the surface of the solution, c is the 
concentration in the bulk of the solution, s is the sur- 
face-tension, T is the absolute temperature, and B is the 
usual gas constant, it is of interest to note that the deri- 
vation of this equation is postulated on, first, an iso- 
thermal cycle, and second, on the law of osmotic pressure 
of Van't Hoff. It is well known that colloidal solutions 
do not give co-ordinate data for pressure and concentra- 
tion from which the molecular weight of the dispersed 
substance or phase may be calculated. And although 
one may calculate molecular weights from measurements 
of surface-tension and concentration by means of Gibbs' 
equation, yet such molecular weights are probably errone- 
ous in the case of colloids. This, I believe, was done for 
gelatine, and a molecular weight of about 6000 deduced, 
which figure has been used for several decades. 

Many substances form disperse phases in suitable 
mediums. As a rule the surface-tension of the dispersing 
medium is lowered. However, measurements by Hatschek 
of the surface-tension of a number of colloidal solutions 
gave results at variance with values calculated from 
Gibbs' equation. Gum arabic gives a higher value to the 
surface-tension of the dispersing medium than the latter 
alone possesses. Gibbs' equation may be said to state the 
facts in a qualitative manner only. "If we designate the 
change in concentration of a surface as adsorption, and 
as positive when U is positive, as negative when Z7 is 
negative, then it may be said that a dissolved substance 
is adsorbed positively when it lowers the surface-tension, 
and is adsorbed negatively when it raises the surface- 
tension." Freundlich also states ('Kapillarchemie', p. 
60) that most inorganic salts raise the surface-tension of 
water ; sulphates and carbonates raise it more than do 
chlorides and nitrates. 

Mr. Fahrenwald asks for an explanation for the fact 
of higher values of dynamic surface-tension than the cor- 
responding static values, and also for values higher than 
those for water, for a 0.025%, solution of sodium oleate. 
Possibly, at such low concentrations, the sodium oleate is 
partly dissociated ; and what is measured, in part, is the 
surface-tension of a very dilute solution of sodium hy- 

The value of equations for expressing the results of in- 



January 21, 1922 

vestigations on surface-tension and adsorption phenom- 
ena is considerable. Perhaps the best that can be hoped 
at present are purely empirical equations. The results of 
calculations of suitable constants for some such equation 
for several of the commonly used flotation-oil emulsions 
should be interesting and valuable. 

A. C. Halferdahl. 
Anyox, British Columbia, December 8, 1921. 

Indicative Plants 

The Editor : 

Sir — In the past year a great deal has been written 
about plants as being indicators of mineral deposits. The 
idea seems to be that the difference in plants, in different 
soils, is due principally to a chemical difference. "With- 
out questioning that a chemical difference has some in- 
fluence, I would like to call attention to a few points that 
seem to show that the character of a plant growing in a 
certain soil can be explained, in most cases, just as well 
by physical difference as by chemical. 

A few miles north of Prescott, Arizona, there are a 
number of low gravel hills with a great deal of oak-brush 
growing on them. The brush is not distributed regularly, 
but in such a manner as to suggest that certain parts are 
more favorable to its growth than other parts! An ex- 
amination shows that the brush grows best where the soil 
is the rockiest, principally on the steep slopes, where 
erosion has caused a collection of coarse material. The 
explanation is, I believe, that the coarse material causes 
a concentration and such a distribution of moisture that 
it is made available to the peculiar root-structure of the 
oak-brush. The roots of the brush are not adapted to ex- 
tracting moisture and nourishment from a fine-grained 
soil. On the gentler slopes of these same hills, where the 
finer material from the steeper slopes has been dposited, 
grass grows best, and the brush not at all. The grass, 
with its numerous hair-like roots, is best suited to ex- 
tracting moisture and nourishment from this finer- 
grained soil. 

In Williamson valley, 25 miles from Prescott, there is 
a limestone formation alternating with clay. Cedar 
grows abundantly in this limestone, but not at all in the 
clay. What moisture enters the limestone is concentrated 
in the cracks, where the root-structure of the cedar is 
better suited to extracting it than that of almost any 
other plant. The moisture in the clay is disseminated, 
and nothing but a root-structure like that of a grass or a 
weed can extract it well. 

Prescott is situated partly in a granite and partly on 
gravel. The pine-tree grows in the granite, but not at 
all in the gravel. The growth of pine ends abruptly with 
the gravel. The roots of the pine are suited to extracting 
the moisture concentrated in the cracks of the granite, 
but are not suited to extracting the disseminated moisture 
of the gravel. 

Some time ago a man told me that his father had one 
of the rockiest farms in the State of Michigan, and raised 
some of the biggest crops. His explanation was that the 

gradual decomposition of the rocks kept up the supply of 
plant-food. I think the correct explanation is that the 
rocks make a soil suitable for the roots of the things 
planted in it, so that the plants can extract more moisture 
and nourishment. One can see a good example of this on 
the rocky malapai mesas, where grama and other grasses 
grow abundantly. 

My conclusion is that the kind of plant that a certain 
soil will best support is determined to a great extent by 
the root-structure of the plant. It can be seen that a de- 
posit of mineral having a different soil-structure from 
that of the surrounding country will favor the growth of 
a different kind of plant life, and would give the im- 
pression that the difference was due to chemical differ- 

William Crocker. 

Prescott, Arizona, January 1. 

The California Rand Silver Mine 

The Editor: 

Sir — I note that in the excellent article under the above 
heading, Mr. Arthur B. Parsons suggests the use of chlo- 
ridizing volatilization methods for the purpose of treating 
the concentrate in order to produce bullion and thereby 
reduce the great losses caused by shipping the concentrate 
to a smelter. I presume that tests have been made by the 
volatilization method on the concentrate and that results 
worthy of consideration were realized. 

Chloridizing volatilization would produce better results 
on the raw ore than on the concentrate, why therefore 
precede chloridizing volatilization by a more costly and 
less efficient process when chloridizing volatilization alone 
is probably able to accomplish at least the same result as 
the two processes at less cost ? 

According to the article, the economic realization of 
75.8% on $30 ore by straight flotation at a cost of $1.61 
per ton for milling and $1.68 for water the net realiza- 
tion would be $19.45 per ton of ore, with no deductions 
for loss of concentrate in transit nor for the cost of sack- 
ing. In order to produce the same net realization by chlo- 
ridizing volatilization methods, which would probably 
cost less than $2 per ton of ore, it would be necessary only 
to realize a metallurgical recovery amounting to 71.5% of 
the value in the raw ore. 

A 100-ton chloridizing volatilization plant using my 
processes and devices, including the grinding equipment, 
would cost less to install and operate than the flotation 
plant. The cost of water alone in the milling-plant would 
probably be more than the operating cost of the volatiliza- 
tion plant. The sulphur in the ore would replace fuel to 
such an extent that probably less than 5 gal. of fuel-oil 
per ton of ore would be sufficient. That type of ore 
would treat much more satisfactorily in a large furnace 
than muffle-tests would indicate. I would anticipate low 
extractions from muffle-tests, but extractions of 95% or 
over in a suitable furnace would not be beyond the possi- 
bilities of practice. 

Harai R. Layng. 

San Francisco. January 7. 

January 21, L922 


Magnetic Prospecting 

By Walter S. Weeks 

The utility of magnetic instruments for detecting and 
determining the position of deposits of mineral beneath 
the surface of the earth baa long been recognized. How- 
ever, the details of the construction of these instruments 
ami the technique of using them are probably known to 
few engineers in this country; accordingly, I hope that 
1 may be pardoned it' I attack the subject in an ele- 
mentary way. 

For the purpose of exposition I shall confine the dis- 

<3 '* &3 &£ &/ 

F, = the vertical component of the lode's magnetism 
at any point. 

A 'neutral Geld' is one where only the earth's magnet- 
ism exists, and a 'disturbed field' is one in which there is 
a magnetic body. 

At the point <;, (Fig. 1) the horizontal component of 
the lode is great in comparison with the vertical com- 
ponent. Its actual value may be small because it is so far 
away. As we approach a point over the lode the actual 
pull along the diagonal lines becomes greater because d 
becomes less. At a point a t over the lode the pull along d 

Maximum line 

Maximum line 

Fig. 1 

Fig. 3 

eussion to measurements in the northern hemisphere. I 
shall also assume that the poles of the needles of all in- 
struments are of unit strength. The lines of force of the 
earth's magnetic field point in the horizontal plane 
toward the magnetic pole, and they dip slightly down- 
ward. The magnetic force may be divided into a hori- 
zontal and a vertical component. 

If we have a magnetic lode buried in the earth, the 
upper part usually becomes a south pole, that is, it at- 
tracts the north-seeking end of a compass-needle. The 


Hi is maximum 
Fig. 2 

attraction of the lode at any point may be resolved into a 
horizontal and a vertical component. 

Fig. 1 shows a pole beneath the surface of the earth. 
If a magnetic north pole is placed at a 1? the attraction of 
the two poles for each other acts along the line d and the 
actual force is equal to the product of the pole-strengths 
divided by the square of the distance between them. 
Let us adopt the following nomenclature : 
H =the horizontal component of the earth's mag- 
netism at any point. 
V =the vertical component of the earth's magnetism 

at any point. 
H 1 = the horizontal component of the lode's magnet- 
ism at any point. 

becomes greatest but there is no horizontal component at 
this point. Somewhere between a 1 and a t the horizontal 
component is maximum. 

The points where H l is maximum and the points where 

Fig. 4. dial-compass 

H 1 is zero are called critical points. Their determination 
gives us much knowledge of the location of the lode. The 
points where H 1 is a maximum are connected to form 
what is called a maximum line, and the points where E r 



January 21, 1922 

is zero are connected to form what is called the magnetic 
line. In the case of a single pole of limited area below 
the surface, the critical points would he as in Fig. 2. In 
the case of a vertical strip of magnetic rock stretching 
across the country the critical points would be as in Fig. 

If the strip is inclined, the maximum line on the side 
toward wliich it dips will be nearer the magnetic line 

flection. Then, as we continue to approach the orebody, 
H-l decreases and with it the deflection, until we are over 
the orebody where E 1 is zero and the needle again points 
magnetic north. 

A great many surveys with the dial-compass have been 
made in the Michigan iron region. A great advantage 
inherent in the dial-compass is that no preliminary sur- 
vey is necessary. At each station, true bearing may be 

-Sliding weight 

- Suspension 

Fig. 5 

Fig. 7 

than will the other maximum line. Relations have been 
worked out by which the depth may be calculated from 
the position of these lines. So it is seen that the hori- 
zontal measurements may be of great value. 

The instrument used mostly in this country for de- 
termining the critical points is known as the dial-com- 
pass, shown in Fig. 4. It consists of an ordinary com- 
pass on which a sun-dial is superimposed. 

The dial is set up to read the apparent time. The 

Fig. 6. dip-needle 

plane of the gnomon is then in the true north-south plane. 
If we know the declination of the compass, we know the 
direction of magnetic north. If the compass does not 
point to magnetic north, we know that some other force 
is acting on it. 

In Fig. 5, let X be a magnetic pole below the surface 
and let us approach it with the dial-compass from the 
east. When we are so far away that the orebody does not 
affect it, the needle points to magnetic north. As we ap- 
proach the orebody the needle takes its position in the 
resultant of E 1 and E as shown in the figure. At the 
point where H 1 is a maximum we get the maximum de- 

determined from the sun-dial, and a good woodsman can 
carry and pace the line. With this instrument rapid 
work can he done in rough country. 

An instrument called the dip-needle or dip-compass is 
used in connection with the dial-compass; one is shown 
in Fig. 6. The needle is pivoted at the centre of gravity, 
and it should have a sliding weight on the south end. 
When a reading is taken the needle is always held so that 
it revolves in a plane that is parallel to the horizontal 
magnetic flux at the point. The needle of the dial-com- 
pass shows the direction of this flux, so the dip-needle is 
held parallel to the dial-compass needle. Before using 

Fig. 8. thalen-tiberg magnetometer 

in a disturbed field, the compass is held in a neutral field, 
and the vertical component of the earth's magnetism is 
balanced by the weight so that the needle is horizontal. 
In a disturbed field its position is determined by sev- 
eral forces. The forces acting on it are the resultant of 
E and E lt which we may call E T , and P^ the vertical pull 
of the lode ; V also acts on it but is counteracted by the 
weight. The position of the needle will he determined by 
the resultant of E r and V 1 (see Fig. 7). When we are 
very near the lode, V 1 is large and E, is small, so the 
needle dips steeply. Theoretically it could never stand 
exactly vertically unless E T was equal to zero. If the 

January 21, 1922 



dip-needle were turned at right angles to the compass- 
needle, the influence of aU horizontal forces would be re- 
moved and the needle would stand vertically at all sta- 
tions. This is important to remember in comparing the 
dip-needle with the inclinator on the magnetometer. 

In the Thalen-Tiherg magnetometer we have in reality 
two separate instruments: the magnetometer of Thalen 
which is used for the measurement of horizontal intensi- 
ties, ami the iti'linator of Tiherg for the measurement of 



vertical intensities. These two instruments should not be 

Let us consider first the measurement of horizontal 
intensities. The instrument set up for measuring hori- 
zontal intensities is shown in Fig. 8. In this we have no 
datum-line such as is supplied by the dial-compass, but 
a fixed force is introduced instead. We see that the in- 
strument consists of a compass mounted on a leveling 
attachment, and an arm on which is a sliding yoke for 
holding a small magnet. 

The instrument is first taken into a neutral field. If 
the magnet is not in the yoke the needle points north. 



component of the repelling force of the magnet at right 
angles to the needle. 

In the neutral field, with the magnet out, the needle 
takes the position a b, which is a north-south line. After 
the magnet is placed in the yoke and the arm is placed 
at right angles to the needle, the needle takes the posi- 
tion ac. which is the resultant of F and 77. Now, when 
the magnet is removed the needle swings back to o 6 
through the angle o . 

F = 77 sin a 

Let us now take the instrument into a disturbed field 


without moving the yoke. The forces are shown in Fig. 
10. The needle with the magnet out will take the posi- 
tion a b, which is the resultant of 77 and 77,. The mag- 
net is now placed in the yoke and the arm is placed at 
right angles to the needle. The needle now takes the 
position a c, which is the resultant of 77 r and F. When 
the magnet is removed the needle swings back to a b. 
F = H r sin a 
.'. 77 sin a = H r sin a 

77 sin a„ 

sin a = 

77 r 

This is the formula that forms the basis for the dis- 
cussion of the instrument ; the method of operation is 
known as the sine method. 

Sliding weight 
S court ter acting 



Eccentric weigh f^ 

Fig. 12. tiberg inclinator tn a disturbed field 

The magnet is inserted; it repels the north end of the 
needle and attracts the south. Only the north end need 
be considered in this discussion. The arm and compass- 
box are now turned until the arm is at right angles to 
the needle. The magnet is removed and the needle 
swings back into the north and south plane. The angle 
through which the needle swings may be made any de- 
sired angle by moving the yoke on the arm. It is usually 
adjusted so that the needle swings about 30°. This angle 
is called the neutral angle. The forces acting on the 
north end of the needle are shown in Fig. 9. F is the 

Another method of using the instrument, called the 
tangent method, is not exact. 

With this instrument we are able to find the points 
where H 1 is maximum and where it is zero. These, as 
we have said, are the critical points, so the magnet- 
ometer and the dial-compass accomplish the same result 
in a different manner. The magnetometer is not well 
adapted for use in rough country, because a survey that 
entails sighting is necessary to locate the stations. On 
the other hand, it has the advantage that it may be used 
on cloudy days. The instrument is sometimes modified 



January 21, 1922; 

by the addition of another arm, -which is known as the 
Dahlblom 'sine-arm'. This arm makes easier the field- 
work in the sine method. 

Fig. 11 is a picture of the Tiberg inclinator. This 
instrument is used for measuring V v the vertical com- 
ponent of the lode. The needle is pivoted above the 
centre of gravity as shown in Fig. 12. Any downward 
pull on the needle is opposed by the weight w. To elimi- 
nate the effect of the horizontal forces, the instrument 
is held at right angles to the needle of an ordinary com- 
pass. Then, only vertical forces affect it. The inclinator 
is first taken into a neutral field and turned so that the 
plane of rotation is east and west. Then only the ver- 
tical force of the earth acts upon it and the needle dips 
slightly. It is brought to a horizontal position by mov- 
ing a sliding weight on the south end of the needle. 

When the instrument is held at right angles to a 
compass-needle in a disturbed field, V and V 2 pull the 
needle down; V is counteracted by the weight on the 
south end, and V^ is opposed by the eccentric weight ; 
so if we know the constant of the instrument we can 
actually measure the vertical pull of the lode. 

In the Thalen-Tiberg combined magnetometer we have 
two instruments: the magnetometer of Thalen and the 
inclinator of Tiberg. The same needle serves for both. 
The compass-box is mounted on bearings so that it may 
be tipped vertically when used as an inclinator. 

To take a reading, the compass-box is placed hori- 
zontal and the arm is placed at right angles to the 
needle. Then when the compass-box is tipped to make 
the inclinator, the effect of all horizontal forces has been 
eliminated. The magnet on the yoke, of course, has 
nothing to do with this instrument and it should be re- 

There is another magnetometer known as the Dahl- 
blom pocket -magnetometer, which can be used for meas- 
uring both horizontal and vertical intensities. The mag- 
netic forces are opposed by a small spiral spring instead 
of by a magnet or eccentric weight. Still another in- 
strument, the Thompson-Thalen magnetometer, is adapt- 
ed only to the measurement of vertical forces; it does 
the same work as the inclinator. In this instrument, as 
in the Tiberg inclinator, the needle is pivoted above the 
centre of gravity. A small magnet is placed below the 
needle. This small magnet may be raised and lowered 
by a screw. Its position may be read on a scale at the 
top of the screw. The instrument is first set up in a 
neutral field with the plane of rotation of the needle 
perpendicular to the flux at that point. The magnet is 
moved till the needle is horizontal. 

It is set up in the disturbed field in the same way. 
The needle is again made horizontal with the magnet, 
but, as the vertical component of the lode is now acting, 
the position of the magnet will be different. Its position 
may be read on the scale. If the constants of the in- 
struments are known, V 1 may be determined. 

In the 'Mining and Scientific Press' of September 24, 
1921, Mr. Arthur Gibson discussed the application of 
magnetic measurements to the detection of magnetic 

minerals in placer deposits. I am inclined to believe 
that some of his statements are misleading. He says: 
"The old method of reading the angle of variation, de- 
viation, or deflection in the horizontal plane, and the 
angle of inclination or dip in the vertical plane of the 
magnetic needle by degrees and fractions thereof, ha& 
been discarded, and a compensating or deflecting magnet 
has been introduced whereby much closer and more 
accurate readings are obtained". 

It would seem that the deflecting magnet of the 
Thalen-Thompson magnetometer is confused with the- 
yoke-magnet of the Thalen-Tiberg magnetometer. In 
the Thalen-Tiberg magnetometer shown in Fig. 8 all 
angles are read in degrees and fractions thereof. 

When the sine-arm is used on this instrument, the- 
angle a is held constant and the yoke-magnet is moved. 
The scale reads to millimetres. No greater accuracy is. 
claimed for this method, but the field-work is dimin- 
ished. The sine-arm has nothing to do with the vertical 
measurements, for these are taken with the Tiberg in- 
clinator by the method described, and the angle is meas- 
ured in degrees. So Mr. Gibson's statement applies only 
to the Thompson-Thalen instrument. 

Mr. Gibson further states: "The horizontal measure- 
ments are of minor importance, but the vertical measure- 
ments furnish data from which valuable charts are- 
platted . . ." This has not proved true in this coun- 
try. The determination of the critical points of hori- 
zontal intensity has proved as useful as the determina- 
tions of vertical intensities. Moreover, if the horizontal 
measurements are of no value, why are the instruments 
constructed? An inclinator would be all that is neces- 

It is true that where the attraction of the orebody is: 
very slight the vertical measurements may be of more 
importance. The nearest point to the orebody is directly 
above it ; here there is no horizontal component. If we- 
were to get far enough away to have the maximum hori- 
zontal component the attraction would be negligible on 
account of the distance. A sweeping statement, how- 
ever, of the uselessness of horizontal measurements, 
should not be made. 

The first picture in Mr. Gibson's article shows a photo- 
graph of a Thalen-Tiberg magnetometer. It is captioned 
'Thalen-Tiberg Magnetometer Provided with Tangent 
Arm for Reading Vertical Intensities'. The term 'tan- 
gent' is meaningless. The arm is used either with the- 
sine method or with the tangent method. The arm, how- 
ever, has nothing to do with vertical intensities. In the 
photograph which shows the instrument set up for read- 
ing vertical intensities it will be noted that the magnet 
is in the yoke. This, of course, should be removed. Mr. 
Gibson, I understand, has made surveys of placer de- 
posits with the Thompson-Thalen instrument. If he- 
would discuss in detail his experience in that field, I am 
sure he would make a valuable addition to the subject. 

To those who wish to pursue this subject further I 
suggest the following discussions in addition to those re- 
ferred to by Mr. Gibson : 

January 21, 1922 


'Magnetic Observations In Geological Mapping'. Henry 
Lloyd. Smyth, Trans. A I. U. K . Vol. XXVI. Reprinted In 
U. S. G. S. Series, Monograph XXXVI. 

'Magnetic Observations In Geological and Economic Work' 
(Part I). Henry Lloyd Smyth, 'Kconomic Geology". Vol. II. 

'Magnetic Observations in Geological and Economic Work' 
(Part II). Henry Lloyd Smyth, 'Economic Geology', Vol. III. 

Catalogue of Fr. J. Berg, Stockholm, Sweden. 

In this article I have attempted to show only what 
measurements are useful in magnetic prospecting and to 
explain the principles involved in the design of the in- 
struments. The literature, to which reference has been 
made, is ample for obtaining a full knowledge of the 

From some letters that I have received it seems neces- 
sary to point out that the instruments are of value only 
in detecting minerals that are distinctly magnetic and 
only when tiny arc present in considerable quantity. 

The dip-compass is the simplest of the instruments and 
is the only one that can be used to advantage by the non- 
technical prospector. It should be held parallel to the 
needle of an ordinary pocket compass. It is not essential 
that the dial-compass be used with it. Manifestly this in- 
strument is not sufficiently sensitive to detect ' pay- 
streaks' unless they are very close to the surface. 

Poisoning by Oxides of Nitrogen 

The maximum percentages of oxides of nitrogen that 
may be present in mine air without harm to the workmen 
breathing it have not been clearly established, states a 
U. S. Bureau of Mines bulletin. Gaseous products from 
the use of explosives not only produce oxides of nitrogen 
but other harmful gases, such as carbon monoxide. L. 
G. Irvine found that in accidents due to the fumes of ex- 
plosives, carbon monoxide accounts for most of the deaths, 
but nitrous fumes poisoning may also result and is the 
characteristic form of poisoning in accidents due to the 
inhalation of the fumes of burning nitroglycerin ex- 
plosives. Incomplete burning or imperfect detonation 
causes carbon monoxide and nitrous gases; the former is 
produced in dangerous quantities after ordinary blasting 

Nitrous fumes are poisonous and of all gases are 
the most treacherous. Haldane exposed mice to 0.05% 
nitric oxide gas for 30 minutes and the mice were dead 
in 24 hours. The symptoms were the same whether nitric 
oxide or fumes of burning dynamite were used. E. A. 
Mann found 0.026% in mine air after blasting. Air con- 
taining enough fumes to cause irritation in the nose or 
air passages is dangerous. Irvine also states that a cer- 
tain number of cases returned as pneumonia among un- 
derground workers are really cases of nitrous fume 
poisoning, and the intensely irritating character of ni- 
trous fumes has suggested that the repeated inhalation of 
small quantities of this gas, by maintaining a catar- 
rhal condition of the air passages and lungs, may be a 
contributory factor in the development of miners' 

Mann says that carbon monoxide and oxides of 

nitrogen occur together because they come from the same 
source. Almost all cases of gassing, therefore, are '•■ 
some extent mixed poisoning. In practice, however, the 
symptoms of one or the other of these gases predominates 

sometimes io the exclusion of the appearance of poisoning 

by any other gas. Irvine says that in eases of poisoning 
by oxide of nitrogen fumes from explosives no symptoms 
may be evident and no poison or discomfort be felt for a 
time, yet within 12 to 18 hours after exposure the person 
exposed to the fumes may die from acute hemorrhagic 
oedema of the lungs. Carbon monoxide may contribute 
to some extent to deaths from poisoning by oxides of 
nitrogen fumes. The affinity of oxygen for nitrogen 
oxide renders its physiological action a difficult one to 

The progress of the poisoning is described by Oliver 
as follows: During the inspiration of N0 2 there is a 
sensation of painful burning in the throat, which ceases 
when the lits of coughing have rejected the poison 
from the lungs. A few hours afterward, when it would 
seem as if all symptoms had ceased and all fear of possi- 
ble complications had passed away, the individual who 
has breathed the gas begins to complain of severe com- 
pression of the chest and of respiration being painful, he 
becomes pale, temperature elevated, the pulse frequent 
and small, and the patient succumbs without loss of his 
intellectual functions. E. Black says that the effects on 
the air passages are instantaneous but the effect at the 
time is not so great that a man unaware of the real 
danger will endeavor to escape at once. On the other 
hand the effects that may develop a few hours after ex- 
posure are serious. Acute bronchitis and oedema of the 
lungs may set in. ending rapidly in death. Breathed 
habitually in small quantities and in great dilution it 
produces severe chronic diseases. In acute poisoning, im- 
mediate dyspnoea, tightness of chest, coughing, fainting, 
cyanosis, diarrhea, and collapse result. Death may occur 
in 40 hours, though symptoms of slight poisoning are de- 
layed, in which case the first symptoms are headache, de- 
sire for fresh air, thirst, and then suddenly symptoms of 
an aggravated character, distress of breathing, anxiety 
depicted on the face, cold perspiration, protruding eye- 
balls, and spasmodic coughing that is followed by 

Persons should be removed from the vitiated atmos- 
phere as soon as possible. In the ease of oedema of the 
lungs, administer atropin. When oedema is absent, inhal- 
ation of water vapor and a little ammonia is recom- 
mended. In cyanosis, alkaline salt injection should be 
tried. Dr. Seyfert's observations show that chloroform 
administered internally in solution, immediately after 
exposure to nitrous fumes and at short intervals there- 
. after, is the most efficient treatment in such cases. Full 
doses should be given every half hour. The bulletin de- 
scribes a method for determining small quantities of 
oxides of nitrogen. With a 250-cc. sample, as low as 10 
parts of oxides of nitrogen (other than N„0) per million 
parts of air can be determined with an accuracy of about 
5 parts per million. 



January 21, 1922 


Hydro -Electric Power -Plant at Oroya, Peru 

By A. W. Allen 

The Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation's main power- 
plant is situated at Oroya, the junction of the Cerro de 
Pasco railway with the Ferrocarril Central del Peru. 
Oroya is at an elevation of about 12,000 ft. above sea- 
level, and is readied after a picturesque journey from the 
capital, Lima, in about 11 hours. The Ferrocarril Cen- 
tral was built by Meiggs, and forms a striking example 
of successful Andean railroad engineering; the branch 
line to Cerro de Pasco was built and is being operated 
by the Cerro de Pasco company. Among the streams 
that have their source in the snows and glaciers of the 
mountains on the Atlantic side of the high Andes is the 
Vauli river, the latent power in which has been utilized 

by the Cerro de Pasco company for extensive mining, 
milling, and smelting operations in various parts of 
the mountainous regions of Peru. Dams have been built 
to increase and hold back the water in the Morococha 
lakes, thus augmenting the supply from the Yauli river 
at times when there is a shortage. 

For hydraulic and other reasons, Oroya was chosen as 
the site for the company's power-plant. About ten miles 
from there, at Chaplanca, a small reservoir has been con- 
structed that serves to deflect the water from the river 
into a conduit of flume and pipe, which carries it to a 
large reservoir that is situated above and not far from 
the power-plant. The conduit traverses a rugged moun- 

January 21, 1922 




tain region ; four tunnels had to be cut through the hills ; 
the major part of the open flume is lined with concrete 
or rock, the remainder being built of wood. The pipe- 
line is used to carry the water across the hills on each side 
of the Saco Quebrado gulch. The reservoir above the 
power-plant forms an artificial lake, which serves as a 
reserve of power in case of accident to the flume or pipe- 
line; from here to the power-plant the water is con- 
ducted through a steel pipe, the first section of which is 
62 in. diameter, the lower portion being 42 in. diameter. 
The pipe is about 4700 ft. long; at the steepest portion, 
for a length of about 1500 ft., it is held by anchors that 
are attached to concrete 'dead-men'. The pressure-pipe 
terminates at the bottom of the hill and near the power- 
house in a right-angled Y, the duplicate branches of 
which consist of steel pipe of 30 in. diameter, equipped 
with gate-valves. The water from each of these is again 
divided into four branch pressure-pipes, each of 24 in. 
diameter; each of these is again subdivided to suppty 
water to the twin water-wheels that drive the generators. 
An ideal site has been found for the power-house, which 
is built of reinforced concrete. The electrical equipment 
is in the form of four main generator units, two exciter 
sets, transformers, and switchboard. There is a separate 
installation of pumps, water-wheels, and motors to supply 
oil, at pressure, for the governors of the large water- 
wheels. The four main generator units consist of stand- 
ardized equipment. Each main shaft carries two impulse 
water-wheels that overhang beyond the bearings. The 
twin wheels in each case are equipped with steel buckets 
of special design ; the rated capacity of each unit is 5000 
hp. at 300 r.p.m. and operating under a head of 700 ft. 
of water. The pressure-main terminates in deflecting 
nozzles and needles of the usual Allis-Chalmers type, 
which are controlled by means of governors that are oper- 
ated by oil. If necessary, the water can be deflected en- 

tirely from the bnokets, in 
which case it goes direct into 
the tail-race. The diameter 
of the nozzles can be alt •-r<< 1 

to suit operating o lit ions 

and load requirements. One 
governor controls the two de- 
flecting nozzles of a single 
unit, whereby speed is main- 
tained constant by the pre- 
cise and automatic regulation, 
not of the amount of water 
that is allowed to pass through 
the nozzles, but of the amount 
that impinges on the buckets. 
These governors are extremely 
sensitive and have given com- 
plete satisfaction. The oil 
used, which is maintained un- 
der a pressure that may reach 
a maximum of 250 lb. per 
square inch, is supplied by one 
of two rotary pumps; each of 
these is connected through 
friction-clutches with a water-wheel. The opposite end 
of each shaft is connected with a 35-hp. motor, which 
may be operated with current obtained direct from the 
main generators. 

The four main generators operate at 300 r.p.m. and are 
each of 3750-kva. capacity. The current produced is of 
the usual alternating, 3-phase, 60-cycle type, and is de- 




January 21, 1922 

livered to the transformers at a pressure of 2300 volts. 
The generators are excited by current that is supplied by 
one of two exciter-sets, driven by water-wheels, or by 
motors ; these water-wheels are each of 200-hp. capacity 
at 900 r.p.m., the water used being tapped from two of 
the 24-in. pipes that lead to the larger wheels ; they are 
equipped with fixed nozzles, the supply of water to the 
buckets and the speed of the wheels being regulated by 
means of Woodward governors. The auxiliary motor 
connection is on the same shaft as the exciter and the 
water-wheel. The motors operate at generator voltage 
(2300) and are available for use in case of accident or 
the need for repair to the hydraulic equipment by which 
the exciters are usually operated. 

Nine transformers, each of 1000-kw. capacity, are used 
to raise the pressure of the current from the generators to 


55,000 volts, at which it is carried by No. 1 copper wire 
cables to Morococha, where there is a large concentrating 
plant ; to Cerro de Pasco, where it is used in the mines, 
shops, and at the new concentrating plant ; to Fundicion, 
where it is used to operate the smelter; and to the coal 
mines at Goyllarisquisga and Quishuarcancha, near Cerro 
de Pasco. The high-tension lines are carried on tri- 
partite steel standards of light weight and strong con- 
struction. An adequate telephone system is maintained, 
the wires being carried on separate T standards. 

The plant is a credit to the designers as well as to the 
manufacturers; I am indebted to the Allis-Chalmers 
Mfg. Co., of Milwaukee, for details of the equipment. 

The character of the ore at the Laloki and Dubuna 
mines of the New Guinea Copper company is such that 
it has been found impossible to ship it in a green state on 
account of its liability to fire, the average contents being 
4£% copper, 2\ dwt. gold, 10 dwt. silver, 40% iron, 40% 
sulphur, and 5 to 6% silica. The directors, in their re- 
port for the twelve months ended December 31, state that, 
as a rule, the sulphur and iron contents in basic ores such 
as these are paid for either by direct credits or by very 
low smelting charges. Obviously, therefore, the most 
profitable utilization of these ores is by their shipment to 
the mainland, there to assist in the economic smelting of 

the silicious ores within the Commonwealth of Australia. 
Brie Huntley, chief technical officer, after a series of 
laboratory experiments, has evolved a sublimation process 
which has been tested with entirely satisfactory results. 
and which he is confident will remove any possibility'of 
the ore firing in the course of transit to the mainland. 
The directors therefore have under consideration the 
erection of the necessary equipment to give effect to Mr. 
Huntley's scheme, and they now propose to ship the ore 
direct to the mainland after treatment, in place of smelt- 
ing at Bootless Inlet. Four or five months will be needed 
to erect the equipment necessary to deal with 3000 tons 
of ore per month. The company's railway from Bootless 
Inlet to the Dubuna mine has been completed, and a jetty 
and ore-bins, together with all necessary accomodation, 
erected at Bootless Inlet. The expenditure involved has 
been heavy. The board has offered to transfer the rail- 
way line to the Commonwealth government on payment 
of its cost to the company, but the government has not 
accepted the offer. The two mines, together with tram- 
ways, roads, plant, machinery, and buildings appear in 
the balance sheet as having cost £245,842. 

Mica has been mined on a small scale in Argentina for 
many years, but it is only recently that the industry has 
received serious attention ; in the five years preceding the 
War, 46 tons of mica were exported, of which the largest 
share went to Great Britain, the remainder being taken 
by Germany and Austria, states a consular report. In 
1919 the exportation had increased to 145 tons, of which 
the United States took more than half. The mica ex- 
ported is muscovite, from the pegmatites of the sierras of 
Cordoba and San Luis, occurring throughout the extent 
of the Cordoba hills and northward through the provinces 
of Catamarca, La Eioja, Tucuman, and the territory of 
Los Andes. All of the mining is done on a small scale by 
individuals with little or no capital, and the mica is sold 
to factories or dealers in Buenos Aires. The chief local 
use is in the manufacture of electrical heaters, although 
one small factory in Buenos Aires selects and cuts mica 
for phonograph discs and other uses. There are, how- 
ever, no figures available on the production of mica for 
domestic consumption. According to one mine-owner, a 
metric ton (1 metric ton = 2204.6 lb.) of mica from the 
Cordoba mines will yield sizes as follows: Special, 15 
kilos (1 kilo = 2.2046 lb.) ; No. 1A, 35 kilos; No. 1, 50 
kilos ; and in increasing proportion through the following 
five grades to 300 kilos of No. 6. According to the 
Argentine mining code, it is not necessary to own land to 
exploit the mica, mining rights being taken out by anyone 
locating the mineral, and therefore any American com- 
panies interested will not find it necessary to own mines. 
The numerous known deposits of the Cordoba hills, 200 
miles west of the port of Rosario, are capable of being 
put on a producing basis if payment for the mineral can 
be made at the mine or railroad station. Lack of capital 
is holding back the workings. An American company 
well represented in the field could collect almost any 
desired quantity of Argentine mica for export in this 

January 21, 1922 



The Hornsilver Mining District 

By J. K. Turner 

The HornsUver mining district is in Esmeralda county, 
Nevada, about m miles south-westerly Erom Qoldfleld and 
16 miles Erom Stonewall, a station on the Tonopah & 
Tidewater railroad and the nearest shipping point. 

\\ ood and water are not found in the ii diate vicin- 

iiy. The Conner ia not important as the ground requires 
but little timbering. Water has already been brought to 
the town of Hornsilver from the Qoldfleld Consolidated 
Water Co. 'a lines by gravity. The question of a supply 
of water for the district ran be solved without great 

The geology of the district is characterized by Cam- 
brian limestones and calcareous shales that are intruded 
by diorite dikes. Intrusive granite is found in the higher 
mountains iu the southern part of the district and it is 
their intrusion that has tilted the whole formation; The 
shale is interbedded with the limestone and the ores are 
found both in the shale and the limestone. 

Tlie most extensive formation is the limestone. It is 
compact and fine-grained, ranging in color from light- 
gray to almost black. At numerous [daces the rock is 
heavily stained by hematite and limonite. 

The main veins of the district constitute an approxi- 
mately parallel system cutting across the bedding of the 
shales and the limestone with a prevailing strike of about 
N. 60° W-» and with steep dips. Although the wall-rock 
is either shale or limestone, the veins generally are paral- 
lel to some fine-grained and rather obscurely exposed 
diorite dikes. The vein-material is more or less oxidized. 

The quartz in many places is intensely crushed and the 
fragments have been re-cemented by limonite or chalce- 
donic quartz stained by iron oxide. It is apparent that 
the fissures, after being filled with quartz and sulphides, 
have been crushed by a later movement along the original 
dislocation, the vein thereby being rendered sensitive to 
oxidizing solutions. A distinct clay gouge separates the 
veins from the walls, which are unusually hard and 

A marked characteristic of the veins all over the dis- 
trict is their regular strike, as shown wherever the 'wash' 
has been removed. 

Silver predominates in the upper portion of the veins 
whereas gold predominates in the lower portion. It ap- 
pears thus that there are two types of enrichment in these 
deposits. In one of them silver chloride is concentrated 
in the manganiferous oxidized ores of the upper levels, 
and gold is concentrated below. In the other, silver 
chloride is subordinate, whereas both gold and silver are 
concentrated below the oxidized zone. Possibly the dif- 
ference might be explained if the amount of chlorine 
could be determined in the waters of deposits of both 
types. Silver chloride is soluble in an excess of alkaline 
chlorides. Those deposits in which hornsilver is not pres- 
ent may have been leached by waters unusually rich in 

The primary ore carries relatively little pyrite, and the 

ins] ii"M of a number of them gives the impression that 

the BiUciOUS H', , favorable tllall lllr lie, iv highly 


Ill many of the deposits that e;irry gold, manganese is 

at in .in appreciable amount, and the physical con- 
ditions seem to indicate a downward circulation; there 

fore it would be reasonable to expect i nrichment of 

gold below the silver-chloride enrichment zone. It was 

observed in some of the properties where liolli gold and 

silver are present in quantities that the outcrop and the 
oxidized zone for a distance below are leached of both 
metals. This would indicate the presence of strong acid- 
sulphate waters at line time. 

The valuable constituents of the deposits are gold, sil- 


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ver, and lead. The last, as yet, is exposed only in a few 
places and in small quantities. The silver is found as 
cerargyrite (silver chloride, also called hornsilver) and 
sparingly as bromyrite (silver bromide). The lead as 
galena (lead sulphide), and cerussite (lead carbonate). 
The gold is found native. 

The district covers a large area. It is not a new dis- 
trict, for an earlier camp known as Lime Point was lo- 
cated on the present site of the town of Hornsilver. The 
mines were worked over fifty years ago, but the poor mill- 
ing-plants, the high cost of labor and supplies, and the 
long haul to the railroad at that time caused the district 
to be practically abandoned until the growth of Tonopah 
called new attention to this part of the State and pro- 
vided better facilities than formerly existed for its eco- 



January 21, 1922 

nomic development. It was again practically abandoned 
during the rush to Goldfield and other later districts. 
After these rushes subsided, interest again was taken in 
this district with renewed energy, resulting in deep de- 
velopment, exposing large bodies of ore and demonstrat- 
ing persistence in depth. 

There are two well-developed properties in the district : 
the Great "Western, belonging to the Great "Western Min- 
ing Co., and the Orleans owned by the Orleans Hornsilver 
Mining Co. The former has a gross production of over 
$500,000 and the latter of $450,000. Development in both 
properties has proved that the size and richness of the 
orebodies continue in depth. The Great "Western pro- 
duced from the 600-ft. level and the Orleans is now pro- 
ducing ore averaging $15 over a width of 10 ft. from 
about the same level. The Great Western property is 
now closed on account of litigation. 

Prospectors are busy on the hills. New locations are 
being made, and many new companies have started work 
or are making preparations to start. 

Copper Mines of Eastern Finland 

Negotiations have recently been carried on between the 
owners of the Outokumpu copper mines in eastern Pin- 
land and some German copper-mine owners for the lease 
of the Outokumpu mines or the sale of the raw ore from 
them, states a consular report. It is stated that enough 
ore is being produced at present in one month to suffice 
for smelting for one year, but that it is intended to double 
the productive capacity of the smelting works, in which 
case the production of two months can be utilized here 
and that of 10 months can be disposed of otherwise. 

There is considerable opposition on the part of ex- 
perts in this country to disposing of these mines or their 
products, as they are considered to be a valuable asset for 
Finland. Experts state that there are at least 8,000,000 
tons of ore in sight. To the value of the copper contained 
therein is to be added the value of sulphur, zinc, and 
eventually also of precious metals, although the latter 
exist only in very small quantities. It is considered 
probable that the quantity of ore is even greater than that 
mentioned, as borings have shown a depth of 9 to 10 
metres in some places. Experts say that if the mines are 
worked to their full capacity the production will amount 
to at least 6000 tons of copper pe*r year, which is worth 
12,000,000 to 15,000,000 gold marks, not counting the 
other products, of which the sulphur alone is sufficient to 
satisfy the requirements of Finland's paper industry. 

The Outokumpu ore field is situated in the district of 
Kuusjarvi, 56 kilometres from Joensuu and 90 km. from 
Kuopio. It consists of a long flat layer of quartzite, 
which, according to borings already made, appears to be 
2500 m. long and 200'or 300 m. wide, with a depth of 9 
to 10 m., as stated above. The ore contains on an aver- 
age 4 to 4.5% of copper, 27% of sulphur, 28% of iron, 
and approximately 1% of zinc, as well as small quantities 
of silver and gold. The mineralogical composition of the 
ore is on an average 12%, of copper pyrite, 32% of 

sulphur pyrite, 15% of magnetic pyrite, 1% of zinc 
blende, and 40% of quartz. 

Notwithstanding the importance of the deposits of cop. 
per and sulphur at Outokumpu, these mines have never 
been worked with much success. The ore was first dis- 
covered in 1910, and trial work began three years later. 
The following table shows the annual production of ore 
and of copper since 1914 and the value of the copper : 

Ore Copper Value of copper 

Tear tone tons Marks* 

1914 7,500 148.2 375.000 

1915 9.800 157.1 580.000 

1916 22.000 176.8 1.025.000 

1917 15.000 145.6 1.140.000 

1918 17.200 69.5 1,300,000 

1919 11,000 15.6 138.000 

•The normal value of the Finnish mark is 80.193, but it is now greatly 

The Outokumpu mines are owned by the Finnish Gov- 
ernment and a private firm, the latter having been the 
owner of the land where the ore was discovered and the 
former having acquired its title through the discovery of 
the ore and researches made by a mining engineer on 
behalf of the State Geological Commission. The mines 
and the land were leased by the owners for a period of 25 
years from October 1, 1917, to a joint-stock company 
organized by a foreign mining engineer for the exploita- 
tion of these mines. Owing, however, to the War and 
other causes the enterprise failed, and on December 3, 
1920, the company filed a petition in bankruptcy. This 
was subsequently withdrawn and the shares redeemed by 
the owners of the mines, who allowed the company an 
extension of time for fulfilling the conditions of the con- 
tract. The owners of the mines and the company are 
now experimenting to determine what methods of work- 
ing will be most advantageous. 

The persistently high cost of labor and material has 
forced manufacturers to give the keenest attention to 
every promising source of economy in production; for 
this, among other reasons, there has been a revival of 
interest in a unique welding system developed in Great 
Britain a few years ago, and since put into commercial 
operation, states the 'S. A. Mining and Engineering 
Journal'. This system depends upon the fact that if a 
piece of copper on an iron plate is heated in an atmos- 
phere of hydrogen to the melting-point of copper, the 
copper will spread over the iron in a thin penetrating 
film, like butter on hot toast. So, if the copper is melted 
between two pieces of iron it welds them together in an 
amazingly intimate fashion, the copper film actually 
working itself in between the crystals of the iron. By 
this process machine parts which can most conveniently 
be made in two pieces can be efficiently joined together 
without the complication of screws. In effect it enables 
the cheapness of separate manufacture to be combined 
with the strength and convenience of the solid combina- 
tion. Steam-turbine blades and the cage or body of a 
high-speed centrifugal governor for small steam-turbines 
are among the articles which have been made successfully 
by this simple and ingenious process. 

Januarj 81, 1922 



Mining in Arizona and Utah During 1921 

By V. C. Heikes 


•The value <>f the gold, silver, copper, and lead pro- 
duced by mines in Arizona during 1921 was about $26,- 
000,000. a decrease from $114,628,584 in L920. As most 
of the copper-smelting plants were closed after March or 
April the output of copper was less than one-third of 
that in 1920. No zinc \wis marketed, the output of lead 
was abnormally reduced, and the output of gold and 
silver was onh half that of 1920. 

The gold produeed by mines in Arizona decreased from 
$4,786,122 in 1920 to about $3,046,000 in 1921, largely 
because of the cloning of the copper mines, but partly 
because of the smaller output of gold ore. Operations 
were continued at the United Eastern and Tom Reed 
properties, in the San Francisco district, Mohave county, 
but the output was somewhat less than in 1920. The 
United Eastern company produced about 60% of the gold 
output of the State in 1921. Of the copper properties, 
the Calumet & Arizona, United Verde, and Copper Queen 
mines were the largest producers of gold, though they 
were actively operated for only about three month* of 
the year. 

The mine output of silver decreased from 5,355,303 
oz. in 1920 to about 2.179.000 oz. in 1921. As most of 
the silver is associated with copper ore the decreased 
output of silver was due to the decreased mining of cop- 
per. The largest producers of silver were the Calumet 
& Arizona, Bunker Hill, United Verde, Copper Queen, 
United Verde Extension, Magma, and Commonwealth 
mines. There was much activity at Tombstone, even 
after the closing of the smelters at Douglas, as arrange- 
ments were made to ship the ore to El Paso, Texas 
Much silver ore was also treated locally in milling plants. 
The C. O. D. mine, near Kingman, operated a new mill, 
and was a producer of considerable silver-lead ore. 

The mine output of copper decreased from 558.256,302 
lb. in 1920 to about 163,087,000 lb. in 1921. The value 
of the output decreased from $102,719,160 in 1920 to 
about $20,565,000 in 1921, owing to the curtailment of 
production and the decrease in the average price of cop- 
per from 18.40c. to 12.50c. per pound. The Consolidated 
Arizona smelter was idle throughout the year, and by 
May all the copper-smelting plants of Arizona were 
idle and most of the mines were forced to close. The 
Miami Copper Co., however, continued to make con- 
centrate at the usual rate, and the International smelter 
resumed operations late in the year to treat the accumu- 
lated material. The leaching of copper ore was con- 
tinued at the New Cornelia plant, at Ajo. The Copper 
Queen and Calumet & Arizona companies mined and 

♦From U. S. Geological Survey. 

shipped to Douglas a reduced quantity of copper ore 
after the smelting plants were closed. 

The mine production of lead in Arizona decreased 
from 14,599,765 lb, in 1920 to 5.182,000 lb. in 1921. The 
value of the nut put decreased from $1,167,981 to about 
$238,000. No shipments of lead ore or concentrate were 
made from the Shattuck mine, which was the largest pro* 
ducer of lead in 1920. Much silver-lead ore. however, 
was shipped from the Copper Queen mine, especially 
from September to the close of the year, and the Bunker 
Hill Co., at Tombstone, shipped much lead ore as well 
as silver ore to El Paso. 

As the demand for zinc was poor and the price de- 
creased to about 5.11e. per pound, no zinc ore was 
shipped from mines in Arizona. The Arizona Hillside 
property in Yavapai county was idle. 

The dividends paid by Arizona mining companies dur- 
ing the first 11 months of 1921 amounted to about 
$5,225,828, exclusive of $2,475,000 paid by the Phelps 
Dodge Corporation, which also operated mines in Mexico 
and New Mexico. The companies that paid dividends 
were the Miami. United Eastern. United Verde. Calumet 
& Arizona, United Verde Extension, and Phelps Dodge 
Corporation, the last principally for the Copper Queen 


The value of the gold, silver, copper, and lead pro- 
dueed from mines in Utah during 1921 was about $22,- 
595,000, a decrease from $4!t.744.:i:!4 in 1920. The out- 
put of all metals was decidedly less than that of 1920, 
and the output of copper was less than one-third that 
of 1920. 

The mine production of gold decreased from $2,014,- 
556 in 1920 to about $1,794,000 in 1921. The gold pro- 
dueed from copper ore was decidedly less, and the pro- 
ducers of silicious ores containing gold and silver suf- 
fered from excessive costs and smelter restrictions. At 
Bingham and Park City the production of gold decreased 
slightly, but in the Tintie district the decrease was 
marked, as several large producers were idle for months. 
The United States Mining Co., at Bingham, greatly in- 
creased its output of gold from lead and copper ore, and 
its mine produced more than twice as much gold as any 
other mine in Utah. Second in gold production was the 
Deer Trail mine, at Marysvale. which also had a con- 
siderably increased output. Gold in quantity was also 
produced by the Utah Copper, Chief Consolidated, Eagle 
& Blue Bell, and Tintie Standard mines. 

The mine output of silver decreased from 13,106,976 
oz. in 1920 to about 12,366,000 oz. in 1921. The decrease 
in silver was especially noticeable at Bingham, Park 
City, and Ophir. The output from the Tintie district, 



January 21, 1922 

however, was more than upheld, principally through the 
efforts of the Chief Consolidated and Tintie Standard 
companies. The Chief Consolidated mine, at Eureka, 
continued to be the largest producer of silver in the 
State, and the Tintie Standard followed closely. Other 
mines that produced more than 500,000 oz. of silver were 
the United States Mining Co., at Bingham ; the Vipont, 
in Box Elder county; the Judge and Ontario mines, 
at Park City; and the Eagle & Blue Bell, at Eureka. 
One of the interesting features of the year was the 
large production of silver ore from the Park-Utah mine, 
east of the Ontario at Park City. The Tintie Milling 
Co., at Silver City, continued to treat custom ores by a 
chloridizing roast followed by leaching, and the Tintie 
Standard company, in the eastern section of the district, 
operated its new mill, using the same process. The Deer 
Trail mine, in Piute county, increased its production of 
silver, and shipments of silver concentrates from the 
Vipont mine, in Box Elder county, were also much 

The mine production of copper decreased from 116.- 
931.238 lb. in 1920 to about 34,534,000 lb. in 1921, and 
the value decreased from $21,515,348 to about $4,354,000. 
The Utah Copper Co., which produces most of the copper 
of the State, was closed in April after producing about 
25.000,000 lb. of copper during the first three months. 
The Utah Consolidated mine, at Bingham, was closed in 
March. The average price of copper was 12.61e. per 
pound in 1921 and the demand for the metal was small. 
The United States Mining, Montana Bingham, and Tintie 
Standard companies produced a considerable amount of 

The mine output of lead decreased from 140.838,113 
lb. in 1920 to about 89,782,000 lb. in 1921. The value 
of the output decreased from $11,267,049 to about 
$4,130,000. As the average price of lead was about 4.60c. 
per pound, it was not profitable to ship lead ore unless 
it contained much silver. The largest producer of lead 
was the United States Mining Co., at Bingham, but 
the Utah-Apex and Utah Consolidated mines were idle. 
The output from the Tintie. Park City, and Bingham 
districts was decidedly less. The closing of the lead 
smelter at International in July seriously affected ship- 
ments from Ophir, Park City, and Eureka. 

The mine output of recoverable zinc in 1920 was 
8,157,739 lb., but market conditions prevented shipments 
of zinc ore or concentrate in 1921. It was not profitable 
to ship zinc ore to Eastern plants on account of the high 
freight-rates and decreased price of the metal. The 
electrolytic plant of the Judge Mining & Smelting Co.. at 
Park City, was closed in November 1920. and zinc con- 
centrate from the Judge mill was stored. Financial 
difficulties prevented the operation of the Utah Zinc Co.'s 
zinc-oxide plant near Murray, and at Midvale zinc con- 
centrate from Bingham ore and old tailing were stored 
awaiting a better market. 

In 1921 the mines in Utah produced about 1,970,000 
Ions of ore. a decrease from 6.S00.180 tons in 1920. Of 
this total the Bingham district produced about 1,485,000 

tons as compared with 6,067,180 tons in 1920. The esti- 
mated production of the district was 47,052 oz. of gold, 
1,059,700 oz. of silver, 28,349,000 lb. of copper, and 24,- 
000,000 lb. of lead. 

The mines of the Tintie district produced about 316,- 
000 tons, exclusive of iron ore, as compared with 332,635 
tons in 1920. The estimated production of the district 
was 18,578 oz. of gold, 7,425,000 oz. of silver, 1,672,000 
lb. of copper, and 32,543,000 lb. of lead. The mines that 
produced more than 5000 tons during the year were the 
Tintie Standard, Chief Consolidated, Eagle & Blue Bell, 
Victoria, Iron Blossom, and Dragon. The shipments of 
ore and concentrate from the Park City region of Utah 
decreased from 88,314 tons in 1920 to about 74,320 tons 
in 1921. 

A table of figures furnished by the principal ship- 
pers gave an estimated output for the district of 3317 oz. 
of gold. 2.185,000 oz. of silver, 782,000 lb. of copper, and 
16,425,000 lb. of lead. The output of ore in the Ophir 
and Rush Valley and Big and Little Cottonwood dis- 
tricts was greatly reduced, but more ore was treated in 
Piute and Box Elder counties. 

The lead smelters at Midvale and Murray were op- 
erated at a reduced rate during the year. The copper 
plant at Garfield curtailed its output after the closing 
of the Utah Copper mine, but continued to receive much 
silicious ore. At International the copper plant was idle 
and the lead plant was closed in July. In August the 
freight on bullion was reduced, and by December the 
smelters had disposed of surplus stocks and were merely 
shipping the current production. 

The dividends paid by mining companies in Utah in 
1921 will amount to approximately $4,613,930. Divi- 
dends amounting to $1,877,780 were also paid by the 
United States Smelting & Refining Co., which controls 
mines at Eureka and Bingham as well as mines in other 
States. The following companies contributed: Utah 
Copper, Chief Consolidated, Grand Central, Silver King 
Coalition, Eagle & Blue Bell, Tintie Standard, Gold 
Chain, Park Utah, Iron Blossom, and Eureka Hill. 

Gold Production of South Dakota in 1921 

The Homestake mine and mills, at Lead and Dead- 
wood, South Dakota, began the year 1921 with increased 
activity and in April were working almost at full ca- 
pacity, according to C. W. Henderson, of the U. S. 
Geological Survey. From May the operations continued 
at full capacity throughout the year. In May 1921 the 
Homestake resumed the payment of dividends, the first 
since September 1919. The Trojan mine and mill were 
in continuous operation throughout the year. The 
Golden Reward Co. moved the machinery of its cyanida- 
tion plant from Deadwood to Terry. Considerable de- 
velopment work was done at other properties during the 
year. The production of gold in South Dakota for 1921 
was s6.464.000, as compared with $4,676,470 in 1920, 
and the production of silver increased from 90,795 oz. 
to 111,000 oz. No lead or copper was produced in the 
State in 1921. 

January -'• 1922 





.-. ; 


— '■ """" 



jet *k - ->**^£rz^ — - 


At a meeting of the San Francisco section of the Institute, 
held at the Engineers Club on January 10, the following 
officers were elected for the ensuing year: Albert Burch, 
chairman; Theodore J. Hoover, vice-chairman; C. H. Fry, 
secretary; Jules Labarthe and Walter S. Weeks, directors. 
The usual dinner was followed by the presentation and dis- 
cussion of a paper on asbestos mining in Canada and Cali- 
fornia by W. J. Woolsey. 


D. A. Welch, representing copper producers in the South- 
west, including the Inspiration Consolidated. International 
Smelting, Greene-Cananea, Phelps Dodge, Arizona, Old 
Dominion, Miami, Ray Consolidated, Chino, Calumet & 
Arizona, and the New Cornelia companies, opposed the duty 
on oil at recent congressional hearings. He said it would 
impose a heavy burden on copper producers who could not 
afford additional expense for this important material. These 
copper producers consume 4 J million barrels of fuel-oil per 
year. The copper mines, with few exceptions, are closed. 
Copper is one of the principal exports, in normal times; 60 
to 65% of the production is exported. Copper is not pro- 
tected by a tariff. In 1914 much oil for use by the copper 
companies came from California, but due to diminished 
supply and increased price the producers found a new source 
of supply. The mid-continent field does not offer an oil 
supply of sufficient quantity and at a price which will permit 
copper producers to purchase. Welch said the South-West 
needs Mexican fuel-oil. With supplies costing 50% more 
and labor costs 50% higher than in 1914, while the selling 
price of copper is about the same, he said an oil duty would 
be a burden to an industry now struggling for existence. 


Announcement has been made by Robert E. Tally, gen- 
eral manager, that steam-shovel work will be resumed at 
the United Verde within two weeks, with approximately 
125 men employed in two shifts. A churn-drill is to be 
started at once, sinking holes for blasting. There has been 
a radical change in the plan of shovel-work. The original 
scheme was to remove the entire top of the mine to the 
depth of 300 ft. and then to excavate a pit of 200 ft. added 
depth. The new plan will involve the cutting of a shovel- 
channel clear through to the country rock; and the includ- 
ing of the oxidized deposits overlying the fire-zone. This 
oxidized ore is assumed to assay about 1 % copper, but 
contains gold and silver. This will be stripped to the 160-ft. 
level, virtually exposing the smoldering sulphide ores, which 
then, it is expected, will be handled readily. Above the 400- 
ft. level it is estimated there will be handled 3,000,000 cu. 
yd. of ore and 4,500,000 yd. of waste. The initial trenching 
will necessitate removal of 100,000 cu. yd. The ores of this 
top stripping will be of diverse character and will include 
much old slag. Some ore will go direct to the smelter and 
other types will require milling. 

Though there has been belief locally of early resumption 
of work by the United Verde Extension, the first authentic 

information was contained In a declaration at Los Angeles 
by James S. Douglas, president of the Extension company, 
that the mine will start within 40 days, employing 500 men 
and with an output of 1500 tons of bullion per month. Both 
the United Verde and the United Verde Extension smelters 
are in readiness for operation at any time, contingent, of 
course, upon availibility of the necessary skilled labor. 


Advices from the Lake district indicate that the Calumet 
& Hecla, Ahmeek, Allouez, and Isle Royale companies intend 
to resume production of copper on April 1. It is stated that 
workmen will be engaged from time to time before that date 
as they are needed, to repair shafts, underground workings, 
and surface plants, in anticipation of active operation. The 
production for the first few months will probably not be 
more than half of normal, but the output will be increased 
gradually as the market warrants. The stock of surplus 
metal in the hands of the Calumet & Hecla company should 
be normal by midsummer. 


The Yukon Gold Co. has commenced tin-mining operations 
in the Malay Straits Settlements. The initial month's opera- 
tions show a recovery of 89%, against a predicted one of 
80%. The company placed its first dredge in operation in 
September. Two other dredges, now under construction, 
should be ready for operation soon, after which it is planned 
to add a new unit every six months. From now on the com- 
pany's main activities will be centred in the Federated Malay 
States, according to the 'Boston News Bureau'. Estimates 
place costs at 20 to 22c. per pound of tin. The present mar- 
ket price is 30c. per pound, but the average price for a num- 
ber of years prior to 1914 was about 40c. The Government 
has placed a 30% export duty on tin, as a result of which 
the Yukon company will sell its concentrate in that market 
rather than ship to the American Smelting & Refining Co., 
with which it has close affiliations. Some time in 1922 the 
company will probably undertake some new financing to 
fund expenditures made in equipping the new Malay propo- 

As a result of the grant of valuable water-power conces- 
sions the company will have the only hydro-electric power 
property in the Federated Malay States. This will make 
possible a low cost of producing tin. C. H. Munro is in 


When the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. resumed opera- 
tions at four of its mines at Butte on January 16, 2000 to 
2200 men were added to the number it has been keeping at 
work on development, upkeep, and preservation of the sur- 
face equipment during the shut-down. While its chutes and 
raises have been kept in condition, tracks, pipe-lines, etc., re- 
quire some overhauling and it is not expected that the com- 
pany will be producing copper before the middle of Febru- 
ary, and then at the rate of only 5,000,000 lb. per month. 



January 21, 1922 

Mine officials state that it will be next year before the com- 
pany is back to capacity production o£ between 25,000,000 
and 30,000,000 lb. of copper and from 8,000,000 to 9,000,- 
000 lb. of zinc per month. Because of the nine-month shut- 
down experienced men have become badly scattered and it 
will be many months before the mine organization is on an 
efficient basis. The labor unions at Butte received the wage- 
cut in good humor. 


Europe is still our best customer; our transactions during 
1921 considerably surpass those of 1913 figures, according 
to the Department of Commerce. The total value of our 
trade with European countries in 1921 probably approxi- 
mated $2,380,000,000, as against $1,499,573,363 in 1913. 
The United Kingdom is our best customer; Germany has 
risen to second place in Europe as a consumer of American 
goods. Our exports to Germany during 1921 exceeded by 
about $25,000,000 our exports to that country in 1913. The 
final 1921 figures for Germany will show an increase in value 
over 1920. As compared with 1913, American exports to 
Italy in 1921 also show a great increase. Imports from Eu- 
rope to the United States during 1921 were approximately 
$760,000,000, against $864,666,103 in 1913. American im- 
ports from France slightly exceeded in value those of 1913. 
Imports from the United Kingdom were slightly less than 
in 1913, whereas imports from Germany were less than half 
the pre-war figures. 

Imports From 


France S138.933.883 

Germany 184.211.352 

Italy 55.322.304 

Netherlands 37.638.809 

United Kingdom 271.954.987 

Canada 142.127.982 

British South Africa 3.066,349 

French Africa 785.697 

Total (Europe) S864.666.103 

Exports To 

France S153.922.526 

Germany 351.930.541 

Italy 78.675.043 

Netherlands 121.552.038 

United Kingdom 590.732.398 

Canada 403.191.392 

British South Africa 15.986.676 

French Africa 2.232.479 

Total (Europe) Sl.499.573.363 















Chairman Brooker of the American Brass Co. is sending to 
stockholders a report on the Anaconda property made by 
James F. Kemp, consulting geologist. After reviewing its 
productive capacity and the history *of the mines in Butte, 
together with the geology of that district, Kemp makes the 
statement that the ores are of all grades from a general min- 
ing minimum of about 3% copper to a percentage of 10 to 
15. The ore is carefully taken so as to use lower grades in 
times of high copper prices and higher grades in times of low 
prices. In this way the available supply is, and has long 
been, carefully conserved. This average grade has been 
maintained for 10 or 15 years. All the ore as mined is made 
up to a general average of about 3.3% copper. By oil-flota- 
tion the recovery is 96%, an exceptionally favorable show- 
ing. Allowing for further unavoidable losses in smelting and 
refining the recovery over all is 91.5% of the metal in the 
crude ore. In its operations the Anaconda company has 
opened over 2200 miles of workings and in normal years 
operates 23 different mines or shafts. 

The continuation of the veins and of their values in depth 

is fundamentally important. The individual mines of the 
Anaconda company are of all depths from 500 to 3200 ft. 
The rich copper-bearing minerals continue unchanged in 
character to the lowest depth reached, and the silver shows 
no decline, but, if anything, a slight improvement in its ratio 
to copper. Ore-reserves indicated are of sufficient quantity 
to support operations on a normal scale for 15 or 16 years to 
come. Such a period of time is unusually long for a mining 
enterprise. The development in advance of mining indicates 
more ore blocked out today than was blocked out 10 years 
ago. All vein mines in the West are insatiable consumers 
of timber. The company now owns 1,150,000 acres in west- 
ern Montana containing standing timber estimated at 6,000,- 
000,000 ft. From 75,000,000 to 80,000,000 ft. of the output 
of the company's modern saw-mill are taken by the mines 
when running at capacity. Anaconda has secured several 
'porphyry' deposits in South America and of the four prop- 
erties the one in the most advanced state of development is 
at Potrerillos, in Chile. An orebody has been proved by 
drilling to contain over 128,000,000 tons of ore running 
1.49% copper. The mine is already developed and the ore 
lies in such a way that as broken it will all drop downward 
to the cars, no hoisting being required. Allowing for losses 
in concentration and smelting, there is, roughly and safely, 
about 1,500,000 tons of available copper in this huge ore- 
body. In conclusion Kemp says: "In my opinion, the pres- 
ent valuations, which have been the basis of negotiations 
with the American Brass Co., have been fairly and con- 
servatively determined". 


The United States Circuit Court of Appeals has upheld the 
decision of the United States Circuit Court, which held in 
favor of the Mountain Copper and Balaklala Mining com- 
panies of California in suits involving approximately $25,000 
in taxes paid in Shasta county under protest. The copy of 
the decision of the Circuit Court of Appeals decision has 
just been received. The copper companies contested the 
action of the Shasta County Board of Equalization in raising 
assessments upon the company's properties. The Mountain 
Copper Co.'s assessment was raised from the figure of $13 5,- 
000 submitted by the County Assessor to $589,000. The 
raise on the Balaklala company's property was in like ratio. 
The decision says: "The cases are such that it appears the 
Board of Supervisors disregarded all values and the report 
of the Assessor to the injury of the copper companies". 


The rush to this new gold camp 75 miles north of The Pas 
in Manitoba continues and at last accounts some 5 00 claims 
had been staked. The Hollinger Consolidated of Porcupine, 
which took an option on the Murray claims at a price stated 
at $150,000, has sent in a force of 25 men to start immediate 
development. The camp has attracted the attention of East- 
ern capitalists and a number of claims have changed hands 
at high figures. 


Accused of selling about $1,300,000 worth of stock in the 
Jerome-Superior Copper Co. whose property is at Jerome, 
Arizona, upon the representation that a drill-core con- 
taining a high percentage of copper had come from that 
mine, Melville Frasier, well-known Los Angeles attorney, 
president of the company, and George Mitchell, manager and 
chief engineer, were arrested on January 10 by Deputy 
Sheriff Fox on grand jury indictments. They are accused of 
conspiracy to defraud. The two appeared before Judge 

January 21, 1922 



Willis, who released them on ball of $5000 each, for appear- 
ance In court for arraignment. According to the district 
attorney who handled the cases before the grand jury. It Is 
charged that the two and others asserted that the United 
Verde, one of the richest copper mines in the country, drilled 
Into the property of the Jerome-Superior company, and ob- 
tained therefrom the valuable drill-core. On these repre- 
sentations, It is charged, a large amount of stock was sold in 
California. It Is asserted in the indictment that the sample 
ore did not come from the Jerome-Superior property. 


Globe. — The Iron Cap Copper Mining Co. announced on 
January 12 that the mine will be opened for operation about 
February 1. The mining force is to be increased and opera- 
tions resumed as soon as shipments of machinery arrive 
from the East. 

Kingman. — The mine of the Hackberry Consolidated Min- 
ing Co. has been leased and it Is to be unwatered and op- 
erated. G. S. Holmes, who is straightening out the legal 

sunk from the drift. This vein has widened to 30 In. of 
silver ore. yielding 30 oz. per ton; 15 In. assays 500 oz. per 
ton. This find was made at the bottom of the shaft, which 
is down 330 feet. 

Superior. — Not until March can there bo resumption of 
ore production from the Magma Copper company's mine, 
where a 40% force is busy in concreting the main shaft and 
in fire-proofing the stations. The company is reported to be 
planning to broad-gauge its light railroad from Magma 
Junction on the Arizona Eastern and to install a rever- 
beratory furnace for reduction of its concentrates and direct 
smelting ores, which heretofore have been shipped to Hay- 
den and other smelting points. 


Grass Valley. — Ownership of the Banner property, east of 
Nevada City, has formally passed to the Banner Consolidated 
Mines Co., composed of New York capitalists. Approxi- 
mately $172,000 is said to have changed hands in the deal. 
The purchasers have also acquired the Norambagua group. 
• The old shaft at the South Star mine has been cleaned 

The Mountain Copper Co. Plant at Martinez, on San Francisco Bay 

tangle, has taken care of the Neagle sale of the property. 
The Hackberry mine was one of the first mines worked in 
the district. There is reported to be a large body of high- 
grade silver ore at the 300-ft. level. As development reached 
the lower levels the ore has changed to lead carrying silver. 

Oatman. — Recent development at the Oatman United has 
opened high-grade gold ore. The assays from the last drill- 
hole averaged $90 per ton for three feet of vein. Two more 
holes are being drilled into the vein. This exploration is 
being done from a drift 900 ft. below the apex of the vein. 
Development work has been in progress at this property for 
many months. 

During the month of Decemer the United Eastern Mining 
Co. shipped bullion approximating $200,000 in value and 
declared a dividend of 15c. per share payable to stockholders 
of record on January 9. This dividend is the fourth for the 
year, making the total disbursement of 60c. per share. A 
cross-cut is being driven at the 700-ft. level of the Big Jim 
mine. Ore is now being milled from the Big Jim and United 
Eastern mines and production is approximately 300 tons per 
day. At the No. 3 shaft diamond-drilling is still under way. 

Prescott. — It is reported that an important find of ore has 
been made in the Arizona National mine near Humboldt. 
A small vein has been followed in a drift and later in a winze 

out to the water-level and placed in working condition. A. 
Hanker, superintendent, in charge of development work, 
reports the vein developed for a distance of 160 feet. 

Jackson. — The Crocker Co. of San Francisco has com- 
pleted preliminary work at the Elephant Deep hydraulic 
mine near Volcano and actual operations have begun. The 
company owns what is said to be one of the largest deposits 

of gold-bearing gravel in California. At the Argonaut 

mine ore is coming from a depth of 4000 ft. It is stated that 
the ore is the best that has been mined for many years, and 
the bullion output is greater than any recorded since pre- 
war days. 

Redding. — Daily shipments of ore from the Hornet mine 
to San Francisco bay have been increased to 500 tons. The 
tram-line from the mine to Mathewson, the new station on 
the Southern Pacific, will soon be completed. The owner, 
the Mountain Copper Co., also operates the plant at Martinez. 

Rough and Ready. — The Alta Combination Mines Co. has 
already cross-cut 850 ft. from the old Baltic channel on 
Squirrel creek in search for the Alta Hill gravel channel. 
It is expected that the channel will be reached within the 
next few hundred feet. H. L. Ostrander is in charge. 

Boulder. — The Boulder County mill continues treating 



January 21, 1922 

about 50 tons daily from the Potosi mine. Sufficient ore has 
been hauled to the plant so that operation will continue 
should snow block the road. 

Buena Vista. — Henry Weber, lessee at the Gladstone mine, 
has installed a new compressor and completed the erection 
of a 50-ton mill and a power plant. New orebodies have 
been opened and the capacity o£ the milling plant is to be in- 
creased. The property lay idle for 30 years until Weber 
closed negotiations with the owners, Senator Sam Nicholson 
and Mrs. Herman, sister of the original owner named Burns 
who is now dead. 

Cripple Creek. — The Cresson Consolidated company's an- 
nual report, covering the fiscal year ending August 31, but 
delayed in expectation that definite settlement of the in- 
come-tax case could be announced, has been made public. 
The report shows the shipment of 101,211 tons of ore with 
an average value of $12.98 per ton and a gross value of 
$1,313,938; net value after freight and treatment, $825,- 
€87.91; additional income, $342 royalty on 702 tons shipped 
by lessees, and $5299 interest on bank deposits. Total ex- 
penses were $400,084. The net gain from operations was 
$431,245. The total production cost per ton was $3.95. A. 
E. Carlton, president, reports net profits since the date of 
the annual report after deduction of all mining expenses, 
treatment, and transportation, but not Federal taxes, for 
September, October, November, with December estimated, to 
be $257,480, with cash in bank $806,688, and 18 cars of ore 
in transit of an estimated net value of $6000. The report 
was accompanied by checks for dividend No. 87, bringing the 
total in dividends to $8,979,102. 

Lessees on the Ramona mine on Bull hill have uncovered 
at a depth of 55 ft. in the old main shaft, a three-foot vein, 
sampling as high as 2 oz. gold per ton. They have shipped a 
trial lot to the mill. The owners of the property recently 
incorporated under the name of the Ramona Mining Com- 

Kokomo. — The Kokomo, Recen Mining & Development 
Co., owning property in the Consolidated Ten Mile district, 
near here, has opened a rich streak of silver ore, in one of 
the lower levels, assaying 700 oz. silver per ton. The ore 
was found in the Silver Queen mine directly under an old 
stope in the level nearer surface. 

Rollinsville. — Drifting on the Homestake group in Gamble 
gulch in the Perigo section, the Nina Allen Mining Co. has 
cut a two-foot vein of free milling ore sampling $25 to $40 
gold per ton, not including a narrow but rich streak several 
inches wide that assays as high as 100 oz. gold. This high- 
grade ore is being sacked. 

Telluride. — Shipments of concentrate from Telluride mills 
for December totaled 130 cars, a record for the year. The 
Smuggler Union billed out 80 cars and the Tomboy 50 cars, 
all of the average grade. 


Bay Horse. — The old Ramshorn mihe is the best paying 
mine of this section of Idaho. The mill, which uses the flo- 
tation process, is making concentrate with a value of 400 to 
500 oz. silver per ton. 

Boise. — The value of gold, silver, copper, and lead mined 
in Idaho in 1921, according to estimates of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, was $15,208,000, a marked decrease from 
the value in 1920, when it was $31,170,176. As a result of 
the collapse of the metal market, many of the copper, lead, 
and zinc mines were closed. Only the high price of silver 
prevented the closing of the large mines of silver-lead ore. 
The mine output of gold in Idaho in 1921 was valued at 
about $497,000, as compared with $485,590 in 1920. 

Clayton. — The property of the Idaho Mine Development 
Co., of which William M. Snow is president, has been ex- 
amined by engineers representing Eastern capitalists, with a 

view to financing operations on a larger scale. Work is now 
centred on the Red Bird mine on Squaw creek. The mine, 
which is developed by tunnels to a depth of 900 ft., has an 
enormous tonnage of relatively high-grade ore already 
blocked out, with 10,000 tons mined and stored in surface 
dumps. The ore runs about 11% lead and 8 oz. silver per 
ton. Since the company was reorganized about a year ago, 
a 50-ton concentrating plant has been built and operated. 
The product gave a smelter return of 40% lead and 44 oz. 
silver. During the year 842 tons of concentrate has been 
shipped to Salt Lake smelters, totaling 653,310 lb. lead and 
25,709 oz. silver. This operation has shown a profit, in spite 
of a haulage of 60 miles to Mackay, the nearest shipping 

Coeur d'Alene. — The Sunshine Mining Co.'s mill on Big 
creek has resumed work. During the shut-down a flume 
has been built to carry the slime from the mill to the out- 
let of Big creek in the Coeur d'Alene river, a distance of 
more than two miles. This was done to avoid polluting the 
waters of Big creek, used for domestic purposes at Kellogg. 
A new ball-mill, a new set of eight-ton rolls, and a 580-cu. 
ft. compressor have been added. The centrifugal pumps 
have been replaced with elevators. The Stemwinder tram- 
way, which was moved from Wardner to the Sunshine, was 
placed in position to carry the ores from No. 3 and 4 levels 
to the mill. The mill is of about 75-ton capacity. Ore in 
sight is said to be sufficient for two years operation. The 
mine and mill will employ 75 men. 

At the annual meeting of the Sterling Silver Mountain 
Mining Co. the following officers were elected: R. L. Brain- 
ard; president; P. W. Miller, vice-president; M. Baumgart- 
ner, secretary-treasurer; Dan Krehbiel, John Krehbeil, 
Harry Morrell, and C. C. Schweer, directors. The main 
cross-cut has been driven more than 600 ft. and nearly 300 
ft. of drifting has been done. Assays of picked samples from 
small stringers have shown 2*% lead and a high silver con- 
tent. The company has 17 claims adjoining the Yankee 
Boy and the Yankee Girl. 

The Bunker Hill & Sullivan company is installing a 150- 
hp. electric hoist. Each drum will hold 6500 ft. of J-in. wire- 
cable. The hoist will be equipped with a Maag cast-steel 
herringbone gear, capable of transmitting 200 hp. Each 
drum is equipped with power and hand brakes. The clutches 
are of the multiple-disc type. Indicators and safety appli- 
ances are of the latest Welch type. 

According to H. B. Kingsbury, president, 2$ ft. of ship- 
ping ore has been opened in No. 3 tunnel by the Inde- 
pendence Lead Mining Co. Ore of milling grade had been 
followed for 80 ft. Several weeks ago a streak of higher 
grade appeared. Its width has increased as the drift has 
been advanced. The milling ore is 12 ft. wide at one point. 


Houghton. — Ahmeek, the best of the Calumet & Hecla 
subsidiaries and the one that will yield the quickest return,, 
probably will be the first to reach normal production. No. 
2 shaft is being re-timbered to the bottom, and this task 
will be speeded as much as possible. Physically, Ahmeek is 
in good condition. There has been no serious caving and all 
stopes and drifts are accessible. Openings in Ahmeek's three 
normally-active shafts are in splendid ground, particularly 
No. 2. Stoping had already been started in these drifts when 
operations were suspended last spring, and it is from these 
stopes that a considerable increase is looked for. The fissure- 
vein is largely mass copper and great slabs of it can be sent 
direct to the smelter. The vein is narrow but is rich to a dis- 
tance of 400 or 500 ft. from the Kearsarge lode. The drain- 
ing of a small lake over No. 1 shaft will make possible the 
mining of the pillars and a limited amount of low-grade rock 
in that shaft. A large trench to carry off the water from 
the lake was dug during the past summer. 

January 21, 1922 



Although practically on a full-time basis again, Qulncy is 
still working with reduced forces. Sufficient rock is being 
shipped to keep No. 1 mill busy, the number of shifts having 
recently been increased from four to six when the mine went 
back to six days per week. No. 1 mill has five heads, all of 
which are in operation. No. 2 mill, which has three stamps, 
is Idle. Refined copper production, including mass, is now 
approximately 70% of normal. 

While considerable work must be done In the conglomer- 
ate shafts of Calumet & Hecla before production can return 
to a normal basis, it is expected the amygdaloid shafts will 
be ready to resume hoisting without delay. The restoration 
of underground equipment and repair and re-assembllng of 
surface-plants will not take more than six to eight weeks. 
No great difficulty is expected in recruiting sufficient labor 
to re-open the mines. It is estimated there are fully 3000 

production in December of that year, due to the lethargic 
zinc market, producing 91,642,260 lb. of zinc and 1,818,661 
oz. of silver in the twelve-month. If average grade of ore 
hoisted is kept at about 14% zinc — it averaged 13.68% In 
1920 and 14.68% in 1919 — and 5} oz. of silver per ton; and 
given an average recovery of 95%, Butte & Superior, when 
under way, will be producing 7,980,000 lb. of zinc and 
156,750 oz. of silver monthly. Being a domestic producer, 
Butte & Superior will receive $1 per ounce for its silver 
under the Pittman Act. This will be no small credit to 
operations, and with the statistical position of zinc sub- 
stantially improved, ere the summer months come around 
the company should be earning profits for the first time in 
many months. 

Candelaria. — Six carloads of structural material for the 

Park Street, Butte 

men available in the district and there is no intention of 
speeding production at the start. 

Repairs of extensive character are under way in the Red 
Jacket shaft of Calumet & Hecla. Two gangs of timbermen 
are engaged, working alternate shifts. The shaft has a ten- 
dency to crush where it passes through the vein. 

Butte. — Under its agreement with the Anaconda company 
the Butte & Superior Mining Co. can ship at prevailing 
quotations at least 7,000,000 lb. of zinc monthly, beginning 
whenever it commences operating on a commercial scale. 
While Butte & Superior resumed on January 16, it will 
probably be a matter of at least 6 days before ore is being 
hoisted at the rate of 30,000 tons per month. The company, 
however, has been particularly careful to keep its under- 
ground workings well developed, and its hoisting machinery 
and surface equipment have been maintained in readiness 
for a 24-hour notice of resumption. On a production of 
30,000 tons of ore per month, Butte & Superior will be 
operating at about the pace it did in 1920. It suspended 

new 3 00-ton milling plant have arrived at the Candelaria 
mine over the Inyo branch of the Southern Pacific railroad 
and the spur extending to the mill-site. The plant will be 
ready to start by June 1. Construction has been financed 
by a loan of $200,000 from the Rochester Silver Corporation, 
and some of the equipment, especially for the coarse-crush- 
ing plant, will be taken from the Rochester Combined Co. 
mill, now owned by the Rochester Silver Corporation. At 
the annual stockholders meeting of the Candelaria Mines Co. 
in Reno the directors elected were C. D. Kaeding, S. Rossiter, 
F. M. Manson, O. W. Jones, and J. C. Peebles. Kaeding is 
president and manager. The annual meeting date was 
changed to the third Monday in May. 

Eureka. — The 15-ton test mill of the Eureka-Holly com- 
pany will be replaced shortly by a plant designed to treat 
50 and possibly 100 tons daily. The process is said to in- 
volve same 'revolutionary' features in treating silver-lead 
carbonate ore. Wide seams of high-grade ore have been ex- 
posed on the new 600-ft. level, and the consulting engineer, 
W. A. Barnes, says the reserve of mill-ore is between 70,000 



January 21, 1922 

and 100,000 tons. Some ore of high grade has been found 
in the Bullwhacker, working through the Holly shaft. 

Mina. — Two kinds of concentrates are being shipped from 
the new 250-ton flotation mill of the Simon Silver-Lead 
Mines Co. The mill is working three shifts, and both in 
point of recovery and separation of the metals the selective- 
flotation process in use is said to be a success. Lead-silver 
concentrate, containing nearly all the silver in the ore, is 
shipped to the Midvale smelter in Utah. Zinc concentrate 
goes to the Simon smelter at Harbor City, California, where 
it is used in making zinc oxide. This plant is not yet ready 
for continuous operation. Mine development on lower levels 
has opened good ore at several points, a drift near the foot- 
wall showing a width of 12 ft. of high-grade ore. 

Phonolite. — W. H. Kinnon, general manager for the Kan- 
sas City Nevada Mining Co., has taken to Fallon the first 
shipment of bullion from the company's mill. This bullion 
includes gold and silver from ores from the Mamouth and 
Broken Hills districts. A part of the ore treated was from 
the Broken Hills Silver Corporation. The next run will be 
on ore from the Broken Hills mine exclusively. For the past 
few days no underground work has been going on at the 
Broken Hills. The ore-bins and the mine are filled with ore 
ready for mill. As soon as the congestion is relieved work 
will be resumed in the drift on the 150-ft. level, where ore 
that will average $25 per ton has been exposed. 

Rochester. — The current dividend of 2Jc, by the Roches- 
ter Silver Corporation, checks for which are being sent to 
stockholders, makes a total of $220,000 disbursed since 
last June. Profits in recent months have ranged from 
$18,000 to $20,000 monthly, the net earnings for December 
having been $18,262 from a gross output of $60,540. J. A. 
Burgess has completed mapping the geology of the mine. A 
5-ft. body of good mill-ore was opened lately by a raise from 
the 250-ft. level. In December the mill treated 5083 tons 
of ore assaying 0.133 oz. gold and 10.94 oz. silver. 

Orders ' have been placed for new equipment for the 
Lincoln Sill gold mine, including an electric hoist. As soon 
as the machinery is in position sinking of the 8 5-ft. winze 
from the lower tunnel will be resumed. The winze is in good 
ore, with the vein said to be improving with increasing 

depth. The mill of the Nevada Packard company is 

crushing about 6000 tons of ore per month. Several small 
lenses of Excellent ore have been uncovered recently, and the 
physical condition of the property is declared excellent by 
the management. The Nevada Packard is operated under 
the supervision of Frank Margrave, the receiver for the 

Round Mountain. — A new vein has been found by lessees 
working on the 700-ft. level of the Round Mountain mine. 
It lies parallel to, and 30 ft. from, the hanging wall of the 
Keane vein, the second most important in the mine; it ap- 
pears to be larger and more highly enriched than the Keane 
vein and cuts the Los Gazabo vein at a depth of about 1100 
ft. L. D. Gordon, the manager, has engaged miners to pros- 
pect the vein on other levels and may resume quartz mining 
on a considerable scale. Placer mining, to which the com- 
pany has devoted its attention for over two years, yielded 
$125,000 last season. Abundant snow and additional water- 
storage provisions will increase next year's output of gold. 
The mill is operated by the company to treat the product of 

Virginia City. — The 10,000-ft. haulage-tunnel of the 
United Comstock Mines Co. will be completed late in Febru- 
ary or early in March. Hoar electric shovels are used in 
advancing the two remaining breasts between the Knicker- 
bocker and Belcher shafts. Concrete work on the fine-crush- 
ing plant is finished and structural steel is arriving; the 
mill buildings are to be all of concrete and steel construction. 
A steam-shovel is grading for the cyanide building, the only 

part involving extensive rock excavation. Electric shovels 
were used in making deep cuts for belt-conveyors, extending 
from the haulage-way to the coarse-crushing plant and from 
the latter to the storage-bins of the fine-crushing depart- 
ment. The company has built a school-house and 20 cottages 
in the town of Comstock, in American Flat, near its mess- 
hall. The town has good drainage, water-supply, and electric 

At the portal of the Hale & Norcross tunnel of the 'Middle 
Group' of mines, foundations have been prepared for a com- 
pressor and complete mining equipment. Alex Wise, super- 
intendent, is erecting camp buildings, carpenter- and ma- 
chine-shops, a 16-in. blower, and an assay-laboratory, 16 by 
3 2 ft. in size. A power-line has been extended to the 
transformer-house. The present working force of 25 men 
will be increased to 50 as soon as power-drills can be used. 
The tunnel, well timbei-ed and in good condition, is 700 ft. 
long, and its breast is in the Comstock lode. It will be 
driven to the foot-fall and laterals will be extended north 
and south into the adjacent mines. The syndicate holding 
options on this group is composed of more than a score of 
men prominent in financial circles of the East. Acting 
through M. R. Ward, of Philadelphia, brother-in-law of 
Charles M. Schwab, they have provided $150,000 for sam- 
pling the properties and have agreed, if results of the sam- 
pling are satisfactory, to supply $3,000,000 for opening the 
mines and building a mill of 2000 tons capacity. 

Work is in progress at many points in the district, new 
companies are being formed, many transfers of property 
have been recorded, and several new finds have been made. 
The Comstock Silver Mining Co., for which Frank W. Royer 
is consulting engineer, has opened an orebody of promise 
on the 2 6 5-ft. level of its Scheels workings, near the foot- 
wall of the Succor vein. For a length of 12 ft., ore from 20 

in. to 4 ft. wide gave average assays of $67.51 per ton. 

Two faces of ore have been exposed by the north-west branch 
from the lower adit of the Pittsburg Comstock Mines Co., 
adjoining the United Comstock on the west. Drifts have 
been started on this ore, in the North branch vein, and the 
tunnel is advancing south-west to cut the Bright Star vein, 
from which high-grade ore was stoped near the surface in 
early-day work. A third vein was cut by the tunnel, show- 
ing 12 ft. of good-looking quartz. The Eldorado Com- 
stock company has started work on the Lager Beer claim, 
south of the Comstock Silver group. The Comstock Ex- 
ploration Co. is driving the old O'Connor tunnel that pro- 
duced some rich ore from the foot-wall vein west of the lode 
and near the Con. Virginia. 

Yerington. — It is reported that the Nevada-Douglas Cop- 
per company is planning the erection of a flotation plant at 
the mines near Ludwig. Henry L. Moore, vice-president, and 
other directors of the company have visited the property, and 
the tonnage of sulphide ore blocked out appears to warrant 
the construction of a mill. 


Alta. — The Alta Tunnel & Transportation Co. is accumu- 
lating a reserve ore pile a few miles down Big Cottonwood 
canyon, where teams can go, under any weather conditions, 
thereby enabling the company to keep up steady production 
during the winter. Since the discovery of new ore in Octo- 
ber, 500 tons has been shipped, averaging 37.17 oz. silver 
and 23.22% lead, yielding 18,592 oz. silver and 232,241 lb. 
lead. The gross value was $24,860, and the net returns, 
after payment of all charges, including mining, was $13,565. 

Big Cottonwood. — Owing to heavy snow-storms, opera- 
tions at the Woodlawn mine were discontinued temporarily. 
Development was resumed on January 7, and is confined 
principally to a high-grade silver-lead ore on the 700-ft. 
level. The ore is from 18 in. to 2 ft. in width, and the com- 
pany is sinking a winze to follow the deposit downward. 

January 81, 1922 



Kurckn. — Control of the Grand Central Mining Co. was 
acquired on January 13 by the Chief Consolidated Mining 
Co.. according to officials of the latter organization. About 
three months ago Paul R. Hilsdale secured an option on the 
control ol Mi.' Qrand Central mine. Since acquisition of the 
option Hilsdale has been in charge of the mine. Surveying 
crews, geologists, and engineers were put to work examining 
the property and a large number of leases let. In the past 
month, under the leasing policy adopted by Hilsdale and 
associates, the production of the property has increased from 
two to three carloads weekly to ten for the period of seven 
days. Announcement was made on January 12 that the 
Chief Consolidated company had acquired the option and had 
purchased the controlling interest. The Grand Central mine, 
control of which has been held up to this time by C. E. Loose 
of Provo, has been a producer of a large amount of high- 
grade ore and is considered to be a property of great promise. 

The Initial shipment of crude fuller's earth was made 
by the Dragon mine to the Pacific Coast on January 4. Ore 
shipments for the week ending January 7 totaled 139 cars, 
as compared with 110 for the previous week; the decrease in 
both Instances being due to the holiday season. The Tintic 
Standard shipped 52 cars; Chief Consolidated, 40; Victoria, 
9; Grand Central, 8; Eagle & Blue Bell, 6; Iron Blossom, 5; 
Colorado, 5; Centennial-Eureka, 4; Dragon, 3; Sunbeam, 2; 
Swansea, 2; Alaska, 1; Eureka Mines, 1; Gemini, 1. 

E. R. Higgenson and associates, who have a lease on the 
old Sunbeam property, shipped more than a hundred cars of 
ore during 1921. Most of the ore was of milling-grade and 
was sent to the Tintic Milling Co.'s plant; occasionally high- 
grade material, averaging over 100 oz. silver per ton, was 
mined and shipped direct to the smelters. All of the ore was 
mined above the 400-ft. level. This mine is the oldest in the 
Tintic district, and is owned by the Keith and Kearns estates 
of Salt Lake City. 

N. W. Roberts, superintendent, reports that a second shift 
has been put to work at the Iron King mine. For some time 
past the company has been driving a drift on the 1565-ft. 
level through low-grade ore, averaging 9 or 10 oz. silver. 
Work has been started on the 1200- and 1300-ft. levels to 
cut this same vein. 

The Tintic-Zenith Mining Co. will pay a dissolution divi- 
dend of 21c. per share on January 21. There are approxi- 
mately 680,000 shares outstanding, while the authorized 
capitalization is 2,000,000 shares. The disbursement will 
call for the payment of $17,111. The Tintic Zenith recently 
sold its property to the Apex-Standard Mining Co., which is 
developing its property in the eastern part of the district. 
With the payment of the dividend, the Tintic Zenith will 
pass out of existence. 

Moab. — John Hill and H. W. Balsley recently shipped a 
carload of carnotite ore from the Yellow Circle mine, for 
which they were paid $3.75 per pound of uranium oxide. 
The shipment averaged 5 % , and the net returns were be- 
tween $8000 and $10,000. The ore was purchased by the 
Keystone Metals Reduction Co. and shipped to Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, for reduction. This is the first shipment of 
carnotite ore from this district in many months. The 
Radium Company of Colorado is planning an early resump- 
tion of work on its Dry Valley carnotite claims. H. K. 
Thurber will be in charge of operations for the company. 

Park City. — Ore shipments during the week ending Jan- 
uary 7 totaled 1968 tons, of which the Judge companies 
shipped 837; Silver King Coalition, 776; Ontario, 355. 


Spokane. — Gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc ores, pro- 
duced by the mines of Washington, were valued at $356,000 
in 1921, compared to $200,320 in 1920, according to the 
U. S. Geological Survey. The output was less than any 
year in the past decade. Gold production increased from 

$120,860 in 1920 to $1,248,000 In 1921. Most of the gold 
oama from the Snn Poll, Knob Hill, and Surprise mines at 
Republic. Sliver decreased from 199,678 oz. In 1820 to 
132,000 oz. In 1921. Mines at Republic, Nlghtliawk, Che- 
welah, and Colville produced most of the silver, but the 
quantity of silver produced from copper ore was unusually 
small, for the mill at the United silver-copper mine at Che- 
welah was not operated and the sunset mine was idle. Rich 
silver ore was opened in the Old Dominion mine near Col- 
ville and ore was milled by the Pyrargyrlte and Four Metals 
companies in Okanogan county. Copper decreased from 
about 1,983,134 lb. in 1920 to 402,000 lb. in 1921. Crude 
copper-silver ore was shipped by the United Silver-Copper 
mine at Chewelah at the rate of 100 tons per month, com- 
pared to 300 tons in 1920. Lead production decreased from 
5,787,247 lb. in 1920 to about 132,000 lb., valued at $6073, 
in 1921. Despite the low price the Northwest mine near 
Northport continued to produce zinc in 1921. 

Valley. — H. F. Wierum, general manager for the American 
Mineral Production Co., operating the Allen magnesite 
quarry, announces that operations will be resumed immedi- 
ately in order to fill orders on hand. At present the small 
kiln only will bo operated; this will employ 20 men. It is 
hoped that a revival of industries throughout the country 
will increase the demand so that the force may be increased. 


Cuba City. — The National Zinc Separating Co., manufac- 
turing high-grade water-white sulphuric acid, has been run- 
ning full time at a maximum capacity. A third unit is being 
added to the plant. Eventually a fourth will be constructed, 
when the full capacity will be 100 tons of 66° acid every 
24 hours. 


Kamloops. — An important placer gold strike is reported 
from Mount Olie, south of the junction of the Grand Trunk 
Pacific and Canadian Northern railways. The strike was 
made on Lemieux creek, which flows into the North Thomp- 
son river near Mount Olie. A number of claims and leases 
have been filed. 

Nelson. — The Ivanhoe mill of the Silversmith Mines, Ltd., 
was put into operation on December 31. At present about 
125 tons daily is being treated; the capacity of the mill is 
150 tons, and it is being operated three shifts daily. About 
80 men are employed in mine and mill. It is understood 
that the product is to be divided between the Trail and 

Kellogg smelters. For the quarter ended September 30 

the Standard Silver Lead Mining Co. showed a surplus of 
$411,887, against $366,275 on June 30. The company has 
not been operating since it sold the Standard mine at Silver- 
ton, the increase being due to money received from Beer 
Sondheimer, in final settlement for zinc concentrate shipped 
months ago. 

Pouce Coupe. — It is stated that the banks at Grand Prairie 
have consummated a deal, selling 20,000 acres of oil land 
adjoining the Imperial Oil company's well to Eastern capi- 

Prince Rupert. — A tunnel is being driven at the Lion 
group, near Alice Arm, to cut at depth a 13-ft. vein that has 
been traced for 300 ft. on the surface. Samples from the 
vein have assayed 660 oz. in silver. The Kitselas Mountain 
Copper Co., which has been operating a property near Usk 
for some years, shipped a consignment of concentrate to the 
Tacoma smelter and has suspended operations until the 
spring, when it is probable that a new concentrating plant 
will be erected. 

Stewart. — The Premier tramway has been put into opera- 
tion. In the meantime the road has been broken, and the 
company has its teams and tractors hauling high-grade ore 
and concentrate from the mine and taking back heavy ma- 
chinery. High-grade ore is being sacked at the Silverado 



January 21, 1922 

mine for shipment to Tacoma. This mine is now in a posi- 
tion to make regular though small shipments. 

Trail. — During the last ten days of the year 12,415 tons of 
ore was received at the smelter, bringing the total for the 
year up to 411,612 tons. Of this large tonnage only about 
10,000 tons has come from independent operators, and 3888 
tons from mines in the State of Washington. A number of 
improvements have been made at the smelter during the 
year. The concentration of the Sullivan ore has been so im- 
proved that it is no longer necessary to handpick the galena 
from the blende at the mine. All ore is delivered together, 
and high-grade lead and zinc concentrates are obtained. 
The roasting of the zinc concentrate has been improved, with 
the result that a higher extraction of zinc is now possible. 
Improvements were made in the copper refinery, and the 
capacity of the plant was increased to 70 tons per day. At 
the present time, however, the company has no means of 
providing ore for this section of its plant. The copper out- 
put for the whole of last year amounted to a little more than 
3,500,000 pounds. 

Vancouver. — The Engineer Mining Co. has filed an appeal 
against the decision of Justice Clement, which gave the 
Engineer mine and plant to the heirs of Allan I. Smith, to 
whom the mine was left by the will of the late James 


Cobalt. — The Right of Way has been unwatered and oper- 
ations will be resumed by the Right of Way Syndicate. 

Production of silver from the properties of the La Rose Con- 
solidated is understood to have exceeded 400,000 oz. during 
1921. A feature of the year's operations was a substantial 

reduction in operating costs. The Bailey silver company 

is operating the Silver Cliff property under lease and is 
shipping ore from it to the Bailey custom mill. The Silver 
Cliff has approximately 3000 tons of broken ore ready for 
shipment and about the same Quantity in the stopes ready to 
be broken. The gross earnings of the Bailey mill for 1921 
were approximately $147,072. 

Kirkland Lake. — The first report of the Kirkland Lake 
Proprietary (1919), covering the period from the date of in- 
corporation in October 1919 up to June 30, 1921, indicates 
that the gold-producing stage is near at hand. It is expected 
that by April next the mill will be in continuous operation 
with a large reserve of high-grade ore available for treat- 
ment. S. C. Thomson, consulting engineer, states that the 
solution of the various fault problems has improved the 
possibilities of the mine, in that development can now be 
pushed ahead rapidly and economically. As regards the 
Sylvanite he says: "I consider this area the most promising 
undeveloped block of ground in the Kirkland Lake district". 
A report on the structural geology of the properties by W. 
H. Goodchild states that the central gold-bearing fracture- 
zone of the Kirkland Lake district traverses the Burnside 
and Tough-Oakes ground from end to end, giving a length 
along the strike of about 4000 feet. 

On January 6 the Lake Shore shipped gold bullion valued 
approximately at $71,000 representing the production for a 
period of about five weeks. The output during December 
reached upward of $57,000, the ore recently treated yield- 
ing over $30 per ton. The Kirkland Lake companies have 

not as yet followed the example of the Porcupine operators 
in reducing the rate of wages, and with the exception of the 
Kirkland Lake mine, which lowered wages some time since, 
are still paying the high scale. 

Porcupine. — The new unit of the Mclntyre mill, now in 
process of installation, is expected to go into operation in the 
spring, increasing the output to upward of $8000 every 24 
hours. Plans for further additions to the equipment are 
held in abeyance pending the development of a larger supply 
of electricity. 


The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. The information is interesting: to our readers. 

Louis S. Cates, of the Utah Copper Co., was here last week. 

Albert Doyle, of Richmond, Virginia, is at El Oro, Mexico. 

E. H. Wedekind, of Lovelock, Nevada, is at the Plaza 

P. W. Bradley has gone to Spokane, and expects to be 
away one month. 

Glenn L. Allen has returned to Warren, Arizona, from 
Zacatecas, Mexico. 

J. E. White is at Randsburg, examining the Uncle Sam 
group of gold-mining claims. 

W. H. Goodchild has completed his geologic examination 
of the Kirkland Lake district. 

R. B. Lamb announces a change of address from 15 Broad 
St. to 50 Broad St., New York City. 

Frederick J. Seibert has been appointed manager for the 
Standard Metals Company, at Reno, Nevada. 

H. L. Tedrow, of Los Angeles, has become foreman for the 
El Arco Mines Co., at Copala, Sinaloa, Mexico. 

J. H. Stovel is now the manager of the mining department 
of the E. J. Longyear Co., of Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

G. M. Colvocoresses, general manager for the Consolidated 
Arizona Smelting Co., was in San Francisco last week. 

S. M. Soupcoff, mining engineer to the A. S. & R. Co. at 
Salt Lake City, was here this week on his way to Royston, 

George A. Denny, now in London, is consulting engineer 
to the Kirkland Lake Proprietary company, operating in 

Leslie S. Breckon, on his return from Cerro de Pasco, has 
been engaged as superintendent for the Consolidated Mascot 
Mines Co., at Hailey, Idaho. 

John T. Redd, of Lovelock, Nevada, was a recent visitor 
in San Francisco; he is now on his way to New York City, 
where he expects to remain for several weeks. 

R. M. Murray has been appointed assistant general man- 
ager for the Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., Tasmania. 
Fred Jakin has been made mine superintendent. 

P. B. Lord, formerly mine superintendent for the Phelps 
Dodge Corporation at Morenci, is now assistant superintend- 
ent of the Santa Barbara plant of the A. S. & R. Co. in 

F. R. Hockey, superintendent of the Broken Hill Proprie- 
tary Co.'s mine, has returned to New South Wales after a 
tour of inspection of the iron mines of Great Britain, Scan- 
dinavia, Germany, France, and the United States. 


Edmund A. Thornton, assistant superintendent of mines 
for the Ray Consolidated Copper Co. at Ray, Arizona, died 
at Stoneham, Massachusetts, on January 9, after an illness 
of six months. He was 40 years of age and had been con- 
nected with the Ray Consolidated for 10 years. He is sur- 
vived by his wife and one child. 

R. W. Thompson, resident provincial mining engineer for 
No. 3, or the Central Mineral Survey District, died at Kam- 
loops, British Columbia, on January 6. He was born at 
Guelph in 1865, graduated at Toronto University, and for a 
time was a member of the science faculty of that University. 
In 1895 he emigrated to South Africa, where he pursued his 
profession for 15 years. He returned to Canada in 1910. 
and engaged in mining in the north-western part of British 
Columbia; five years ago he was given the appointment of 
resident engineer, which he held until his death. 

January 81, L982 




■ -^.' 




San Francisco. January W 

Aluminum-dunl. cents per pound 65 

Aluminum sheets, cents per pound 60 

AnUmonj. cents per pound 0.25 — B.2C 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 14.75 — 15.25 

Lead, pit, cents per pound 4.95— 5.95 

Platinum, pure, per ounce 9105 

Platinum. 10% indium, per ounce $115 

Zinc slab, cents per pound 6.75 — 7.75 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 9.60 — 10.00 


(By wire from New York) 
January 16.— Copper is Quiet and steady. Lead is unchanged and firm. 
Zinc is dull and easy. 


Below are (riven official or ticker quotations for silver in tbe open market 
as distinguished from tbe fixed price obtainable for metal produced, smelted, 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Pillman Act such silver will be purchased by the United States Hint at SI 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eighths of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
<1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 


New York London 
cents pence 

10 66.3714 

11 66.00 

12 65.75 

13 66.25 

14 66.1214 

11 Sunday 

16 65.8714 

35.37 Vj 




Feb 101.12 

Mch 101.12 

Apr 101.12 

May 107.23 

June 110.50 



Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

6 67.27 

12 65.46 

19 66.08 

26 65.50 

2 64.82 

B 64.90 

16 66.06 



July 106.36 

Aug 111.35 

Sept 113 92 

Oct 119.10 

Nov 127.57 

Dec 131.92 



Prices of electrolytic. In cents per pound. 

Jan. 10 13.6214 Dec. 

11 13.6214 

12 13.6214 

13 13.6214 

14 13.6214 Jan. 

" 15 Sunday 
• 16 13.6214 

Average week ending 












. .20.43 

Mch 15.05 

Apr 15.23 

May 15.91 

June 17.53 


Monthly averages 



July 20.82 

Aug 22.51 

Sept 22.10 

Oct 21.66 

Nov 20.45 

Dec 18.56 




Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 

Date Average week ending 

Jan. 10 4.70 Dec. 5 

11 4.70 " 12 

12 4.70 " 19 

13 4.70 " 26 

14 4.70 Jan. 2 

15 Sunday " 9 

16 4.70 " 16 

Monthly averages 




5. 60 














Nov 6.76 

Dec 7.12 





Zinc is quoted ns speller, 
in cents per pound. 

Jan. 10 



" 13 


" 15 Sunday 

" 16 

Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 







. . . 71.60 



July . . 




Feb. . . 







Mch. . . 






. . .72.50 



Oct. . . 
















etandartl Western brands. New York delivery. 
















Average week ending 


Jan 7.44 

Feb 6.71 

Mch 6.53 

Apr 6.49 

May 6.43 

June 6.91 


Monthly averages 















6 09 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 76 pounds. 

Date t Jan. 3 50.00 

Dec. 20 52.00 " 10 50.00 

27 48.00 I " 17 50.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 103.75 

Feb 90.00 

Mch 72.80 

Apr 73.12 

May 84.80 

June 94.40 




July 100.00 

Aug 103.00 

Sept 102.80 

Oct 86.00 

Nov 78.00 

Dec 95.00 




The following statement was made to the Chamber of Commerce of Los 
Angeles on January 9 by James S. Douglas of the U. V. X. Copper Mining 
Co. of Jerome. Arizona. 

"If the United States of America has a serious regard for the revival of 
business and for the future of her mining and industrial activities, a com- 
plete readjustment of freight-rates musl be made at once. At present we 
are entitled to a S5 rate on unrefined copper from Arizona to Los Angeles 
harbor, and we are going after it if we have to cany the controversy to 
Washington. Before the War the rate to the Eastern seaboard on copper 
was S12.50 per ton. Today it is S16.50 with copper at the bedrock price 
of 13c. per pound. The shutting down of many mines in Arizona with the 
post-war slump has broughi that industry to a turning point dependent 
upon a fair freight-rate to the Pacific coast, and unless that rate is estab- 
lished the return to normal of the mining industry there will be retarded 
indefinitely. At normal 40.000 tons of copper per month was shipped to 
the Atlantic coast from Arizona, which at today's low price represents a 
valuation of S124.800.000 per year. We propose to turn the bulk of that 
output through Los Angeles harbor, which perforce will mean the estab- 
lishment of a great electrolytic refinery adjacent to this port. 

"The logic and innumerable reasons for this turning of shipments to the 
west coast with a haul of 570 miles, compared with 3000 miles to the 
Atlantic seaboard, are indisputable. For years this colossal wastage of 
motive-power, man-power, and time has been tolerated, but today the tide 
has turned. 

' Think of it. the Pacific Ocean comes within a few miles of washing the 
soil of the State of Arizona, and yet virtually the entire copper tonnage of 
that State goes 3000 miles by rail through the heaviest congestion of 
traffic to get to the Atlantic seaboard for refining. Now is the time for a 
refinery at the port of Los Angeles, and I may say that the very future 
of the copper industry of the West depends upon it. but the enviable 
opportunity is entirely controlled by the freight-rate situation. 

"Now to prove that a S»5 rate is entirely reasonable, consider these 
figures: The rate from Salt Lake City to San Francisco on this commodity 
is S6.50 and that distance is 200 miles longer than from Clarksdale. Ari- 
zona, to Los Angeles harbor. The rate yields the railroad 7.1 mills per 
ton-mile. A S5 rate from Clarksdale to Los Angeles harbor would yield the 
Santa Fe 8.9 mills per ton-mile. I say again, we are entitled to it and are 
going after it. We also will ask a $4 rate for export business. 

"We expect to open up the United Verde Extension mine within 40 days 
on a scheduled output of 1500 tons per month and to employ 500 men. 
And we want our entire shipment to come to Los Angeles. The establish- 
ment of a refinery here would open up no end of manufactories where 
copper and brass arp used, such as wire- and sheet-mills, and plants for 
mairing electrical appliances and storage-batteries, and numerous other lines 
of business subsidiary to the copper industry. The real stumbling-block is 
the fear that all railroads have of steamer competition out of your harbor. 
But I ask you. what was the Panama Canal built for. at its tremendous 
expense to the Government, if it is not to be used? Individual endeavor 
and use of our resources are the things that will bring the United States 
back to normal prosperity." 


Foreign quotations on January 17 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 4.22?j 

Demand 4.23V. 

Franc, cents: Cable 8.21 

Demand 8.23 

Lira, cents: Demand 4. 38 

Mark, cent: 0.54 



Janua-y 21, 1922 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, January 11. 

There scarcely has been time for any of the markets to 
get under way after the close of the year. They are all 
quiet; some are strong as to prices, others are easy. 

Buying of copper is moderate and prices are steady to 

The tin market is dull and prices hare eased slightly. 

A good demand for lead prevails at firm prices. 

The zinc market is the weakest, demand being confined to 
small lots at easing quotations. 

Antimony is nominally unchanged. 


Little activity was expected from the first half of January, 
with inventories uncompleted, and the quietness in iron and 
steel in the past ten days is not disappointing. Operations 
thus far have been slightly less than the average for De- 
cember, the Steel Corporation's proportion now being 46 or 
47%, against 49% last month, while the independent com- 
panies are today about 28%, after averaging 31% last 

The December steel output of 1,427,000 tons of ingots by 
30 companies reporting — a falling off of 233,000 tons from 
November — indicates that the country produced about 19,- 
300,000 tons of ingots in 1921. 

In casting up the prospects for blast-furnaces and mills, in 
looking toward the active season, manufacturers recognize 
that much hinges on the extent to which freight-rates and 
coal-mining and building labor are brought into line with 
the drastic deflation in steel. The possibility of a strike of 
miners of bituminous coal in April and the check it would 
put on iron and steel production are also regarded as factors 
of uncertainty. 


The situation is somewhat mixed in the absence of any 
heavy demand. Some electrolytic producers are out of the 
market entirely or are quoting no less than 14c, delivered, 
or 13.75c, refinery or New York, while others have a mini- 
mum of 13.87*c, delivered, or 13.62*c, New York. Efforts 
to confine sales or offerings to 13.75c, delivered, or 13.50c, 
refinery, have not been successful, although reports from 
consumers state that metal is obtainable at these levels. It 
is possible that some small producers or dealers are sellers 
of limited amounts at this concession of about Jc. below the 
major market. Sales have been moderate in a quiet market, 
but the position of most of the large producers is 'comfort- 
able'. Inquiries, actual and prospective, give assurance of a 
good market in the coming weeks and the tone of the market 
is optimistic and technically and statistically sound. Export 
business is quiet. Quotations for Jatfuary and first quarter 
are 13.62Jc, New York or refinery, and 13.87ic, delivered, 
for electrolytic. 

Exports of refined copper to December 1, 1921, were 537,- 
592,659 lb. of which Germany took 202,191,469 lb. or about 
40%. France was next, taking 89,924,618 lb., and the 
United Kingdom and Japan next with 61,15S,053 lb. and 
47,410,544 lb., respectively. Germany's purchases were 
larger than that of the three other countries combined. 

The market for Straits tin has been quiet to dull thus far 
this year. Consumers have shown little interest and dealers 
have not been active. On the New York Metal Exchange on 
Thursday, January 5, a sale of 25 tons of Straits tin, Janu- 
ary-February shipment, was made at 3 2c. and there were 
recorded also sales by importers at 32.50c. On Decem- 
ber 31 the total visible supply was put at 25,220 tons, in- 

cluding Straits, Banca, and Billiton. The quotation for 
spot Straits tin in New York yesterday was 32.121c as com- 
pared with 32.75c a week ago. The London market yester- 
day was from £3 to £4 per ton below quotations a week ago, 
with spot standard at £165 5s., future standard at £167, and 
spot Straits at £166 10s. per ton. Arrivals thus far in Janu- 
ary have been 1580 tons with 6200 tons reported afloat. 


Demand for lead continues about equal to output and the 
position of most producers is strong, some having sold all, or 
a large part, of their January production in December and 
the past week. Some independents have made sales to East- 
ern points at 4.75c, delivered. The leading interest con- 
tinues to maintain its quotation at 4.70c, New York and 
St. Louis, while independents continue to quote 4.40c, St. 
Louis, and 4.70 to 4.75c, New York or Eastern points. 

The market is dull and weaker. Prime Western for early 
delivery is quoted at 4.75 to 4.80c, St. Louis, or 5.10 to 
5.15c, New York, at which some sales of carload and small 
lots are reported. There is some interest in February and 
March delivery, but producers are generally unwilling to sell 
for these positions at present levels and are confining sales 
to regular customers who for the most part ask for small 
consignments only. The market hinges on developments in 
the steel industry and on demand for galvanized sheets, 
which at present is light. There is a belief expressed that 
export demand will develop in the not distant future. 

The market is dull and uninteresting at unchanged nom- 
inal quotations of 4.50c per pound, New York, duty paid, 
which could probably be shaded. 


Conditions are unchanged with wholesale lots of virgin 
metal quoted by the leading interest at 19.10c per pound in 
15-ton lots, f.o.b. plant, or 19c for 50-ton. The same grade 
from importers is quoted at 17 to 18c, New York, duty paid. 


Tungsten: Outside of inquiries from Europe for Chinese 
ore there is little change and prices continue nominal at $2 
per unit and higher, depending on the grade, etc. 

Molybdenum: Quotations are unchanged at 45 to 50c. per 
pound of MoS 2 in regular concentrates. One seller reports 
the sale of a small lot of 85% concentrate at 48c per unit, 
f.o.b. New York. 

Manganese: The market continues entirely stagnant. 
Stocks in consumers' hands are probably still heavy. Quota- 
tions are nominal at 20c per unit for high-grade foreign 
ore, c.i.f. Atlantic ports. 

Chrome: Nominal quotations rule of $20 to $28 per net 
ton, f.o.b. Atlantic ports, but there is little demand. One 
seller reports occasional demand for carload lots for spot 


Ferro-manganese: Sales of carload and small lots are 
recorded, some being made by British sellers at $5S.35, sea- 
board, and others by the Steel Corporation on a basis of $60, 
Pittsburgh. Consumers in general, although inquiring now 
and then for 100 to 200 tons, purchase only small lots for 
immediate needs. 

Spiegeleis'm: This market is more active and sales aggre- 
gating 250 tons have been made at $26, furnace, for the 
20% alloy and at around $25 for the lower grades, sales in- 
cluding various analyses. 

minium. jii nt n mi inn minimi mmmminiMiitMiuili 


Mnnaflno® siM 

Member Audit Rurriiu of Circulation* 
Member Associated Business Paper*. Inc. 

T, A. RlCKARD, eoiron 


Publitheil <U UO Mart, I si.. 9an rVrmeiato. 

bt/ tht Unity PuMUhtnrr Owipaiil/ 


. LESLIE, flOO FlINtN B DC , Chica&o 
. WtlGLE. 31 Niimu ST.. NIWYORK 


luucd Erery Saturday 

San Francisco, January 28, 1922 

$4 per Yew — Lfi Cent* per Copy 




NOTES 107 


Monopolistic or preferential concessions. The 
scandal of the Shanghai mint. M. & S. P., Jan. 
28, 1922. 


Causes of failure in mining. Obtaining money on 
false pretensions. The element of risk in mining. 
A manufacturing proposition. Investing or gam- 
bling. Risk is chief attraction of mining. Over- 
valuation of large mines. Influence on legitimate 
mining enterprise. M. & S. P., Jan. 28, 1922. 



By Frank H. Probert Ill 

Research not the prerogative of the professor. 
Field of humanics. Opinions of John D. Rocke- 
feller, Jr. The work of the universities. Spirit of 
scholarship. M. & S. P., Jan. 28, 1922. 


By F. H. Mason 113 

A reply to T. T. Read. Reasons for experimenta- 
tion. M. & S. P., Jan. 28, 1922. 


By Paul T. Bruhl 113 

Further results of adding variable amounts of 
lime. M. & S. P., Jan. 28, 1922. 


By Sterling B. Talmage 114 

In support of the introduction of the improved 
system. M. & S. P., Jan. 28, 1922. 


By Alfred C. North 114 

Mining engineers and investors. M. & S. P., Jan. 
28, 1922. 


By Frank P. Davis 115 

Establishment of a home for prospectors. M. & S. 
P., Jan. 28, 1922. 


By J. T. Jones 115 

Patenting of mining claims. Gold reserve and the 
prospector. M. & S. P., Jan. 28, 1922. 



History. Price. Uses. Production. M. & S. P., 
Jan. 28, 1922. 


By Horace F. Lunt 117 

Safety and efficiency. Causes of accidents. Carbide 
underground. Minor eye accidents. M. & S. P., 
Jan. 28, 1922. 


By C. Lorimer Colburn 119 

Hunt rotary shovel. Myers-Whaley machine. Con- 
weigh digger loader. Conweigh shovel loader. 
Thew machine. Marion shovel. Hoar shovel. 
Keystone excavator. Slushers and drags. M. & S. 
P., Jan. 28, 1922. 








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Cable address: pertusola, 



January 28. 1922 

EKminating delay in mine operation 

BY keeping equipment in perfect running order with the oxy-acetylene 
process, progressive operators are doing away with break-downs and 
dollar-eating delays. 

For it is now easy to use the welding and cutting blow-pipes for every 
sort of reclamation work in and about mines because uniformly pure. 


is supplied in readily portable, instandy available cylinders which may be 
taken to any job, anywhere. 

. Any quantity of Prest-O-Lite Dissolved Acetylene, large or small, is 
prompdy supplied by Prest-O-Lite Service operating through forty plants 
and warehouses. 


General Offices: Carbide and Carbon Building, 30 East 42nd Street, New York 

Balfour Building, San Francisco 

In Canada: Prest-O-Lite Co., of Canada, Limited, Toronto 

Januan 28, 1922 



, E. D I T O 


T. A. KICKARD. .... Editor 

iiiimmiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimimiiiiiim mini 

r pilK article on 'Accidents in Metal Mines' that ap- 
■*■ pears in this issue lias a semi-official character be- 
cause the author of it, Mr. Horace F. Luut, is Commis- 
sioner of -Mines to the State of Colorado. Mr. Lunt. 
moreover, is a mining engineer of experience, so that his 
discussion of this important subject is sure to he useful. 

MONEY loaned by the United States to foreign coun- 
tries during 1921 amounted to over $500,000,000. 
This indicates that the money -market of the world has 
shifted, since the War. from London to New York, for 
foreign-government loans arranged in America during 
the period under review were nearly six times greater 
than those raised in England. Germany has not bor- 
rowed : the purchasing power of the mark is lower than 
it was this time last year, whereas that of almost every 
other national currency has appreciated. 

"DELINGWEE Gold Reefs Ltd. and Arizona Consoli- 
" dated Copper Mines Ltd. are names that suggest our 
South-West obviously and South Africa less obviously; 
as a matter of fact, they are two puling wild-cats, one 
near Bulawayo. in Rhodesia, and the other near Clifton, 
in Arizona. Why they should consolidate is not obvious. 
for, as 'The Capitalist' remarks, "the only thing to be 
said in favor of the scheme is that it will make one com- 
pany instead of two in which incautious members of the 
public may be tempted to risk their money". It looks 
as if it were merely a new shuffle of the cards for despoil- 
ing the unwary. 

TN our issue of November 12 we published part of 
■*- the correspondence between the chairman of the 
Russo-Asiatic Corporation, a British mining company, 
and the representative of the Russian government. This 
showed that the mining company found itself unable 
to resume operations on its properties in western Siberia. 
Now comes the news that the company's agent at Moscow 
has been informed officially that the Soviet government 
desires to renew negotiations for the return of the prop- 
erties to their rightful owners and to arrange for a re- 
sumption of productive industry. The Bolshevists ap- 
pear to be prepared to make a complete surrender of 
their fantastic notions of socialism and to recognize the 
principles of honesty and fair dealing that underlie all 
profitable business. We hope that the negotiations will 
end satisfactorily, for if they do they will prepare the 

way for the resumption of work by other companies 
owning mines in Russia. 

p IIRISTIAN SCIENCE, either as a religion or as a 


science, makes no appeal to us, except as a study in 

pathology, but the newspaper published by the Christian 
Science church does interest us greatly because it is a 
first-rate publication. Therefore we regret to see that 
its management is involved in a bitter feud with the 
board of directors of the church that Mrs. Eddy founded. 
The 'Christian Science Monitor' is a remarkable news- 
paper in that it provides daily an enormous amount of 
trustworthy and well-prepared reading-matter. It is not 
a work of genius, but it is the excellent product of a 
group of earnest and capable journalists. It is remark- 
able in being non-partisan in politics, and even its re- 
ligious ties are not made unpleasantly evident. We envy 
Boston the 'Christian Science Monitor' more than we 
do its Mayor, its Commonwealth Avenue, or its Brown 

T> ECOGNITION of the Obregon government has been 
-*-*- delayed much longer than had been wished by those 
who hope to see the two North American republics on 
good terms with each other. A significant step, and one 
of good augury, is the withdrawal of American troops 
from the border. The garrison at Yuma, Arizona, is to 
be transferred and all the Ninth Corps has been ordered 
to the Presidio, at San Francisco. Thus for the first 
time in fifteen years there are no United States soldiers 
on the Mexican border. This is a compliment that Presi- 
dent Obregon 's government well deserves, for he has 
established order and restored industry where for ten 
years the red hand of revolution was paramount. Our 
northern border has had no troops or fortifications for a 
hundred years to guard it from our Canadian neighbors 
and friends. The day is coming, let us hope, when simi- 
lar security will be felt as we look across the Rio Grande. 

JAMES BRYCE was a great man, a wise and kindly 
man, a eo-operative and helpful man. No title could 
add distinction to one already so well known and so be- 
loved among the English-speaking peoples. In death he 
doffs his title and is again the unpretentious old Scottish 
philosopher and statesman, whose books on 'The Ameri- 
can Commonwealth' and 'Modern Democracies' have 
taught both old and young the essential principles upon 



January 28, 1922 

which representative government may hope to thrive. 
His books are good in their way, but the man himself was 
higger than his books. His greatest service to humanity 
was to bring the English-speaking peoples together, to in- 
terpret the parent country to her independent children, 
to expound the ideals that make us one. It was a service 
not only to the United States and to ' ' the community of 
nations known as the British Commonwealth", it was a 
service to humanity, for if the English-speaking peoples 
cannot refrain from quarreling, if the sinister shadow of 
war is ever to darken their horizon, there is no hope for 
this battle-scarred world. James Bryce was a prophet 
honored in his own country and in others too; he was a 
seer in his generation and a friend of all mankind. 

\ N odd tilt with Dame Fortune is the recent purchase 
**■ of bonds of the Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation 
at 116 on the day that a part of the issue was called at 
105 and interest. In January of this year the company 
floated $8,000,000 in 8% bonds to mature in January 
1931, at the same time undertaking to appropriate $840,- 
000 annually for a sinking fund to redeem the bonds at 
105 and accrued interest. Pursuant to this provision the 
company called $140,000 early this month. The selection 
of the particular bonds to be redeemed was made by lot, 
so that one of the purchasers at 116 might have been un- 
fortunate enough to have his bonds taken away from him 
at an outright loss of 11 points, although the odds were 
49 to 1 in his favor. The explanation for the high quota- 
tion on the Cerro de Pasco bonds is the fact that they are 
convertible at any time before maturity for stock at 
$33.33 per share. The lowest level ever reached was $27 
in August 1921, whereas in 1919 the shares sold for 
$67.50. The current price is around $35, but investors 
show unmistakable confidence in the future of the cop- 
per-mining industry, as well as of the Cerro de Pasco 
mines themselves, when they bid 116 for the bonds. 

TWENTY-FIVE hundred dinner-pails in Butte are 
■*■ full this week that have been empty for nearly a 
year. Each day twenty-five hundred miners are climb- 
ing Anaconda hill who for nearly a year have had no 
regular employment. At the Black Rock mine of the 
Butte & Superior company, and at the Stewart, Moun- 
tain View, Leonard, and Badger States mines of the 
Anaconda Copper company, whistles are blowing that 
have been silent for nearly a year. The cages that have 
either been idle or that have carried only a lonely shaft- 
man or timber-man are loaded with contented miners. 
Stockholders whose dividends have been discontinued 
may be hopeful ; machinery-salesmen whose business has 
been dull may be cheerful ; even publishers of technical 
journals whose welfare depends on the prosperity of the 
mining industry may enjoy a feeling of selfish satisfac- 
tion. But these satisfactions are trifling compared with 
the deep joy that pervades the little homes of these 
twenty-five hundred workers whose sacrifices and priva- 
tions only they themselves and their fellow miners in 
Butte and the other idle mining districts can appreciate. 

May the time come soon when tens of thousands of men 
mil go back to work, and when each wife or mother will 
have the pleasant duty of filling a daily dinner-pail. 

"P|ISCUSSION this week starts with an earnest con- 
*-* tribution on the important subject of 'Research', by 
Mr. Frank H. Probert, Professor of Mining in the Uni- 
versity of California. Our friend Mr. F. H. Mason 
shows a little irritation in his response to Mr. T. T. 
Read 's letter, but the result is satisfactory to our readers 
in giving them an interesting disputation. Mr. Paul T. 
Bruhl writes from Honduras to record the results of his 
experiments in the use of varying proportions of lime in 
cyanidation. These technical data are most welcome. A 
contentious subject— the proposed adoption of the metric 
system — is discussed by Mr. Sterling B. Talmage of Salt 
Lake City. He scores a point. Mr. North of Berkeley 
protests against the sentiments expressed by Mr. Watson 
of Luning. Another plea for the prospector is made, 
this time by Mr. Frank P. Davis, of Fairview, New 
Mexico. He suggests the establishment of a Home for 
Prospectors, to be endowed by the funds obtained from 
the sale of licenses to the seekers of ore. Another letter 
in behalf of the prospector comes from Mr. J. T. Jones, 
of Mokelumne Hill. He objects to the incidence of for- 
estry regulations as embodied in the Timber and Stone 
Act. Evidently the prospector as a class is not inarticu- 
late, and we are glad that this is so, for the services of 
the prospector are essential to the expansion of mining. 

THE old question of abusing authority to levy assess- 
ments on mining shares is agitating some of our 
friends in Nevada who fear, with reason, that meritori- 
ous enterprises will suffer as a result of some of the 
financing that is being done at the present time. It is 
true much ore has been found and many mines have been 
made that never would have been exploited except for 
the assessable-stock method of financing. No blanket 
verdict can be brought against the procedure. On the 
other hand it undoubtedly offers added opportunity for 
unscrupulous promoters to exploit the public in the most 
unjustifiable fashion, still within the sanction of the law. 
Their plan is simple. Shares are sold at 10 or 15 cents, 
for example, to unsophisticated purchasers, generally 
from the East, on the strength of glowing promises of 
early dividends. Instead there come assessments of a 
cent or two per share. Some of the innocent stockholders 
may pay the first and perhaps the second, but sooner or 
later many of the payments become delinquent and the 
promoters 'buy in' the shares for the amount of the 
assessment. Then they are sold again to different vic- 
tims and the process of 'freezing out' by assessment is 
repeated. Sometimes the promoters have faith in the 
merit of their property; more often their faith is about 
as real as the ore that they are always 'finding' but never 
shipping. The suggestion is made that the officials of 
the stock-exchanges on which the shares are listed com- 
pel those in control of the companies to issue periodi- 
cally complete financial statements showing the disposi- 

Januan 28, 1922 



Hon of the funds alread) obtained, and that thesi 
meats I"' made accessible to the public Perhaps we are 
pessimistic; certainly we are dubious. The people who 
buy Booh shares are not likely to take the trouble to in- 
veetigate before they buy. The strange thing is that 
many of them are substantia] citizens, who in their regu- 
lar business exercise the utmost care and judgment 
When mining is coj rned they I"*,' their heads com- 
pletely; they are prepared to 'kiss their money goodbye'. 
And il is this kind of money that keeps the promoters in 
business. The only remedy is to teach people of I his 
class to exercise the same discretion in mining that they 
would in any other kind of speculation. Ordinary cau- 
tion would tell them not to invest in an enterprise of 
which they know next to nothing, and a financial state 
nieiit such as is suggested would afford little additional 
light. Purchasers of shares can not avoid the risk in- 
herent in opening new mining ground; but they can 
assure themselves a game in which the cards are not 
already stacked against them. 

The Open Door in China 

The proposals made recently by Secretary Hughes, that 
no nation should be allowed to maintain spheres of in- 
fluence in China and that no monopolistic or preferential 
concessions should be granted by the Chinese govern- 
ment to any nation, indicate a proper conception of the 
principles of equity. At the present stage of develop- 
ment the Chinese are a susceptible folk, and the open- 
door policy is the only one that is fair to all ; however, 
there are, as a philosopher once remarked, many ways 
of killing a cat besides choking it with butter ; and 
the story of the placing of the contracts for the ma- 
terial needed in the new Shanghai mint is not an edify- 
ing one. Prom a number of sources we learn that the 
facts are as follows: For several years the establishment 
of a Chinese mint at Shanghai has been advocated by 
British interests in that part of the world. Strong rep- 
resentations were made to the Chinese government that 
the sycee (or silver ingot form used as a medium of 
exchange) be abolished, and that a uniform currency of 
dollars and smaller coins be established throughout the 
country. The suggestion ultimately was acted upon by 
the authorities; the Chinese Mint Commission invited 
definite suggestions, whereupon the necessary informa- 
tion was supplied. At this stage, in November 1920, it 
was obvious that the business was to be carried through 
equitably ; no concession was to be made or favoritism 
shown. The Commission called for tenders on a plant 
to produce 400,000 silver dollars, or an alternative out- 
put of smaller coins, per 10-hour day; and these were 
submitted by a number of Japanese, Chinese, American, 
Dutch, and British finns. The British, who had done 
so much to initiate the movement, asked no favors and 
expected no preferential treatment; it was naturally 
anticipated that the Chinese Mint Commission would 
award +he contract to the firm submitting the best tender, 
irrespective of nationality. At this stage, however, and 
to the amazement of those who had gone to the expense 

aderiug according to the original •-i iflcations, a 

mint expert was 'appointed' by the Chinese government, 
and he happened to lie an American citizen. The immedi- 
ate result was that the various (inns who had tendered 
were supplied with a new set of specifications, each item 
of which included a special product of A rioan manu- 
facture. Further specifications, signed by the Amerioan 
mint expert, were issued from time to time, being illus- 
trated by representations of special American products 
as an indication of what was required. The nationals of 
Other countries did not have adequate time to prepare 
the new tenders, which, it was obvious, would have re- 
ceived no consideration; and little surprise was evinced 
in any quarter when the contracts were awarded to 
American firms. The incident aroused much disgust 
among competing nationals in Shanghai, and the Gov- 
ernment was blamed as having shown a lack of ordinary 
commercial decency. However, the Chinese are ex- 
tremely sensitive to outside influences; hence the need 
for the exercise of an impartiality that will ensure 
equal opportunity for all nationals who arc interested in 
the development of that country as well as in the legiti- 
mate overseas expansion of their own industries. 

The Risks of Mining 

A marked copy of the 'Salt Lake Tribune' containing 
an article on 'The Causes of Failure in Mining' has been 
sent to us. The article is by Mr. Henry M. Adkinson, 
and we have read it with interest, because, like other 
members of the mining profession, we have sundry no- 
tions on the causes of such failure. First, Mr. Adkinson 
finds that unscrupulous persons are aided in obtaining 
money on false representations by reason of the fact that 
"only a very few interested investors are trained even 
superficially" in a "special knowledge of geology". 
Hence, he says, there exists "a rather widespread feel- 
ing that mining is a highly speculative business". Here 
at once is matter for disputation. Our own observations 
would indicate that a smattering of geologic knowledge 
does not help the so-called investors so much as is sup- 
posed ; on the contrary, it proves usually to be that little 
knowledge that is proverbially dangerous. It is well 
enough for a client to know 7 enough of the A B C of 
geology to be able to understand the report on a mine or 
to follow the advice of an engineer, but when the client 
intrudes his own half-baked ideas on the subject the 
result may lie lamentable. The greater harm to the 
business, however, is the supposition that mining is an 
investment, not a speculation. That is an old blunder, 
and one against which we have animadverted many 
times. Mining may not be "dangerous", but certainly 
it is risky; indeed it is the element of risk that makes it 
so attractive to the genuine adventurer, using the word 
in the proper sense of one who embarks on a legitimate 
venture. Without risk there would be no prospect of a 
large gain; and it is the possibility of a gain large in 
proportion to the money used that attracts the real 
miner. The sagacious man diminishes the risk as much 
as possible by careful investigation, and, more particu- 



January 28, 1922 

larly, by taking the advice of an experienced and other- 
wise trustworthy specialist, a mining engineer; but he 
never imagines that he can avoid all the risk inherent 
in the search for ore. Mr. Adkinson says that "many of 
the speculative hazards of mining are either wholly 
eliminated, or reduced to a minimum, if the business is 
undertaken with the same sound business judgment and 
the same careful attention to ordinary business princi- 
ples that the commercial fields with w r hich most men are 
acquainted demand". To which one might say, "I get 
you, Steve", despite the syntactical obstructions. Cer- 
tainly the losses incurred would be much smaller and 
the winnings would be much larger if the ordinary 
principles of successful business were not ignored so 
often ; but the suggestion that all risk can be avoided is 
repeated, and to this we must demur again. All business 
involves some risk, of course, but in mining we have to 
deal not only with the natural depravity of man, par- 
ticularly his proneness to do unto others as they would 
do unto him, and to "do it first"; we have not only the 
aberrancies of human nature and the trickeries of trade, 
such as are common to commerce, but the vagaries of ore 
deposition — the inevitable uncertainty as to the con- 
tinuity of orebodies. This factor of uncertainty can be 
overcome by exploration and development, by drilling 
and cross-cutting, so that enough ore can be rendered 
measurable to serve as an assured reserve for several 
years. Then there is established what is commonly 
called — in prospectuses — "a manufacturing proposi- 
tion", that is, an enterprise in which one can count on 
a steady profit because both the supply of raw material 
and the market for the finished product are assured. 
We do not belittle the splendor of such mines as have 
been so developed as to ensure a steady output for many 
years and thereby to postpone definitely one of the dan- 
gers to which mining is subject, namely, the depletion 
of the ore-reserves; but even to enterprises of so favor- 
able a character it is a misuse of terms to apply such 
a phrase as "manufacturing proposition", because it is 
deceptive. A mine is a wasting asset ; its resources are 
consumed without replenishment ; the more ore one re- 
moves the less remains in the ground. A manufacturer 
once he is established can obtain his raw material 
from many sources; he is not self-contained in this re- 
spect, nor does he expect to be. As to the market for the 
miner's products, it may be said* that in this regard he 
is no worse placed than others engaged in business, for 
recent events have proved how the prices of everything 
fluctuate between wide extremes. On the other hand, 
we do not hesitate to say that when the element of risk 
in a mining enterprise has been removed apparently, by 
the proof of enormous reserves and the assurance of a 
fixed price for the metallic product, it ceases to be a 
good mining venture for those not already participating 
in the venture, because usually the market valuation of 
the property by that time has reached a point where in- 
vestment is unattractive — the rate of the return on the 
capital, plus allowance for redeeming that capital, is in- 
sufficient for a sound investment, whereas its attractive- 

ness a.s a speculation lias been lost 1 > v reason of the fact 
that most of the favorable possibilities, of expansion or 
enrichment, have been discounted, so that there remain 
chiefly the chances of disappointment. Of these there 
are plenty lying in wait for the man that believes there 
is no risk in a well-developed and well-managed mine. 
Besides the finding of blocks of poor ore and barren rock 
within the heart of the reserve, and of refractory ele- 
ments in some of the ore, there are the usual mishaps of 
fire, flood, and strikes. Such troubles may come to any 
business, of course, but a fire underground or the irrup- 
tion of an excessive flow of water are perils of a char- 
acter unlike anything that may befall an enterprise 
established on the sunlit surface. 

All this sounds anything but cheerful. Our purpose, 
however, is not to belittle the attractiveness of mining 
but to emphasize the fact that in the risk lies one of its 
chief attractions, if with the recognition of its inherent 
hazard there is maintained a reasonable amount of cau- 
tion. Incompetent management and lack of capital have 
crippled many promising mining ventures, but the 
greatest losses that the public has sustained have been 
caused by the over-valuation of the richest and biggest 
mines on the supposition that no risk remained. The 
over-valuation of such mines as the Consolidated Vir- 
ginia, the Contention, the Chrysolite, the Mollie Gibson, 
the Goldfield Consolidated, the Bsperanza, the Mount 
Morgan, the Broken Hill Proprietary, the Lake View 
Consols, and the Waihi have hurt the public much more 
than have the misadventures of a hundred wild-cats. 
Most of the great bonanzas have been appraised on the 
share-market at three, four, or even ten times their real 
value, on an investment basis, that is, interest plus 
amortization. When a five-million-dollar property is 
valued at fifteen or twenty millions, as expressed by the 
stock quotation, it is evident that somebody loses ten or 
fifteen millions. What happens is that this amount of 
money is transferred from the pockets of the many to 
the coffers of the few. Part of the loss is due to greed, 
to the hope of becoming rich quickly, but most is due 
to the assumption that the element of risk does not exist 
in the operation of a proved bonanza. This is accepted 
to such an extent, that its resources are supposed to be 
inexhaustible, as was believed by the victims of the Rand 
consolidations. As a matter of fact, the buying of stock 
in these phenomenal mines constituted a bad mining risk 
because the chances of a large gain had been fully dis- 
counted, and the speculator was in the position of one 
who backs a favorite when the betting will allow only odds 
so great that the gamble is a poor one, that is, there is 
little to be won in proportion to the amount that may be 
lost. In short, those who bought bonanza stocks thought 
they were investing, whereas they were gambling reck- 
lessly. As soon as the element of risk disappears from a 
mining venture, and the market has discounted the sup- 
posed fact, it is the part of wisdom to get out of it or 
to stay out of it. Mining is an adventure, a sane ad- 
venture ; it is rarely an investment and it need not be a 
gamble. It is a reasonable speculation. 

January 28, 1922 






'■ ■T ~ 

' -' J.ll ' » in I i i iii i iijiiii. o 


The Editor: 

Sir — To the Qreal War we attribute all the political, 
industrial, moral, and social ills that beset the peoples of 
the earth. Under the whip of war. with little but patri- 
otic pride as an incentive, genius, initiative, resourceful- 
ness and other kindred latent qualities were developed 
ot er-night, and being efficiently organized they rendered 
irresistible the combined forces of the Allies. Research 
was tho watchword in answer to the cry of alarm as new 
and unusual problems were forced upon us. Current 

practices had to lie changed, substitutes devised for things 
then unprocurable, for intensive production regardless 
of cost was vital to success. Self was subordinated to 
country, i pluribus unum. So the War left us. and as the 

Clouds lift we find it difficult tO adjust ourselves to 
changed conditions; on every side we hear the watchword 
' research' echoing back from many reflecting surfaces 
until it becomes almost a noise to our ears. In the true 
spirit of research let us ponder this pandemic. 

An editorial in the 'Mining and Scientific Press' some 
months ago (May 21, 1921) pleads for research in mod- 
ern institutions of learning, but suggests restriction of 
the field to those possessing the rare yet essential quali- 
fications of seekers into the great abyss of undiscovered 
truth. These traits of genius are a priceless heritage to 
a select few. They may be developed in a small number, 
they are unattainable by the multitude, and yet in many 
scientific societies, educational institutions, and academic 
circles prolificacy in research is the yardstick by which 
professional standing is measured. The spirit of research. 
in my opinion, is blasted when mentality is conscripted 
into the cause. 

Research is not peculiarly the prerogative of a pro- 
fessor nor is it a priceless gem cut, polished, and mounted 
in a setting of university libraries and laboratories. It 
may be conducted by private parties, government bu- 
reaus, or business organizations ; its field comprises hot 
only the sciences, arts, and letters, but the humanities. 
Everywhere there is need of investigation, and with in- 
creasing knowledge new projects will be born, dead issues 
revived. Admittedly a modern university, per se, is con- 
cerned with a balance between the discovery of truth and 
the transmission of learning, but in the editorial above 
referred to I infer that a deeper significance is given to 
the term 'university', one not restricted by campus walls 
or quadrangle, but that larger field where organized 
common-sense may operate to alleviate and ameliorate 
human needs and ills, to discover by synthesis and an- 

alysis the dormant forces and put to use for the benefit 
of mankind the resources of the earth. Research must 
be conducted not only into musty manuscripts, pestifer- 
ous pus, or elusive electrons, legitimate and atti active as 
these verdant fields are to those who can ruminate in 
them, but investigative work should have a utilitarian 
touch, that industry may give birth to industry, that 
natural forces may be marshalled and made servanK to 
man. so that human progress, contentment, and enlight- 
enment may result. Research may give us the flimsy 
gossamers, but it must weave these priceless threads into 
the warp and woof of industry. I do not belittle the 
enriching influences of scholarly search into abstract and 
abstruce realms of thought, which illuminates our path 
in following the obscure causes of advancing civilization. 
'I he engrossing enigma of the fourth dimension will in 
time be understood by others than Einstein, but in these 
troublous times we need substance, not shadow ; food, 
not foibles. Better perhaps that our energies be di- 
rected to the great problem of human relationships, man 
to man, nation to nation, and strive for a solution of this 
world-wide condition of unrest and economic stagnation. 

The great crises of our lives appeal first to our emo- 
tions, then to our intellect. Surely the nightmare of 
war has left us in a state of hysteria, and the last con- 
vulsive sobs are not yet. The youth of the land seeks 
solace in supper and dance ; the laboring man has tasted 
of a luxury to which he is not accustomed ; society con- 
sumes itself in riotous living. "Back to normal" is a 
good slogan to be sounded in schoolroom, church, home, 
and workshop. The word 'back' is a forward movement, 
anomalous as this may seem. Research in the field of 
human endeavor, the straightening of the path of life, is 
of infinitely greater importance at this time than the 
causation of cosmic cataclysm. Dallas Lore Sharp has 
recently said, "Not scribe but citizen, not author but 
voter, is the business of the school, the true end of its 
course of study".* 

The symptoms of the mental, moral, and economic dis- 
ease with which the world is afflicted are so woefully 
apparent that further diagnosis without palliative pre- 
scription may make the condition chronic: nor can we 
remedy by drastic action of excision, by mental thera- 
peutics, or the rest cure. Patient and practitioner must 
collaborate in order to effect a cure. It is socially and 
economically unsound to anticipate a return to the con- 
ditions of 1914, for the despotism of capital and the 
arrogance of labor are of the dead past. One of the 

*'The Atlantic Monthly', July 1921. 



January 28, 1922 

greatest problems confronting us is how best to effect a 
reconciliation of these warring elements, by what means 
can the wage-earner be brought to understand the risks 
and problems of the payer of wages, and whereby can the 
capitalistic class be made sympathetically mindful of the 
legitimate aspirations of those on whose efforts output 

The field of humanics is an inviting one to the research 
worker, and in persistent conscientious search, new re- 
lationships may be established even though startling dis 
covery be not made. Secretary Hoover, of the Depart 
nient of Commerce, with the broad constructive visioii 
that characterizes him, is promoting by preachment and 
practice, by conference and council, a policy of invest! 
gation which cannot fail. Judge Gary in his statement 
to the stockholders last annual meeting of the U. S. Steel 
Corporation subjected the soul of his corporation to the 
light of day with such frankness that even the most 
obdurate must see in his words an earnest- unreserved 
desire to take council with all classes, but, says he 
"Where the interests of the general public and the 
nation clash with private interests the latter must be 
subjugated, the obligations are reciprocal, the manage- 
ment of a corporation must have constantly and upper- 
most in mind the rights and interests of the general 
public not only as determined by the law of the land, but 
as ascertainable from public sentiment, when clearly 
defined". He advocates publicity, regulation, and reas- 
onable control through government agency: comprehen- 
sive practical legislation, binding to capital and labor 

John D. Rockefeller, Jr., in an address at Atlantic 
City, before the Chambers of Commerce of the United 
States, in 1918, presented an industrial creed, part of 
which I quote: 

"I believe that labor and capital are partners, not 
enemies; that their interests are common interests, not 
opposed, and that neither can attain the fullest measure 
of prosperity at the expense of the other, but only in 
association with the other. I believe that the purpose 
of industry is quite as much to advance social well-being 
as material well-being and that in the pursuit of that 
purpose the interests of the community should be care- 
fully considered, the well-being of the employees as re- 
spects living and working conditions should be fully 
guarded, management should be adequately recognized. 
and capital should be justly compensated, and that 
failure in any of these particulars means loss to all four. 
I believe that the application of right principles never 
fails to effect right relations ; that the letter killeth and 
the spirit maketh alive ; that forms are wholly secondary 
while attitude and spirit are all important, and that 
only as the parties in industry are animated by the spirit 
of fair play, justice to all, and brotherhood, will any 
plans which they may mutually work out succeed." 

These reflections of thinking minds are not platitudin- 
ous. Expressed thought has anticipated constructive 
action, and material progress is being made. Withal 
the greatest forces of industry are the unseen forces, 

constant and certain in their action. Integrity is a real 
factor ; intelligence cannot be seen, but no one questions 
its influence ; and the greatest of all is good-will. The 
spirit of the worker is either industry's greatest asset or 
its greatest liability ; this statement is irrefutable. To 
engender a right spirit is the solemn responsibility of the 
man who handles men. High wages, short shifts, and 
even good living conditions do not guarantee industrial 
peace. Good-will is a human attribute which cannot be 
begotten of material forces ; human contact alone creates 
it. Here is a fallow field inviting to all ; let us press deep 
into its yielding surface the plowshare of peace; let us 
sow the seeds of research and garner an abundant har- 

Returning to the narrow confines of the college 
campus, where perhaps the cry of research is heard the 
loudest, is there not here a neglected but prodigiously 
potential field for research other than that of parchment, 
test-tube, or microscope ? Here year after year thousands 
of students foregather, and for what purpose? To be 
filled with dogma and doctrine, stuffed with a hetero- 
geneous hodge-podge of text-book learning which on 
being equated into units of a set curriculum may equal 
a degree ! Yes and No ! A university fails utterly if it 
disregards or belittles its obligation to take the plastic 
clay of youth and mold it into the form of sturdy, chiv- 
alrous manhood and worthy citizens. Dean Frederick 
Schutz Jones of Yale made this significant remark a 
year ago, "There was a time when I thought we must 
teach in college first and foremost the learning of books. 
In these days I would bend every effort to the making 
of good citizens, and by a good citizen, I think I mean a 
man who is master of himself, earns his own living, and 
as far as possible in doing it is of benefit to his fellow 
men". The doleful note of wailing jeremiad is heard in 
every college community, but few indeed are they who 
heed it. 

Many people have a grievously wrong idea that a uni- 
versity is an academic workshop turning out a finished 
product branded by a parchment as a scholar. A uni- 
versity is but a step from the kindergarten. It cares for 
children of larger growth, immature, susceptible to in- 
fluences for good or ill, striving for mental as well as 
bodily growth and development, responsive, enthusiastic, 
human. Shall we gorge the brain and starve the soul of 
such as these ? 

The spirit of scholarship must be fostered, alertness 
and an enquiring habit should be stimulated, and every 
inducement and encouragement given to those gifted 
with a brilliant intellect; but a university has other 
duties to perform, it must care for the moral, as well as 
the mental welfare of those whom it admits. Our State 
institutions do not discriminate against sex. creed, or 
color : l-ieh and poor are invited, any and all who can 
meet certain requirements of somewhat loosely enforced 
rules of scholastic standing. Such a motley group needs 
moral direction, ideals of right and righteous living must 
be a part of curriculum, love of home, loyalty to State 
and country, noble manhood and sweet womanhood, 

Januan 28, 1922 



surely these most precious thing! may be tanghl with 
aore lasting benefit to the student than many of the 
decadent philosophies of ancient and modern tunes, Bui 
in order to teach these things we must know the material 
with which we have to deal; research into human hearts, 
minds, ami motifs is necessary. It is a blessed ticlcl in 
which to labor. requiring no costly physical equipment of 
laboratory or library: the problem never palls, intricate 
and seemingly impossible as some of the complications 
arc at times; tangible results are quickly obtainable and 
the reward of effort is certain. The appreciation of the 
work done may seem to be written in sand, which the 
lirst tide of adversity or success obliterates, but more 
often the reactions arc graven in the hearts of men and 
endure to the end. _. „ _ 


University of California, January 5. 

Wetting and Amalgamation 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of December 31, T. T. Read at- 
tempts to wax facetious with regard to my letter on wet- 
ting and amalgamation, which appeared in your issue of 
December 3. Had I been fortunate enough to have read 
Mr. Read's paper on amalgamation of gold ores, which 
he mentions as having appeared in the Transactions of 
the A. I. M. E. for 1907, I might have felt that the last 
word had been said on the subject, and not have made the 
experiment I described; but I did not see his paper, and 
as it appeared several years after my experiment it would 
have been too late to direct my efforts into more profitable 
channels, even if I had seen it. I had read a good many 
exhaustive works on the subject of amalgamation that 
pre-dated Mr. Read's paper,, but they did not deter me 
from making the experiment. 

Mr. Read suggests that, as I did not publish the result, 
probably I made the experiment to amuse myself. Using 
the word 'amuse' iu the sense of 'to occupy pleasingly', 
he is right; unless I am much mistaken a great deal of 
research is done for that purpose, for to search for truth 
by means of experiments is a pleasureful occupation. As 
a matter of fact, however, the result of the experiment 
was embodied in a paper on gold solvents that I read be- 
fore the Mining Society of Nova Scotia, and which duly 
appeared in its transactions. I was well aware at the 
time I made the experiment that I was traversing ground 
that already had been trodden, but I was under the im- 
pression that I was doing it in a different way, and Mr. 
Read, with his, perhaps, fuller theoretical knowledge of 
the subject, offers no evidence to the contrary. When 
writing the letter on wetting and amalgamation, as it 
bore on the subject, I thought it would be interesting to 
give an account of the experiment, and in doing so I dis- 
tinctly stated that I was writing from memory. Under 
such conditions, it hardly was to be expected that I 
should include a bibliography of what previously had 
been done. I had not the necessary data at hand. I 
stated in my letter, however, that it was well known that 
gold was more soluble in hot than in cold mercury, and I 

thought thai statement would have precluded anyone 

with ready perception from thinking 1 imagined 1 bad 

reached an original conclusion. 

Mr, Bead appears to agree with Andrew Carnegie that 
much time and money is wasted because investigators 
fail to find out what others have done. Perhaps it is ; 
but can it always be taken for granted that what has 
been done has necessarily been done absolutely accu- 
rately? Huxley took an opposite view to Carnegie, and 
insisted on the importance of first-hand knowledge from 
experiments. He boasted that he never slated anything 
for a fact in his biological lectures that he had not veri- 
fied by his own experiments. There is so much to be done 
in these days that this no longer is always possible; still, 
that Huxley in the main was right has been proved a 
thousand times. For example, had Rayleigh been content 
to accept as accurate the previous determinations of the 
density of nitrogen, argon would not have been discov- 
ered. The frequent periodic revision in the atomic 
weights of the elements, made necessary by the errors of 
experimenters, strongly supports Huxley's contention. 
But why go on ? Of the finding of examples there is no 
end. To my mind, the great difficulty in starting any 
new research is to know what to accept and what to 
verify, or disprove, as the case may be. 

In conclusion, may I draw Mr. Read's attention to a 
little poem by Eden Phillpotts that appeared in a recent 
'Scribner' : 

"I cursed the puddle when I found 
Unseeing I had trod therein, 
Forgetting the uneven ground, 
Because my eyes 
Were on the skies, 
To glean their glory and to win 
The sunset's tremhling ecstacies. 

"And then I marked the puddle's face, 
When still and quiet grown again, 
Was hut concerned, as I, to trace 
The wonder spread 
Above its head, 

And mark, and mirror, and contain 
The gold and purple, rose and red. 

"We seek our goals; we climb our ways 
With hearts inspired by radiant thought, 
And hate the luckless wight who stays 
The upward stream 
Of vision's beam; 

Nor guess that we have roughly wrought 
A like hiatus in his dream." 

Victoria, B. C, January 4. 

F. H. Mason. 

Lime in Cyanidation 

The Editor : 

Sir — In your issue of November 5 there is, in the sec- 
tion devoted to Discussion, an interesting contribution 
by Mr. Ernest Gayford. In some experiments I made a 
couple of years ago on the effect of varying amounts of 
lime on the extraction of gold I found that the larger 
amounts caused a decrease in the extraction of about 
30%. This decrease I attributed to the interaction of 



January 28, 1922 

calcium hydrate with some of the soluble salts in the lish units are never even considered, except possibly 
mill-water. The addition of lime to the water resulted when presenting final results. But if Mr. Reed's sug- 
in the formation of a white gelatinous precipitate which gestions are carried to their logical conclusion, we may 
was the cause of the trouble, for when it was removed by expect to read in the most up-to-date work on analytical 
filtration prior to cyanidation the extraction was normal, methods something like this : 

I do not think that lime by itself causes re-precipitation ' ' Take a metric quart of solution A, boil it down to a 
of dissolved gold or silver ; it probably retards their solu- metric gill, add eleven thirty -seconds of a metric ounce 
tion through inter-action with some soluble salt. This of solid reagent B, run in solution C to the desired re- 
inter-action may produce a precipitate possessing reduc- action from a burette graduated in hundredths of a 

ing properties ; or it may engender a soluble salt that is a metric half -pint, and is the value of the resulting precipi- 

precipitant of the precious metals. The observation that tate is in excess of a metric six shillings and ninepence, 

low alkalinity causes re-precipitation is of interest. I the material may be considered as a commercial possi- 

append the results obtained when different amounts of bility. " 

lime are added to a high-grade silver ore. In the tests An absurd comparison? Of course it is; but the 

enough powdered lime was mixed with the ore at the absurdity differs only in degree and not in kind from 

commencement of the experiment to neutralize the acid- the suggestion made by Mr. Reed. The remedy lies not 

ity which had previously been determined. A varying in devising a hybrid system, or illegitimate cross between 

surplus ensured varying alkalinities during and at the metric and English, inheriting the vices of both and the 

end of the experiment. The lime used was 33.3% water- virtues of neither; it is a matter of educating people to 

soluble and the tailing assays were corrected for the think in metric terms. The advantage of metric weights 

extra weight introduced by the insoluble portion of the and measures over the present English system is recog- 

added lime. The cyanide solution was made up with nized to be fully as great as the corresponding advan- 

tap-water. The results show that different alkalinities tage of the American monetary system over the English ; 

have little effect on the extraction of silver and none but we have not yet been educated up to it. If. instead 

whatsoever on that of gold: of the periodic agitation for a law making the use of the 

Agitation for 70 hours. Dilution 4:1. Heads: Silver. 58.58 oz.; Gold. 0.055 oz. 

, — Before test After test . Consumption 

Total Free Total Free per ton . — Tailing assays — . Extraction 

Test KCN KCN KCN KCN CaO KCN silver gold silver gold 

No. % % % % % lb. oz. oz. ■& % 

1 0.440 0.440 0.310 0.310 0.042 10.4 4.60 0.00286 92.16 94.80 

2 0.440 0.440 0.307 0.307 0.082 10.4 4.90 0.00286 91.65 94.80 

3 0.440 0.440 0.300 0.300 0.105 11.2 4.75 0.00286 91.91 94.80 

4 0.440 0.440 0.300 0.300 0.110 11.2 4.54 0.00286 92.26 94.80 

Paul T. Bruhl. metric system compulsory, we could initiate one strong 

San Juancito, Honduras, December 6, 1921. movement which would result in the teaching of the 

— — — metric system in the public schools, along with the 

Metric Weights and Measures English system, I believe the relative advantages of the 

metric system would become so well known that within a 

e dltor: f ew years the clumsy English units of measurement 

Sir— The communication from H. W. Reed, in your would na turally die of disuse. I know there is no labora- 

issue of December 10, brings to my mind a conversation tory c ] lcm i st? trained to think in metric terms, who would 

I had some years ago with a conservative Englishman, voluntarily go back to the use of avoirdupois or apothe- 

wlio insisted in all seriousness that the British monetary caries units in analytical work. 

system was not only preferable to, but also simpler than. Sterling B. Talmage. 

the American. To my somewhat breathless inquiry as to galt Lake ^ December 25, 1921. 

his reasons for so stating, he replied, "Well, when you _____ 

tell me an amount in dollars and ceflts, I have to convert -p 

it into pounds, shillings, and pence before I know how J 

much money it represents". T ne Editor: 

Mr. Reed's suggestion indicates a similar attitude. Sir — Under the above heading in today's issue of the 
The trouble lies not in the metric terms, but in the fact 'Press', Mr. Watson of Luning, Nevada, vents his spleen 
that people have not been trained in their use. The upon the whole tribe of mining engineers. It is a fortu- 
term 'metric ton'' has absolutely nothing to recommend nate thing for the profession that such men as the corre- 
ct except a degree of usage; it is simply a lazy man's spondent are not in the ascendant in localities where 
substitute for a conversion table — it merely helps one to capital is needed by prospectors to develop properties of 
remember that a tonneau might be defined as "about as merit. It is also fortunate for the mining industry. Such 
much dirt as a one-ton truck should carry". If a man a spirit as evidenced by Mr. Watson would effectively 
wants to be more definite than that, he must either think quash the successful exploitation of any good mine and 
in kilogrammes, or consult his conversion-table. render improbable its ultimate development and the ex- 
The chemist has been trained already to use metric traction of its values for the benefit of mankind. Money 
weights and volumes ; and in laboratory work, the Eng- is needed to mine successfully, and is not forthcoming 

Jannari 28, 1922 



onleas the facts of the ease an art forth in an intelligible 
manner tor the information of would l>e investors, 
An boneal engineer is a pillar of the Republic. 

AliFBKD ('. North. 
Berkeley, California, December 31, 1921. 

The Prospector 

The K.litor: 

Sir — There lias been considerable discussion in the 'M. 
A 8. P.' and other publications during the past year con- 
cerning the mining law and prospecting, some for the 
betterment and some for the worse. No good has come 
from any of it. only a lot of bitter feeling. 

There is now being talked of, and being formulated, a 
plan for the betterment of those that follow the profession 
of prospecting by several prospectors in the West. The 
following is a rough outline of the plan. 

An amendment to the present mining law : All pros- 
pectors (citizens of the United States) on the public do- 
main to be compelled to take out annually, in advance, a 
license to prospect and locate ; the fee to be $5. Any one 
whose name is used to locate shall pay the same fee. 

The money thus derived to be put into a fund for the 
establishment and maintenance of a Prospectors Home 
''not a poor-house) on the order of the Soldiers Home, to 
be erected on the coast somewhere near San Diego or Los 
Angeles. This is to be a national institution ; also a 
monthly pension of $15 shall be paid to the inmates. The 
Home is to lie under the supervision of the Secretary of 
the Interior, who is to appoint a board of medical and 
practical men to run the same, the benefits of which are to 
he only for bona-fide prospectors who arc down and out 
and some who need medical attendance. The fund ob- 
tained from sale of licenses to be open for donations from 
any one. to be used for the benefit, of the Home. Most all 
trades, unions, and professions have some place to take 
care of their own, but the down and out prospector has 
none unless it is through charity and lots of red tape ; so 
he gets in the poor-house or some other place. In your 
issue of April 23, 1921, you wrote an excellent article on 
'Prospecting — Past and Future'; in it you ask the ques- 
tion what becomes of the prospector? You said that like 
the old hats and pins he just disappears to be replaced by 
new ones; but the answer to your question is that when 
down and out he can generally be found living in some 
cabin near some of his claims, probably at some old 
worked-out placer where he can eke out an existence by 
working and as a rule he is found dead in the cabin 
neglected by all in old age and sickness. 

At the next session of Congress maybe a bill will be 
presented to amend the law as above outlined. This bill 
would pass without opposition ; it would not cost the 
Government or the tax-payers as a whole anything; it 
would be self-sustaining — a small reward for the ones 
who are the primary cause of our great mineral develop- 
ments and wealth. This fund would receive many dona- 
tions to it every year, sufficient to run the Home in first- 
class shape and to enable the old down and out pros- 

pe, rtor tn end his last few days in some comfort, All proa 

pectora would donate to this til m< 1 when they had it (I 
will give $500) ; so would mine-owners and undoubtedly 
many of the large producing mining companies, who now 
have an age limit on employment. Retired mining men 
and many others who have been successful in the game 
would have a chance to do some good to those that wen- 
unsuccessful at the last. 

Maybe the future won't be as bright as the present 
with us. This living in hopes and dying in despair is no 
joke, for 99% of us get the last, in the long run. 

Frank P. Davis. 
Fairview, New Mexico, January 1. 

Plight of the Prospector 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have read many interesting articles in your 
paper in regard to our fast-disappearing prospector, who 
certainly does need some relief. 

Along with many other difficult problems that the pros- 
pector has to contend with, is the law that is known as the 
Timber and Stone Act. So much depends on the report 
of the cruiser that is sent out to make an estimate of the 
amount of board-feet there is on a certain tract of land. 
Now the question is, does he know where this certain 
tract of land lies and can he find section-corners? In 
many cases, I doubt it. 

As I understand the law, a separate estimate of each 
40 acres must be given. The blueprint that the cruiser 
has to guide him is not sufficient. In fact, I have seen 
men in the field that were completely lost. In one in- 
stance I was called on for information. At that time I 
was doing some prospecting not far from the section- 
corner that was wanted. As I had worked over some of 
the lines in that district, I went with the cruiser to the 
section-corner wanted and was well paid for it. Here is 
where the prospector gets the worst of it. In the instance 
just mentioned there was very little of the 160 acres ex- 
amined. There might have been one or several mining 
claims on this ground, and the cruiser would have known 
nothing of it. 

Many mining claims that have considerable value are 
not patented. After the prospector does his annual work, 
places the same on record with the County Recorder, this 
ought to be sufficient, but under the present laws such is 
not the case. On several occasions I have known a pros- 
pector put to the trouble and expense of going to law to 
prove his rights after having possession of the ground for 
many years. The mineral right is supposed to have the 
preferred right over all others, but I fail to see where he 
gets it. The prospector has a hard time at the best, let 
alone fighting for it after he finds it. 

Why not have the timber-man consult the County 
Surveyor and have the land properly described before a 
filing is made ? How are we going to keep our gold re- 
serve if the prospector is not allowed to dig for it ? 

J. T. Jones. 

Mokelumne Hill, California, January 7. 



January 28. 1922 

Tungsten in Colorado 

Conditions affecting the production of tungsten in 
Boulder county, Colorado, are outlined in a report just 
issued by the U. S. Bureau of Mines. The history of the 
tungsten industry in Boulder county illustrates how a 
valuable mineral may be overlooked because of ignorance 
of its nature or because of its being of no economic value 
at the time of its discovery. In 1870, Sam P. Conger 
discovered the famous Caribou silver mine in the western 
part of the county. The prospectors who flocked into 
the district soon became familiar with a heavy dark 
mineral, found as 'float', to which they gave various 
names, such as 'heavy iron', 'black iron', 'hematite', and 
'barren silver'. In the early part of the year 1900, 
Conger's partner, W. H. Wanamaker, who had seen the 
tungsten ores found in the Dragoon mountains of Ari- 
zona, recognized this 'float' as an ore of tungsten. Con- 
ger and Wanamaker kept their discovery a secret and in 
August 1900 obtained a lease for the purpose of working 
the tungsten placers and developing veins. By the end of 
the year about 40 tons of high-grade ore had been taken 
out, but until the end of 1914 there was no development 
of importance. 

By the middle of 1915 the war-time demand for high- 
speed tool-steel, of which tungsten is usually a com- 
ponent, became so great as to cause feverish activity 
among the owners of the known Boulder county deposits. 
In the tungsten localities the high prices brought about 
a boom similar to the excitements caused by important 
gold discoveries. Nederland, which had been a little 
village of a few dozen homes, became a bustling town of 
3000 or more inhabitants. Optimism prevailed through- 
out the entire district, and fabulous prices were asked for 
properties that showed nothing more than a streak of 
tungsten ore in the bottom of a 10-ft. discovery shaft. 
Leases on old dumps and mill-tailing ponds were sought 

The price of tungsten rose to $75 per unit, and at least 
one lot is known to have been sold for $105 per unit. 
Such high prices caused the large users to import tung- 
sten ores from South America, and later China, as these 
foreign ores could be laid down in this country very 
cheaply. As a result of these importations the market 
broke rapidly, and during the later part of 1916, 1917, 
and nearly all of 1918 it was fairly steady at about $25 
per unit. The small demand, upon the signing of the 
Armistice, together with the large importations and 
stocks held by dealers, forced the price down so much 
that early in 1919 all of the Boulder county producers 
were forced to suspend operations. In consequence there 
has been a strong movement for placing a protective 
tariff on all imported tungsten ores and products; and 
it seems to be the general belief of the producers that 
some form of protection is necessary to the maintenance 
of the industry in this country. 

The principal use of tungsten is in the manufacture 
of high-speed tool-steel, which, in addition to tungsten, 
contains chromium and vanadium. By the use of these 

wonderful alloy-steels one man now does as much work 
with one metal-cutting machine as could formerly be 
done by five men with five machines equipped with the 
carbon-steel tools formerly used. Under the standard 
adopted for testing tool-steels the ordinary carbon-steel 
failed at a speed of 15 ft. per minute, whereas a tungsten- 
steel tool withstood 90 ft. per minute, even when its edge 
became dull red in diffused daylight. 

Besides the use of tungsten in steel, in which it is 
saving millions of dollars per annum in wages, it is sav- 
ing other millions of dollars to consumers of electric 
light. A few years ago tungsten was regarded as un- 
obtainable except as a brittle metal, but, by one of the 
most remarkable of the many investigations dealing with 
the application of science to industry, the pure metal, 
although melting at a temperature above 3100° C, is 
now being drawn into wire and molded into forms. More 
than a million feet per day of such wire is being drawn 
in this country for electric lamps. Incandescent lamps 
with tungsten filaments are now made that consume only 
about five-tenths of a watt per candle, against 3.5 watts 
per candle used by the carbon-filament lamp of ten years 
ago, so that now one may have for 15 cents as much 
electric light as he could get ten years ago for one dollar, 
and of much better quality. 

Tungsten-alloys are used or have been suggested for 
many purposes, as tungsten can be alloyed with most 
metals. It alloys readily with nickel, cobalt, molyb- 
denum, uranium, chromium, iron, manganese, vanadium, 
and titanium. 

Some- other uses of tungsten are in replacing platinum 
and platinum-iridium alloys for contact-points in spark- 
coils, voltage regulators, telegraph instruments, and 
other electrical devices; wrought tungsten targets for 
X-ray tubes ; finely divided tungsten as catalytic agent in 
the production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen ; 
permanent magnets made by heating and quenching a 
steel containing 4 to 5% of tungsten and 0.5 to 0.7% of 
carbon ; and in parts of gas-engines, such as valves. 

The production of tungsten ores in the United States 
for 1916 was the largest ever made by any country in 
the world, the amount being 5923 tons, valued at $12.- 
074,000. The development of milling practice in Boulder 
county, the ore-dressing methods in use, and the local 
manufacture of ferro-tungsten and tungstic oxide are 
described in Bulletin 187, 'Treatment of the Tungsten 
Ores of Boulder County, Colorado', by J. P. Bonardi and 
J. C. Williams, which may be obtained on application to 
the Director of the Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. 

Experiments have been undertaken to minimize the 
loss of metal in anodes used in precipitating copper in 
Chile. It was found that an alloy of 70% lead, 20% tin, 
and 10% thallium lost only 1.2 lb. per 100 lb. of copper 
precipitated. It was also found that, in general, alloys 
with high melting-points are more resistant to corrosion. 
The liquid subjected to electrolysis in the operations 
studied was a solution of copper sulphate containing 
nitric and hydrochloric acids. 

January 88, L929 



Accidents in Metal Mines 

By Horace F. Lunt 

Tin scientific mu.1v of the cause and prevention of 
accidents iu metal mining, us in other branches of in- 
dustry, is comparatively aew. Before the enactment of 
workmen's compensation laws the subjeet was generally 
given only casual attention or, too often, overlooked en- 
tirely ; but the great catastrophes caused by explosions in 
coal mines showed in a forcible manner the necessity of 
safety measures, ami of inspection to ensure that they 
were observed. Subsequently, it became apparent that 
metal mining could be made less hazardous by similar 
safety rules; but, even now, in most States, the metal- 
mining regulations are much less stringent than those 
pertaining to coal mining. 

The advent of workmen's compensation laws gave the 
needed impetus to employers in all forms of industry to 
investigate the causes of accidents and to take means to 
prevent them. The National Safety Council has become 
the largest and most efficient agency for this important 
work in the industrial field generally. In mining, the 
work has been aided efficiently by the U. S. Bureau of 
Mines and the mine inspection departments of the various 
States. Safety engineers and safety committees are be- 
coming more and more common in the metal mines of the 

That safety and efficiency go hand in hand — that they 
are. in fact, one and the same thing — has become an in- 
disputable fact. Although an inefficient machine or 
faulty practice may be safe, an unsafe piece of machinery 
or an unsafe practice is never efficient in the long run. 
There is nothing more inefficient than an accident. 
"Practically every accident that happens in the mine, 
from a bruised finger to a fatality, costs something in 
loss of time and demoralization of work. In some parts 
of the United States, the men all walk out of the mine in 
case of a fatal accident and do not return until the dead 
man is buried. "When a man is seriously injured he re- 
quires the aid of others. His work stops, and the work 
of those coming to his assistance stops. There is a further 
loss from the curiosity-mongers, who want to know what 
is going on, and also from those required to carry the in- 
jured man from the mine to the first-aid room."* Aside 
from the paramount humanitarian considerations, it 
pays to do all that can possibly be done to prevent injury 
to workmen — to make every effort to conserve human life 
and usefulness. 

Recently the idea has been advanced that accidents are 
symptoms of inefficiency. This is undoubtedly true in 
many cases. For instance, a trammer has a rib fractured 
when a derailed car. which he is trying to return to the 
track, tips over and crushes him against the side of the 
drift. It is not unlikely that investigation will show that 

•'The Human Element in Mine Operation', by Edwin 
Higgins, 'M. & S. P.', Mar. 6, 1920. 

where this occurred there was a bad piece of track — that 
cars had been derailed there before. Because no one had 
happened to get hurt, this had place had been overlooked ; 
but considerable loss of time had resulted by derailment 
of cars or the necessity to slow down to prevent derail- 
ment. As another example, a miner is overcome, perhaps 
with fatal result, by powder-smoke in some particular 
working. It is more than possible that the air is fre- 
quently bad there, and that the men suffer with 'powder 
headaches'; they are in the habit of going several times 
a day to some other part of the mine where the air is 
fresh ; and, in general, are not able to work so efficiently 
as they could in an adequately ventilated working-place. 
As a third example: the clothing of a man oiling a piece 
of machinery is caught in a gear and he loses a finger, or 
perhaps an arm. If the oil- and grease-cups were piped 
out beyond the danger-point they would be handier to 
reach and could be filled in much less time than when 
placed in dangerous and consequently inconvenient 
places. There is no limit to the number of similar ex- 
amples that might be cited, indicating clearly that a large 
percentage of accidents can be prevented by exercising a 
reasonable amount of foresight. The idea that every 
accident is an 'act of God' is out of date; nearly all acci- 
dents are direct results of carelessness or ignorance, or 
both. Of course it is not possible to prevent all acci- 
dents; but by education, by using every possible safe- 
guard, and by example, those in authority can reduce the 
number of accidents to a minimum far below the present 

The principal causes of severe and fatal accidents in 
mines are falls of ground and falls of persons down 
shafts, raises, or winzes. The methods of obviating these 
have been discussed often, and should be well enough 
understood to make it unnecessary to do more than men- 
tion them. Eternal vigilance in seeing that backs are 
picked down, or adequately supported, before working 
under them, and that all openings are guarded properly 
are the only means of preventing such accidents. There 
are, however, a good many other hazards, not so generally 
recognized, that give rise to recurring accidents which, 
although not usually severe, might be prevented easily. 

Accidents due to explosives are not frequent and those 
that occur are nearfy always the result of gross careless- 
ness. The manufacturers have given such wide publicity 
to the precautions necessary to the safe storage and use 
of dynamite and other explosives that there is no excuse 
for a mine operator who does not know how to handle 
them properly and safely. One point that does not seem 
to be emphasized strongly enough in the powder com- 
panies' pamphlets is that magazines should be lighted 
from the outside. Electric-light wires inside a magazine 
have caused serious explosions, and must always be re- 



January 28. 1922 

garded as dangerous. If it is impossible to light a maga- 
zine adequately from without, flash-lights or battery- 
lanterns can be used. 

The use of calcium carbide has introduced hazards that 
are not always understood fully. Carbide should be re- 
garded as an explosive and treated as such. It should 
never be stored with dynamite or other explosives. Car- 
bide drums are frequently kept underground, particu- 
larly in small mines, or in those where a number of dif- 
ferent lessees are working. Every once in a while, when 
a miner goes to one of these drums to fill his lamp, there 
is an explosion, and he is more or less severely burned. 
Such accidents could be prevented by keeping the large 
carbide containers on the surface and by taking the car- 
bide underground in small quantities only. The large 
drums may be kept safely underground if there is a dry 
electrically lighted chamber available and if open lights 
are kept away from them. There is usually enough mois- 
ture in the mine atmosphere to cause a slight decomposi- 
tion of the carbide, with the consequent formation of 
acetylene. Generally the gas is not mixed with the air 
in the proper proportion to form an explosive mixture; 
or, if such a mixture is formed, it has a chance to diffuse 
itself before the miner's light gets close enough to ignite 
it. Calcium phosphide may be present in the calcium 
carbide. This, with water, will form hydrogen phosphide, 
which ignites spontaneously on coming in contact with 
air.f This is one of the reasons why carbide should not 
be stored with other explosives. 

The emptied carbide drums are frequently used for a 
variety of purposes around the mine ; sometimes failure 
to wash them thoroughly results in explosions in which 
someone is burned. For instance, some years ago it was 
the practice in a certain mine to use them for latrines, 
and one exploded while being so used. To avoid such 
accidents the cans should be filled completely with water 
as soon as the carbide is removed. 

Arcs formed while operating unprotected switches fre- 
quently cause severe burns. This is perhaps the com- 
monest form of electrical accident around mines and 
mills. There are a number of closed switches now on the 
market jthat cannot be operated except when the blades 
are protected. Their use precludes this kind of accident. 
Trammers often have their hands or fingers mashed 
while pushing the ordinary hand-operated mine-car, 
sometimes because they place their -fingers inside the top 
of the car, where part of the load can crush them ; some- 
times they are caught between the car and a timber or 
projecting point of rock on the side of the drift. A well- 
designed handle would prevent such accidents and would 
make the car easier to handle. A car with such a handle 
is illustrated in the National Safety Council 's pamphlet. 
'Underground Mine Cars and Haulage'. 

Minor eye accidents are too frequent in metal mines. 
They occur chiefly while starting holes with machine- 
drills, while cutting hitches with moils, and while break- 

t'Danger of Storing Carbide With Explosives', by Charles 
E. Munroe, Reports of Investigations, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 
'M. & S. P.', Vol. 123, p. 899, Dec. 24, 1921. 

ing up large pieces of rock with hammers. The remedy 
is to wear goggles. However, there is considerable dif- 
ference of opinion as to the advisability of wearing gog- 
gles underground. Many competent persons, probably 
the majority of mine superintendents, believe that the 
goggles would, by partly cutting off full vision, cause 
other and more serious accidents. This is doubtful. 
Probably the real difficulty is that of persuading the 
men to wear them. The use of goggles to prevent eye 
injuries in manufacturing plants is rapidly becoming 
universal, and it is to be hoped that before long the same 
will be true of metal mines. 

Unguarded gears, belts, and other moving parts of 
machinery are responsible for most of the accidents in 
surface plants and mills. All well-designed modern ma- 
chines have the gears and other moving parts adequately 
guarded by the manufacturers. Belts, pulleys, and shaft- 
ing, as a rule, must be guarded by screens or railings 
after they are installed. Practically all moving ma- 
chinery that is not guarded from accidental contact offers 
a possible and often an extremely dangerous hazard. 
Loose clothing or waste that projects from a pocket is apt 
to catch and pull the wearer around a smooth shaft, often 
with fatal results. Projecting set-screws are especially 
dangerous, and should never be tolerated. Throwing belts 
on and off their pulleys by hand without shutting down 
causes many accidents. Not infrequently a man applying 
belt-dressing gets an arm crushed or broken when it is 
caught and carried around the pulley. If care were taken 
to always apply the dressing on the side of the belt run- 
ning away from the pulley, or far enough from the pul- 
ley to make it impossible to get caught, such accidents 
would not occur. 

It seems almost childish to say that crusher- and roll- 
men ought to keep their hands away from the crushing 
faces of these machines. Yet, in spite of the fact that 
bars and tongs are almost universally provided for the 
purpose, men will not infrequently try to dislodge an 
obstinate piece of rock with their hands. If they are 
lucky they may only lose a finger or two, or perhaps an 
arm; occasionally the results are fatal. 

Such accidents, when every safeguard is provided, may 
t^nd to discourage the management in its efforts toward 
safety, but they should not be allowed to do so; rather 
they should be used to point a moral and to discourage 
the spirit of taking chances such as are pictured in Ber- 
ton Braley's 'Gamblers' : 

"We'll take a chance — we're not afraid of dangers. 

There's nothing killed us yet, so we're all right. 
To every sort of worry we are strangers, 

And so you see us, always gay and bright; 
Maybe some day the roof will fall and get us, 

The dynamite may go off in advance, 
The gas explode, but we won't let it fret us. 

We'll take a chance." 

A deposit of descloizite has been discovered near Mes- 
sina, in the Transvaal. Descloizite is a vanadate of lead 
and zinc, and in this particular ease contains over 22% 
of vanadium pentoxide. 

Januan 28, 1922 




Underground Loading Devices in Metal Mines 

By C. Lorimer Colburn 

•The diverting of men from industry to war focused 
the attention of operators in this country upon mechan- 
ical means of doing things. The demand for man-power 
was so insistent that every available agency for multiply- 
ing it had to be employed. It was during the war period 
and immediately thereafter that development of the use 
of underground loading devices made rapid progress. In 
all parts of the United States, mining engineers and mine 
managers were diligent in their efforts to develop me- 
chanical loaders. The mining engineers of the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines have secured, with the co-operation of 
the operators, data on the- actual performance of the me- 
chanical shovels in their districts, and have made them 
available to me. 

No effort has been made to discuss exhaustively the 
subject of underground loading devices. It has been the 
object to collect, in one paper, records of the performance 
of all machines now in actual use. Improvements in the 
design of machines are constantly being made; the per- 
formance-records given in this paper relate to operation 
prior to March 1, 1921. The records prior to 1920 may 
not fully represent the work that could be accomplished 
with the present models of the same machine. 

The data secured are given exactly as reported by the 
mine-operators. Since these data were collected,, two 
underground loaders, of a different design, have been put 
into operation in the iron mines of the Lake Superior dis- 
trict. One is the John Mayne sub-level loader, being 
tried by the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co., at Ishpeming. 
Michigan, and the other is the Cole-Goudie shovel, being 
tried by the Oliver Mining Co., at Ironwood, Michigan. 
No information has been secured regarding the perform- 
ance of either of these machines. 

The adaptability of a machine to particular work de- 

* Abstracted from Reports of Investigations, U. S. Bureau 
of Mines. 

pends not only upon its construction but also upon tin- 
ability of the operator to make the machine perform. 
Part of the data herein given may appear to reflect upon 
the loading device in question, whereas the failure may 
be chargeable to lack of skill on the part of the operator. 
Likewise, the costs given do not represent a comparison of 
the machines, because no two mines are alike, and shovel- 
ing costs are extremely variable. Thus, the hand-loading 
costs in Mine A may be 45 cents per ton, and a mechan- 
ical shovel may handle the same material for 40 cents 
per ton. The conditions in Mine B may be such that 
hand-shoveling can be accomplished for 25 cents per ton, 
and mechanical-shoveling for 24 cents. It would be un- 
fair to state that the loader in Mine B is better than the 
one in Mine A because its operating cost is less. 
Hunt Rotary Shovel 
The Hunt rotary shovel is cylindrical, and carries four 
digging-buckets, and a belt-conveyor to take the material 
from the buckets to a car. The entire machine, with the 
necessary power plant and transmission parts, is housed 
in a steel case ; none of the working parts is, therefore, ex- 
posed to the dirt and moisture of the mine. It is mounted 
on a truck and will run on the ordinary mine-track. The 
power is furnished by a 15-hp. motor placed immediately 
below the belt-conveyor. The buckets are arranged so 
they can swing back inside the cylinder. The motion to 
the buckets is imparted by two cams, which force the 
buckets out of the cylinder at the proper time and pull 
them inside the cylinder again after the material has been 
discharged. The revolving cylinder with the digging- 
buckets can be moved to the right or to the left by a rack- 
and-pinion arrangement on the truck. The machine is 
so pivoted at the rear end of the conveyor-belt that it is 
possible to deliver the material to the car irrespective of 
the position of the revolving cylinder. The Hunt rotary 
shovel is a low, compact, and powerful machine. 



January 28, 1922 

Operation. The shovel is controlled by an operator 
who stands to the right of the machine near the front, 
where he can see the digging operations. In order to 
shovel from a pile of broken material, the revolving cyl- 
inder is pushed into the pile, the bottom of the cylinder 
almost resting on the floor. As the cylinder revolves, 
each bucket in its turn takes a load of material and later 
drops it upon the belt-conveyor. Immediately after 
dumping this load, the bucket swings back into the cyl- 
inder. As soon as it has passed the lowest position of the 
cylinder, the revolving motion imparted to the bucket by 
the cylinder, together with the protruding motion given 
to it by the cams, pushes the bucket into the pile with a 
motion somewhat like that of an ordinary shovel. 

As soon as the material is dumped upon the belt-con- 
veyor, it is carried up an incline and discharged into the 
car at the rear. The edges of the belt-conveyor are con- 
cealed by a guard-strip, which troughs the conveyor and 
prevents any of the material from falling off. By the 
rack-and-pinion arrangement described above, the re- 
volving cylinder can be swung to the right or to the left ; 
this enables the machine to dig within 10 ft. to either side 
of the centre of the track. 

Record op Performance. The Hunt rotary shovel has 
been in operation at the Mayville iron mines operated by 
the Steel & Tube Co. of America. The management states 
that the machine has loaded as many as 116 three-ton cars 
in 8 hours. No records of the performance of this ma- 
chine over a long period of time are available. 

Myers-Whaley Shoveling Machine 

The Myers-Whaley shoveling machine is composed of 
three principal parts : the main frame, the swinging jib, 
and the rear conveyor. The main frame is mounted on 
wheels running on the ordinary mine track. The ma- 
chine is self-propelling and can be moved forward or 
backward at the will of the operator. It is driven by a 
20-hp. motor, which is mounted on the main frame. The 
jib section and the rear conveyor are attached to the 
main frame near the centre of the machine by a king- 
pin, and both can be swung to the right or left. The jib 
section carries an automatic shovel mounted on its for- 
ward end. Behind the shovel is an armored belt, which 
receives the material from the shovel and delivers it to a 
second armored belt mounted upon the rear-conveyor sec- 
tion. The jib is pivoted on the 'king-pin, and can be 
swung 45° to either side. The rear-conveyor section con- 
sists of an armored belt mounted on a frame that is 
pivoted on the king-pin, allowing the rear conveyor to be 
swung 20° to either side. 

The Myers-Whaley machine is manufactured in two 
sizes — No. 3 and No. 4. No. 4 is the standard-size ma- 
chine and weighs 18,500 lb. The machine can be ar- 
ranged for any track gauge. It can he transported on a 
track as narrow as 18 in. ; but while operating it is neces- 
sary to have it supported on at least a 42-in. gauge track. 
With narrower gauges than 42 in. it is necessary to lay 
extra rails at the place where the machine operates, for 
unless this extra support is provided, the machine may 

tilt sufficiently to cause derailment when digging at ex- 
treme distances from the centre of the track. The over- 
all length of the machine is 22 to 26 ft., depending upon 
the length of the rear conveyor, which of course is con- 
trolled by the length of the mine car. The width is 5 ft. 
4-J in., and the height, 4 ft. 9 in. In some places the 
height of the mine-car makes it necessary to raise the rear 
conveyor, which of course raises the height of the ma- 
chine. The wheel base is 42 in., the width of shovel 34 
in., and the size of motor 20 hp. The shovel on the jib 
has a reach of 10 ft. to either side of the centre of the 

The No. 3 machine weighs 13,000 lb., and the ti-ack 
gauge is adaptable just as for the No. 4 machine. The 
length of machine is 23 ft., the width 4 ft. 8 in., and 
height 4 ft. 3 in. The shovel on the jib has a reach of 8 
ft., to either side of the centre of the track. The shovel is 
33 in. wide. The power is obtained from a 15-hp. motor. 
All the parts of the Myers-Whaley shoveler have been 
standardized. The machine has been designed for 
strength ; the various parts are well protected, and are 
aDle to withstand heavy knocks. 

Operation. The operator is seated on a platform at 
the right of the jib section, well above the work and where 
he can observe the action of the shovel and the belt-con- 
veyor on the jib section. The shovel is automatic, the 
front part having an orbital movement, down, forward, 
upward, and back, which clears the material away for the 
next stroke. In lumpy material, this action of the shovel 
is augmented by moving the machine bodily forward as 
the shovel comes down and forward, then moving the ma- 
chine partly backward in preparation for the next stroke. 
This bodily reciprocation of the machine is at the will of 
the operator. The shovel discharges its load upon the 
front conveyor-belt, on the jib, from which it is dis- 
charged to the rear conveyor-belt, which in turn carries 
the load backward and delivers it to the mine-car. 

Record op Performance. The Myers-Whaley shovel- 
ing machine was one of the first to be placed on the mar- 
ket. It has, perhaps, been in general use and has been 
tried in a greater number of mines than any other ma- 
chine. It was, to a certain extent, the pioneer, and so has 
borne the brunt of the criticism that is usual when new 
methods are suggested for doing things. The experience 
with it has been varied. In one mine, the Myers-Whaley 
shoveler has been in use for three years. The manager 
gives the following results : During 1918, more than 30,- 
000 tons of material was shoveled at a cost of 20.07 cents 
per ton. This cost was divided between repairs, 9 eents 
per ton, and operating labor and supplies, 11.07 cents. 
During 1919, nearly 39,000 tons was shoveled at a cost 
of 19.15 cents per ton, and during 1920, nearly 40.000 
tons was shoveled at a cost of 20.69 cents per ton. The 
tonnage on individual machines varied according to 
height of ground, amount of ore available, and the time 
required for switching cars. The average was about 100 
tons per 8-hr. shift ; but when it was possible to work 5 or 
6 hours in one or two headings. 130 to 150 tons was 
loaded. The crew consisted of one operator and one mule-> 28, 1989 



driver. The operator would l>reuk up boulders while the 
driver was switching oara 

In anothiT mine a teal was observed by a Bureau of 
Mints engineer, The machine had one runner, two help- 
era, and a showier in attendance. A locomotive was kept 
constantly at hand (or switching purposes. The machine 
readily shoveled the 4+ tons necessary to till the car in 
three minutes, after which 10 minutes 
was takm to switch the loaded car 
about 500 t't. and to replace it with an 
empty one. Over a period of two hours 
this machine bandied ears at the rate of 
one car for every 15 minutes, or IS tons 
per hour. A shift 'a work was about l-"> 

In another mine, the Myers-Whaley 
machine was used to handle material in 
a stupe. The machine in this mine was 
compelled to work on a grade of from 5 
to 10%t It worked well on a 5% grade 
and with difficulty on a 10% one. The 
face was 10 ft. high. During the period 
that observation was made, the machine 
shoveled 2653 tons, which was at the 
rate of 12 tons per hour. The costs 
were as follows: shoveling 20.80c, drill- 
ing 8.71c, blasting 15.39c, total 44.9c 
per ton. The cost of doing the same 
work by hand was 58.5c per ton. 

In July 1.918, Witherbee, Sherman 
& Co. purchased for its Harmony mine, 
one No. 4 Type Myers- Whaley shovel- 
ing machine. In June 1920 three addi- 
tional machines were purchased. The 
material handled was magnetic iron ore. 
Wages paid the shovel-runner were 
574c. per hour ; to the helpers, 47|c per 
hour. Five men ran the machine and 
handled the cars. The average distance 
of tram was 250 feet. 

Operating Costs of Myers-Whaley Shoveler for 1920 

first Myers Whaley machine, from October 1. 1918, tfl 

lie tolier 1, 1919. Although these sts are much in excess 

of the cost today, they give a fair comparison of what 
can be expected. The machine did not work continu- 
ously : while it was stopped for repairs the material was 
loaded by hand. These figures include pushing the cars 
by hand from the heading to the switch, varying from 


Tonnage 12.459 








Operating 1 labor cost.... 3 2.7 


14. S 


Repairs, labor cost 3.1 




Repairs, supply cost.... S.7 




Shops and miscellaneous. 0.4 







Machine No. 4 was the one purchased in 1918. During 
the year it was almost re-built except for motor aud 

In October 1918, a Myers-Whaley machine was put in 
operation at the Priest Portal of the Hetch-Hetchy aque- 
duct, in Tuolumne county, California. On January 1, 
1920, three machines were being used on this property, 
and on January 1, 1921, thirteen machines were em- 
ployed. Bight of the thirteen were kept busy in the 
headings and five were maintained in reserve. 

The following table gives the cost for operating the 


50 to 200 ft. in distance ; the progress made during the 
year was 2357 feet: 

Labor cost: Total Per ft 

Operation $2,824 SI. 20 

Repairs 1.089 0.44 

Shoveling 7,220 8.063 

Electrician 1.305 0.55:1 

Total labor S12.38B fo.236 

Replacement machine parts (f.o.b. Priest) 3.624 1.53? 

Electrical plant and material depreciation. 38% . 867 n :;t;s 

Depreciation on Myers-Whaley machine. 20% ■ . . 1.944 0.824 

Power. 120 kw-h.. at 0.005c 21G 0.00 

S19.037 S8.078 

The outside section of tunnel was broken 11 ft. 3 in. 
by 11 ft. 3 in., making 126.56 cu. ft., or 10J tons of ma- 
terial for every lineal foot of tunnel. The cost of shovel- 
ing 10} tons was $8.08, or 79c per ton. The cost of 
handling similar material in the South Fork heading, 
where the entire work was done by hand, was $1278 for 
labor. The distance was 201 ft. The size of the tunnel 
was the same as that of the Priest Portal. The cost was. 
therefore, $6.35 per lineal foot, or 60c. per ton. It will 



January 28, 1922 

be noted that the cost per foot of loading the broken rock 
was $1.90 greater in the Priest Portal tunnel, where a 
mechanical loader was used, than in the South Pork, 
where hand labor was used exclusively; but with the 
loader a greater speed was obtained. It took the machine 
four hours to load the broken rock from each round in 
the Priest Portal heading, against eight hours to do the 
work by hand. When the loader was working the ma- 
t rial could be cleaned out of the tunnel by the time the 
upper holes were drilled, and the drillers did not have to 
wait for the face to be cleaned up as in the case of hand 
shoveling. "With greater speed the overhead expenses 
are less. 

A new Myers- Whaley machine was installed in the 
Early intake in January 1920, and the cost of driving 
this tunnel was reduced from $28 to $22.18 per foot. 
When the loader was used, the round was drilled and 
blasted in a shift and a half instead of in two shifts. Two 
loaders were placed at the Priest Portal, so when one 
broke down the other could be taken in to load out the 
round. One of the main considerations in the successful 
use of this machine is a competent runner and mechanic 
who understands how to keep it in good condition and 
make the necessary repairs. This was brought out forci- 
bly in connection with this project. In July 1920 there 
was a strike. Previous to this, several of the machines 
were kept in the heading for several months without 
being taken out for repairs. In November 1920, after 
starting up with a new set of men, very often both the 
machines assigned to a heading were in the shop at the 
some time. At the South Pork heading 40 holes were 
drilled in 14 hours, and 13 lineal feet of tunnel was 
broken in a round. The Myers- Whaley machine ordi- 
narily loaded the broken rock in 5| hours. This was at 
the rate of 9.1 cu. yd. per hour. 

Conweigh Digger Belt -Loader 

The Conweigh digger belt -loader (see page 129) con- 
sists of a dipper mounted on the forward end of a dipper- 
arm, a belt-conveyor, an electric motor, and accessory 
parts. All these are mounted on a truck, which runs 
on the regular mine-track, and are so arranged that the 
dipper, after digging into a pile of loose material and 
receiving a load, slides it upon the belt-conveyor, which 
discharges into a car in the rear. 

The dipper is hinged to the dipper-arm. and can be 
swung 90° in a vertical plane. Both» the front and top 
of the dipper are open. The dipper-arm is so constructed 
that it forms a trough, through which the material slides 
from the dipper to the belt-conveyor. The movement of 
the dipper on its hinge and the vertical motion of the 
dipper-arm are controlled by a chain, which is attached 
to the dipper. The discharge of the dipper is accom- 
plished by swinging it up and back, so that it discharges 
through its top, instead of swinging it horizontally and 
discharging through the bottom as is usual. The edges 
of the belt-conveyor are protected by a guard-strip, and 
the sides of the conveyor-section are built up with wing- 
boards. The power for the entire machine is furnished 
by a 15-hp. motor. 

Operation. The machine is controlled by an operator 
who stands on a small platform on the right of the ma- 
chine, near the front, where the digging operations can 
be observed. The mine-car is coupled to the machine in 
the rear. The dipper-arm is lowered so that the bottom 
of the dipper scrapes along the floor. The machine is 
then moved forward, which crowds the dipper into the 
pile. As soon as the dipper is full it is raised 90° on its 
hinge, so that the open front is not at the top. The 
dipper-arm is then raised, which allows the material to 
slide out of the dipper down the trough-shaped dipper- 
arm into the pocket, which feeds the belt-conveyor by 
which it is carried to the car in the rear. 

Record of Performance. The machine has been in 
operation for some time in the mines of the National 
Lead Co., at St. Francois, Missouri. The record for the 
month of February 1921 was an average of 96 tons of ore 
loaded in an eight-hour shift with one operator and one 
helper; 3360 tons was loaded during the month. These 
two men not only load the cars but push the empty one- 
ton cars to the machine and deliver the loaded cars to 
the motor-haulage loop. A labor cost of 9^c. per ton was 
reported for operations during February. To this should 
be added the cost of power and repairs. The manage- 
ment expects to reduce the present loading costs of 
16.64e. per ton by using this machine. 

Conweigh Shovel-Loader 

The Conweigh shovel-loader (see page 129) consists of 
a boom on the end of a steel frame. An electric motor 
and the necessary mechanical parts are also mounted on 
the steel frame, which is on a truck, and can travel any- 
where on the regular mine-track. A dipper slides back 
and forth on the boom. The boom can be swung to either 
side or up and down. 

Operation. The loader is controlled by an operator 
who stands to the right of the machine. The movement 
of the dipper and boom is controlled by two levers. The 
dipper is pulled into the pile of material ; and, after fill- 
ing itself, is raised over the car. As soon as the dipper 
is over the car, the door in the bottom is tripped by the 
operator, who pulls a rope. 

Record of Performance. During 1920, at the St. 
Louis Smelting & Refining Works of the National Lead 
Co., of St. Francois, Missouri, 169,351 tons of ore was 
loaded by seven of these machine, which made an average 
of 62.4 tons loaded per shift, at a cost of 16.64c. per ton. 
The costs were distributed as follows: operating labor. 
14.9c. ; repair labor, 0.3c. ; supplies, 0.99c. ; power, 044c. ; 
total, 16.64c. per ton. 


The 'Shuveloder' (see page 130) is operated by com- 
pressed air, which drives the dipper into a pile of 
loose material, lifts the loaded dipper, and empties it into 
the car that is brought up immediately behind the ma- 
chine. The dipper, together with the four air-cylinders 
that operate it and the mechanical parts that impart 
motion to the dipper, make up what is known as the 
main body of the machine. All these are mounted on a 

January 28, L922 



track, which oan be moved on tlie ordinary mine-track. 
The machine is hand-propelled. Immediately above the 
trnok and beneath the main body is a turntable, which 
provides lateral movement, The 'Shnveloder' is the 
model of what was formerly known as the Arm- 
strong loader. Its overall length is (i ft.; overall width, 
4 ft.; overall height, 4 ft. Tin- weight is approximately 
4300 lb. The dipper is 30 in. wide, and the head-room 
required for operation is (1 ft. 10 in. The manufacturers 
state that it takes from 150 to 1 7."> OIL It. "I' tree air per 
minute at 80 lb. pressure to operate the machine. It 
will load material in any car of a height 50 in. or less 
above the top of the rail. 

Operation. The shoveler is controlled by three levers 
on the right-hand side of the machine. The operator 
stands on the ground. The 'Shuveloder' is not designed 
for continuous operation, but each motion has a separate 

control, which is reversible. The mechanism is driven by 
three series of cylinders. The air is admitted successively 
into the bottom cylinder, into two centre cylinders, and 
then into the top cylinder. The bottom cylinder gives 
motion to tlie body, pushing it forward and crowding 
the dipper into the pile of loose rock. The two centre 
cylinders turn the two rope-sheaves, which raise the 
dipper up through the pile. The top cylinder then pulls 
the cross-head back, causing the dipper to swing over 
the top of the machine and to discharge the material into 
the car in the rear. Simultaneously with the operation 
of the upper cylinder, the bottom cylinder receives air, 
which causes it to pull the body-piece back to the starting 
position. The air is admitted to the rear end of the other 
cylinders in their turn, which brings them all back to the 
starting position. There is no movement to the truck. 
which is clamped to the track. The lateral movement to 
the machine, which is provided on the turntable, is ob- 
tained by a ratchet that is worked by hand. The machine 
has a reach of 54, ft. to either side of the centre of the 
track, and always discharges into the centre of the ear 
behind, from any lateral position of the body-piece. 

One man is required to operate the machine and one to 
switch the cars. In some places where digging is difficult 
a third man is used as a helper. At one mine the loader 
was used intermittently. Working on rock it shoveled 
72§ cars of 2£ tons capacity in 354 hours, at a cost of 
25.09c. per ton. This included tramming the cars 370 
ft. The actual time of loading was 164, hours. The de- 
lays were due to tramming, switching, loader off track, 
and repairs. In another test, working on soft iron ore. 
208 cars were loaded in 139£ hours at a loading cost of 
12.97e. per ton. The actual loading time was 244 hours. 

Colby Mine. An Armstrong No. 11 shovel was in use 
at the Colby mine of the McKinney Steel Co., of Bessemer. 
Michigan, to load broken roek in driving drifts. The 
drifts are 7 ft. high by 8 ft. wide, and the pile of rock is 
about 19 ft. long and about 4 ft. high at its deepest place. 
There were about 14 carloads (each of 32 eu. ft.) to the 
pile. Two men were used in loading: one operator, and 
one attendant who switched the cars. The machine was 

observed during the shoveling of one of these piles of 
material with the following results: 

Total time of setting up machine, in min. ; time of 
loading 14 cars, 58 min. ; 12 move-ups of loader, 30 min. ; 

switching 12 cars, 92 min.; total. 190 min. Total mini 

her of can loaded, 14 ; total cubic feet, A bs ; total number 
of move-ups, 12; total number loader-dippers, 222; av- 
erage number of loader dippers to ear. 16; average num 

ber of loader passes per minute. 4; average time for 
loading ears, including move-ups, (i min.; average time 
for loading one ton of rock, including move-ups, 2.4 
min. ; total time required for setting up the Armstrong 
shovel, loading and tramming of the rock, broken from 
an average break of a round of holes, look 1 hour and 
45 minutes. 

Tmkw Underground Mining Machine 

The Thew Automatic Shovel Co., of Lorain, Ohio, has 
designed an underground mining shovel upon the same 
general lines as the contractor's electric shovel manufac- 
tured by the same company. It consists of a dipper, 
boom, operating mechanism, and truck. The dipper is 
constructed of the same material as used in the regular 
Thew electric shovel. Its capacity is about {j cu. yd. The 
boom is rigid, being built up of steel so as to require 
minimum head-room. The operating mechanism consists 
of a 20-hp. motor, the necessary gear, and other mechani- 
cal parts. The operating mechanism is mounted on a 
platform. Below the platform is a turntable, which re- 
volves the entire shovel through a full circle of 360°. 
The machine is carried on the truck, which is on a cater- 
pillar tractor; it is self-propelling. 

Operation. The operator has a seat on the platform 
that supports the operating mechanism. From here he 
can observe the action of the dipper and also keep watch 
over the performance of the operating mechanism. The 
motions of the shovel are controlled by levers. The dip- 
per is forced into the pile of material by a movement im- 
parted to the dipper-arm and by the pulling of the dip- 
per-chains. When the dipper is full, the dipper-chains 
are tightened, so as to pull the dipper into a vertical 
position. The shovel is then swung on its turntable until 
the dipper is over the car. The bottom of the dipper is 
then tripped, allowing the material to drop into the car. 
The Vinegar Hill Zinc Co., at Platteville, Wisconsin, has 
operated Thew electric shovels in its mines in the Okla- 
boma-Kansas-Missouri district and in the Wisconsin- 
Illinois district. 

Oklahoma -Kansas-Missouri District. At the Ban- 
mine, in Kansas, near Picher, Oklahoma, the orebody is 
mined in stopes from 20 to 45 ft. high by the mining 
method common to the district, excepting that 14-ton cars 
instead of 4-ton cars are used, and accordingly the shaft 
is equipped with cages. A Type No. Thew shovel was 
installed in April 1919. This is of a standard type, re- 
volving in the full circle, is self-propelled, and is mounted 
on a 4-wheeled truck. It was found to be more flexible 
than other loaders then being tried in the district, because 
the full-circle swing allows ore to be loaded at any point — 



January 28, 1922 

front, back, or to either side — within the radius of the 
boom. Three dipper loads fill one l|-ton car. Over a 
period of 20 weeks the average loading per eight-hour 
shift was 160 tons at about one-half the cost of hand 

Wisconsin-Illinois District. At the Meloy mine, at 
New Diggings, Wisconsin, two Type No. Thew shovels 
have been installed. The shovels, like that at the Barr 
mine, are electrically driven, self-propelled, and mounted 
on wheels. The head-room required is a minimum of 16 
ft., and the operating width required is at least 20 ft. 
The stopes are 50 ft. high by 25 ft. wide, providing ample 
working space and sufficient broken ore to ensure the 
shovel being kept in continuous operation. Dippers of 
J and f cu. yd. are used. The machines weigh about 15 
tons, but can be dismantled readily so as to lower the 
parts through a 6 by 6-ft. shaft compartment. 

A crew consists of one operator, who should be a care- 
ful and experienced man ; one helper, unskilled ; and one 
mule-driver and mule, handling li-ton cars. Such a 
crew, under suitable conditions, should easily load 175 to 
230 tons per 9-hour shift. 

Following is the operating record for the period from 
November 24, 1917, to August 16, 1919, for one of the 
shovels at the Meloy mine : 

Total shoveled, tons 27.177 

Total shifts worked 211 

Average working: time per shiit. hours 3.85 

Average tons shoveled per hour 33.4 

Average tons shoveled per shift 129.3 

Cost per ton: Cents 

Labor 11.06 

Power 0.70 

Repairs 1.09 

Total, cents 12.85 

The cost of hand-shoveling during the same period was 
23c. per ton, approximately. In both instances, the tram- 
ming to the main haulage loop is included in the cost of 
working the Thew shovel. 

A two-months operating record for two shovels at the 
same mine during January and February 1921 is as fol- 
lows : 

Shovel No. 1 Shovel No. 2 

Tons shoveled 10.987 6.917 

Shifts worked 80 42 

Hours per shift 7 7 

Labor cost per ton. cents • 11.7 11.3 

Power cost per ton, cents 1.3 1.3 

Repair cost per ton, cents 0.7 0.7 

Total cost per ton. cents 13.7 13.4 

The cost of hand shoveling during the same period 
was approximately 16c. per ton. In all cases the cost of 
tramming 200 ft. to the shaft was included in the labor 
cost in connection with the operation of the Thew 

Record of Performance, Harmony Mine. Five Thew 
shovels were purchased by Witherbee, Sherman & Co. ; 
the first in September 1917, two in 1918, and two in 
April 1919. Three of these shovels were put in operation 
at the Harmony mine. Below is given the record of the 
three shovels for 1920 : 

Thew No. 1 Thew No. 2 Thew No. 3 

Tonnare 23.398 26.134 27.720 

Distance trammed 158 210 395 

. Cents per ton . 

Operating labor cost 16.2 14.9 16.0 

Moving labor cost 1.2 0.3 0.7 

Repairs, labor cost 6 2.1 2.6 

Repairs, supply cost 10.0 5.2 7.0 

Shops and miscellaneous 4.1 1.6 1.9 

Power 0.4 0.4 0.4 

Total cost 38.5 24.5 28.6 

The No. 1 shovel is the oldest, and the repair cost in 
operating it was the highest. After the first two years 
the repair bills increased rapidly. This would naturally 
be expected in the case of a machine that receives rough 
usage underground. The ore was hauled away from the 
shovel in 54-cu. ft. gable-bottom cars. The Thew shovel 
in No. 2 stope worked against a 40-ft. face. The vein at 
this point was 60 ft. wide. Tracks were laid on either 
side of the shovel. The car on one track was loaded, then 
the car on the other track was loaded while the first car 
was being trammed to the shaft and emptied. It took 
four minutes to dump the car and return it to the shovel. 
The shovel had difficulty in picking up large lumps and 
scraping the bedrock. 

Mascot Mine. The Thew shovel is in operation in one 
of the large stopes in the Mascot mine of the American 
Zinc Co., at Mascot, Tennessee. Zinc ore is mined in the 
form of sphalerite occurring in limestone. The mine has 
an open stope about 200 ft. high. The ore is loaded into 
steel cars, each with a capacity of about two tons, and 
hauled by mules to a side-track, from which the cars are 
taken to the shaft bottom by electric storage-battery loco- 
motives. The stopes are large, so that there is plenty of 
room for the machine to operate. The Thew was put in 
operation in August 1920, and in the succeeding three 
months handled 6335 tons of ore at a cost of 17.55c. 
per ton. 

The Chateaugay Ore & Iron Co., Lyon Mountain, 
New York. In 1918 this company secured a Thew shovel 
for use in its No. 4 mine. Records of performance, cost, 
and up-keep were not kept. Another shovel of the same 
make was procured for the No. 5 mine, but was used very 
little and was later transferred (March 1919) to the No. 
1 mine. Labor costs for the Thew shovel in No. 1 mine 
are for one operator, $5.25 ; one operator's helper, $4 ; 
three trammers at $4 each, $12 ; total, $21.25 ; 200 tons 
of ore was handled per shift, making a cost for labor of 
10.62c. per ton. This shovel worked in a large stope 40 
ft. wide and 45 ft. high. Cars are pulled in, and are 
drawn out by mule. A switch was arranged 100 ft. from 
the shovel, and the cars pushed up to the shovel by hand 
for this distance. Side-dump cars of 40 cu. ft. capacity 
are used; they hold 2£ tons. Much time was lost in 
switching cars. 

At the No. 4 mine a Thew shovel was also in operation. 
This shovel handles 300 tons per day, at a cost for labor 
of 6c. per ton. A tail-rope is used for switching cars. 
Two tracks lead to the shovel, so that one car is being 
loaded while another ear is being pushed in. The shovel 
operated almost continuouusly. The full haul for cars 

.lanuiirN 38, 1922 



is 600 ft. Alternating current, 820 volts, was used. 
Power oosta abonl 3Je, per kilowatt-hour. It is estimated 
thai the power cost was about $1 per day per shovel. 

The shovel was often out of commission on account of re- 
pairs. The most serious trouble experienced was the 
breaking of an I-beam on the No. 1 shovel. The rawhide 
pinions wear rapidly, the average life being about three 
weeks. It is estimated by this company that the oost to 
handle ore by hand was 35c. per ton in the No. 1 mine. 
and 44c. per ton in the No. 4 mine. Cost for repair 
(labor and supplies) was about 5 or 6c. per ton. 

St. Joseph Mines. The St. Joseph Lead Co., of Bonne 
Terre, Missouri, has six Thew shovels in operation in its 
mines. The stopes are large, giving ample room for 
operation. All these maehines 
were put in operation in 1920. 
The record of their perform- 
ance is as follows: Thew No. 1 
loaded 8713 tons at a cost of 
14.98c. per ton; No. 2 loaded 
26,970 tons at 18ic; No. 3 
loaded 12,194 tons at 18.8c; 
No. 4 loaded 20,917 tons at 
16.65c; No. 5 loaded 4969 tons 
at 29.34c; and No. 6 loaded 
4881 tons at 28,13c per ton. 

The higher costs for shovels 
No. 5 and 6 are due to their 
being used in mines where con- 
ditions are less favorable for 
their operation, the stopes being 
smaller, and operations being 
frequently interrupted. The 
average for all six shovels is as 
follows: 78.644 tons loaded at a 
cost of 19.96c. per ton. These 
costs are distributed as follows : 
operating labor, 11.025c. ; re 
pair labor. 4.115c. ; material, 
2.895c ; power, 0.933c per ton. 

Marion Shovel 

Although the Marion shovel is not manufactured pri- 
marily for underground use, the smaller-sized machine 
has been purchased and put in operation underground 
by several mining companies. 

Construction. The Marion shovel consists of a dip- 
per, boom, and operating mechanism, the latter being 
mounted on a platform. An electric motor furnishes the 
necessary power. The machine is controlled by a set of 
levers convenient to the operator, who sits on the plat- 
form, where he can observe the movements of the dipper 
and the working of the machine. The dipper is crowded 
into the pile of material by a movement given to the 
dipper-arm and the dipper-chains. When it is filled, it 
is raised and swung until brought over the car. The 
bottom of the dipper is then tripped, dropping the ma- 
terial into the car. 

Record of Performance. The Marion shovel was 
placed in operation in August 1920 in the mines of the 

American Zinc Co., at Mascot, Tennessee. Records of 

performance for three months are as follows: total num- 
ber of tons handled, 8997; cost 19.7e. per ton. The dis- 
tribution o!' rusts is as follows: operation is 17.60c; re- 
pairs. 2.11c On account of this being a second-hand 
shovel, the repairs were a little higher than usual. 

A Marion shovel with 3-yard dipper is in use at the 
1650-ft. level of the United Verde mine at Jerome, Ari- 
zona. The cost of loading ore into chutes with this 
shovel is estimated as being less than would be incurred 
by doing the same work by hand. The heavy weight of 
the machine makes it expensive to move in or out of a 
stope ; and, on account of large capacity, it is idle often 
and waiting for ore. The advantage of the machine is 


that it loads material faster than some of the other types. 
Hoar Underground Shovel 

The Hoar underground shovel (see page 130) consists 
of a dipper mounted on the forward end of the dipper- 
arm in three sections, a body, and a truck. The machine 
is operated by compressed air, three sets of air-engines 
being necessary to control the various movements. These 
air-engines are in the body. A turntable is placed be- 
tween the body and the truck, which enables the machine 
to be swung through a complete circle. The truck runs 
on the ordinary mine-track. The standard-size machine 
requires an operating space of 7 ft. wide by 6 ft. high. 
Its weight is 5800 lb. ; the air pressure required is 90 lb. ; 
air connections are li-in. piping. 

Operation, The Hoar underground loader is not self- 
propelling, and therefore must be pushed to its working 
place. It is then clamped to the rails. Having a full- 
circle swing, the machine can load cars to either side or 
to the rear. The operator has a seat on the small plat- 


form on the left-hand side of the body. He is well up level was $4.14 per foot, and the saving in handling the 

above the machine and can observe the dipper in its va- material from the 24th level was $4.55 per foot. 

rious movements. The machine is controlled by three The following table will give briefly the comparison of 

levers convenient to the operator. In digging, the dipper this work : 

is forced into the pile of material by the forward motion class of labor Hand labor no. 2 Hoar loading machine 

,i -,. i . . . , , ., . . Locality 23rd level 24th level 

given to the dipper-arm by its engine. At the same time Material iron ore iron ore 

another engine winds the cable onto the drum, which. ^ ize ° J . d , ri " 10 by 10 it. 10 by 10 it. 

' ■ Time of test 7 months 3 months 

acting as the lever, forces the dipper up through the pile. Total footaee 469 ft. 270 ft. 

. ., .. .... „ ,, Total tonnage 3906 tons 2250 tons 

As soon as the dipper is raised free ot the pile of ma- Monthly footage 67 ft. 90 ft. 

terial, the entire machine is revolved on the turntable 1Ion,h ' y tonna " e 558tonE 750tons 

until the dipper is brought over the top of the car ; then Keystone Excavator 

the bottom of the dipper is tripped, allowing the material The Keystone Driller Co. has for several years nianu- 

to discharge into the car. faetured and placed on the market an excavator usually 

Record of Performance. The Hoar underground used on road work and also in digging cellars and ditches, 
shovel has been introduced in only a few mining districts. The machine consists of an upright boiler and an engine 
The manufacturers have found a ready market in the mounted on a tractor, also a dipper operating on a boom. 
Lake Superior iron-mining district for their entire out- The Federal Lead Co. purchased several of these ma- 
put, and little effort has been made to introduce the chines and remodeled them to be used in its mine at Flat 
machine generally. It is being used in drifts, sub-level- River, Missouri. In order to adapt the Keystone ma- 
ing work, stoping, to clear out sumps, and also on the chine to underground mining, it was necessary to replace 
surface to shovel coal from the coal piles for use in boil- the boiler and engine by an electric motor, 
ere. The cost of operation varies considerably, depend- Operation. The operation of the machine, as adapted 
ing upon conditions, and ranging from 17c. to $1.08 by the Federal Lead Co., is as follows: The operator 
per ton. stands on the main platform where the movements of 

In shoveling the material that was well broken and the dipper can be observed. By levers, the boom can be 

where there was plenty of room, an average of 135 tons lowered and the dipper pulled into the pile of material 

was loaded in 24 hours at a cost of 17.9c. The wages of by a cable operating over the pulley at the end of the 

the attendants were : operator, $5 per day ; helper, $4.75 boom. The boom can be lowered, raised, or swung by 

per day. In another place where the material was wet the second cable. As soon as the dipper is filled, the boom 

and sticky and contained many large lumps, the machine is raised and swung until the dipper is brought immedi- 

loaded over 8500 tons in two months at a cost of $1.08 ately above the car. The bottom is then tripped, allow- 

per ton. The mine manager estimated that to have done ing the material to discharge into the ear. The machine 

the same work by hand would have cost $1.60 per ton. is given stability by two braces on each side of the ma- 

The wages of attendants were: operator $8 and assistants chine at the front. 

$6 per day. In the case of sub-level stoping, the machine Record of Performance, Federal Lead Co. During 

handled more than 1700 tons of material in one month t lie year 1917, in mine No. 12, 48,917 tons of ore was 

at a cost of 65c. per ton. shoveled by the Keystone excavator at a cost of 18.24c. 

Montreal Mine. In the latter part of 1920 a Hoar per ton. In 1919, in mine No. 1, 8313 tons was shoveled 

underground shovel was put in operation at the Montreal at a cost of 19.11c. per ton, and for 1919, in mine No. 12, 

iron mine. At the same time similar work was being 318,819 tons was shoveled at a cost of 16.4c. per ton. In 

carried on by hand, so that it is possible to compare the 1920, 370,373 tons was shoveled at a cost of 19.03c. per 

cost of loading material by shovel and by hand. Com- ton. This makes a total of 746,000 tons of ore shoveled 

parison can be made between the work done on the 23rd by the Keystone shovel at the Federal Lead Co. 's mines, 

and 24th levels. The driving was done in the hanging with an average cost of 17.85c. per ton. The distribution 

wall of both of these levels. The . type of ground was of these costs is as follows : tons of ore per shovel-shift, 

almost the same, and the other conditions were also fairly 126.1 ; supplies and repairs, 2.10c. per ton; maintenance 

equal. The 23rd-level drift was extended, using hand- labor, 12.57c. per ton; power, 1.35c. per ton; total, 17.85c. 

loading alone. The cost for labor was $12 per foot over per ton. 

a period of seven months, and during this time the drift Golden Rod Mine. The Golden Rod Mining Co., at 

was advanced 469 ft., or at the rate of 67 ft. per month. Tar River, Oklahoma, used a f-cu. yd. Keystone shovel 

In the 24th level, east drift, the Hoar underground shovel for loading ore. The shovel was operated for three or 

was used, and the drift was advanced 270 ft. in 3 months, four months in 1918. The boiler was connected up as an 

or at an average of 90 ft. per month. The labor cost air-receiver and the engine was run by compressed air. 

amounted to $6.62 per foot, and the repair and supply The ore was from 30 to 50 ft. high. In this work, the 

cost was $1.24 per foot, making a total of $7.86 per foot, shovel did not prove satisfactory. It was mounted on a 

At the same time the shovel was used to handle material truck and was hard to move around. Tlie main reason 

on the 24th level, west, at a labor cost of $6.21 per foot, for its failure was due to the necessity of emptying the 

and a supply and repair cost of $1.24 per foot, making a dipper into 1000-lb. cans; a large portion of the ma- 

fotal of $7.45. The saving in the east drift of the 24th terial was always spilled and had to be shoveled by hand. 

January 88, 1922 




Tin- need for underground-loading devices led to al 
temps by many mining companies to develop and adapt 
;i drag-scraper to load material. Several designs may be 
gioujx'il under two heads: Blushers and drags. 

Slushkbs. 'Sluslicrs* is t lie name given a slip-scraper 
in the iron regions of Minnesota. The Blip-scraper, after 
being filled with ore, is pulled by a 'Little Tugger' hoist. 
The scraper and cable are light enough so that the Eor 
mer can be pulled back by hand. It is also guided in its 
path by the helper as it is pulled by the hoist. The pull 

on the scraper is straight, but its path may be changed 
slightly by skilled manipulation. 

Drags. 'Drags' are built in sizes to pull from 100 lb. 
to half a ton of material. The power is supplied by a 
hoist, which pulls the drag in a straight line toward it. 
The hoist also operates a tail-rope, which pulls the drag 
back over the pile. The tail-rope works over a pulley. 
which is attached at the end of the stope. By changing 
the position of the pulley the line of the drag can be 

si. i shers n- Olives Mine. 'Slushers' are used in the 
( diver mine to load iron ore into cars, and also in chutes 
in sub-level Stoping. The 'Little Tugger' hoist is mounted 
on an upright or horizontal bar that is hack in the drift : 
quarter-inch extra-flexible tiller-rope is used to pull the 
scraper. Two men are required to operate the scraper 
and load the cars; one man operates the hoist and the 
other loads the scraper. The scraper is pushed into the 
pile by hand and pulled by the 'Little Tugger' hoist. In 
this way the scraper is filled. It is guided along its path 
and up the platform by a miner who dumps it into the 

Most of the scrapers of this type in use have a solid 
yoke for a bridle, consequently the scraper can penetrate 
only a certain distance into the pile. This is beneficial in 
a pile containing large pieces of rock, but it is not ad- 
visable with fine dirt. The bridle can be made flexible 
by attaching it to the side of the scraper and near the 
handle ; this makes it possible for the person operating 
the scraper to dig deeply into the pile and so obtain a 
maximum load of material. 

In top-slicing work by the Oliver Iron Mining Co.. in 
Minnesota, the material is dragged into a chute. By the 
use of the scrapers in stopes, the company accomplishes 
more than twice the work with the same number of men. 
This, of course, is an item, but the main advantage of 
the scraper is the speed with which the work is accom- 

Junction Mine. A drag has been in operation at the 
Junction mine of the Calumet & Arizona Mining Co. for 
many years. The ore is broken down upon the floor, 
which is inclined in the direction of the movement of the 
ore. At the Junction mine the ore occurs in lenses in 
limestone. Most of the ore is mined by the cut-and-fill 
method. Cuts are run on an inclination and the ore 
usually runs to the chutes without shoveling. The drag 
is used for pulling the ore where the floor is too flat for 

it to run. A 'Little Tugger' hoist with endless cable op- 
erates the drag both ways. 

0. M. Bn.ii \nz Mining Co. The (). M. Bilharz com- 
pany, at Miami, Oklahoma, lias developed a scraper al 
the Shorthorn mine that is efficient; by so doing it has 

lowered the loading costs. This has been done in spite of 
the fact that the Joplin miners have a record for shovel- 
ing efficiency that is considered marvelous in most mining 

-\t the Shorthorn mine several drags are being used 
to load ore into the cans. A hoist is set up on a plat- 
form. There is an incline from the platform to the floor 
of the stope. In front of the hoist is a hole a little 
smaller than the opening in the can. The truck carrying 
the can is run underneath the platform, there being a 
clearance of several inches between the bottom of the 
platform and the can. The drag brings a load of ma- 
terial up the incline upon the platform, discharging it 
into the can through the opening. The hoist is then re- 
versed, the drag is pulled back, and the operation is re- 
peated. In this mine the ore is being dragged as far as 
200 It. — an unusual distance. A cable is stretched across 
the far end of the stope, and a block is arranged on the 
cable so that by changing the position of the block the 
path of the scraper can be changed from one side of the 
stope to the other. The manager states that the cost of 
loading the ore with a drag is 16e. per ton. 

Ohiomo Mining Co. The Ohiomo Mining Co. has a 
drag system for loading ore at its mine at Picher. Okla- 
homa, which appears to be successful. Almost all the 
ore hoisted is loaded by means of six drags. The mine is 
a new one, with an orebody about 30 ft. thick. In open- 
ing a working place a drift is run in the bottom of the 
ore from the shaft to a desired point, a raise is put up to 
the top of the ore. and a hopper is built. A cut is then 
started along the top of the orebody; when the broken 
material will no longer run into the hopper, the drag is 

An electric hoist is installed on the platform over the 
chute; the two drums being driven by a 5Wip. motor in 
opposite directions and from the same gear-wheel; a 
half -inch steel cable is run through a sheave-wheel at the 
face of the stope, each end being wound on a drum. The 
sheave-wheel is mounted on a traveler, which can be 
moved from side to side along a cable anchored across 
the face of the chamber. The steel drag is heavy enough 
to dig into the broken ore and fill itself. The hoist pulls 
the loaded drag until the ore is discharged into the hop- 
per. The hoist is then reversed and the operation is 
repeated. The hoist is operated by one man, who also 
breaks boulders. The cable at the face has to be moved 
forward every time the heading is extended. One man 
by this method has loaded as many as 266 cans in eight 
hours. The output is generally limited to the amount of 
ore broken. One man can drag ore faster than four ma- 
chine-drillers can break it. 

Quincy Mine. The Quincy Mining Co., at Hancock. 
Michigan, first started to use drag-line scrapers in its 
drifts and stopes in the fall of 1915. The orebody is 6 



January 28, 1922 

to 10 ft. wide and dips about 36°. At first the company 
had difficulty in getting a hoist that would be light 
enough, small enough, and, at the same time, strong 
enough to handle a drag-line scraper of sufficient size to 
be economical. To solve this problem, a specially-de- 
signed scraper-hoist was manufactured for it by the 
Lake Shore Engine Works, at Marquette, Michigan. It 
is a small compressed-air hoist with two 6 by 9-in. cylin- 
ders. It has a double drum, 14 in. diameter, and will 
maintain a rope speed of 300 ft. per minute. At first a 
scraper was designed with heavy rugged teeth, but later, 
the teeth were replaced by a steel shoe, because the large 
rocks pulled out the teeth. A scraper was then designed 
which was 30 in. wide and had a curved shape somewhat 
similar to a hoe. This scraper was used both in stoping 
and drifting operations. Later it was replaced by a 
scraper 40 in. wide. The great advantage of using 
scrapers at the Quincy mine was that they could advance 
50% faster than was possible when doing the work by 
hand. There was also a reduction in cost. 

Mohawk Mine. The Mohawk Mining Co., at Mohawk. 
Michigan, has seven drag-line scrapers. Six of them 
have hoists with two 6 by 6-in. cylinders and 12-in. 
drums, and the seventh has two 8 by 8-in. cylinders, with 
a 20-in. drum. A rope-speed of about 222 ft. per minute 
is maintained. The scrapers are the same as those used 
by the Quincy Mining Co. The wages of the men range 
from $3.60 to $4 per day ; the company loaded 8000 tons 
in three months at a cost of 17fc. per ton. 

Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. The Calumet & Hecla 
Mining Co., at Calumet, Michigan, tried drag-line scrap- 
ers in the fall of 1920. The scraper was patterned after 
the scrapers used in the Missouri zinc-fields, differing 
slightly in size, shape, and method of operation. The 
scraper weighs complete about 600 lb. It takes from 4 
to 8 scraper-loads to fill a 50-cu. ft. car. The hoist was 
designed for a rope-speed of 300 ft. per minute, dragging 
a scraper with a load of 1800 lb. The company had on 
hand a number of small hoists, known as 'Tamarack' 
hoists, that were originally used in its rope-haulage sys- 
tem. These hoists had two 6 by 6-in. upright cylinders, 
driving two 8-in. drums on a 4-in. shaft by friction- 
clutches. It was soon found that the friction-clutch would 
not handle the load, and that the 8-in. drum would not 
give the required rope-speed of 300 ft. per minute. Fric- 
tion-clutches were abandoned, an'd later the hoists were 
equipped with gear-clutches and 10 or 12-in. drums. 
Under exceptionally favorable circumstances, two men 
have loaded and trammed to the motor drift 93 tons in 
one shift. The cost of labor varied from $3.60 to $4.10 
per shift. The cost of loading material from this scraper 
varies from 10 to 24c. per ton. 

The study of underground loading devices is being con- 
tinued by K. Baumgarten, mining engineer, who is con- 
nected with the St. Louis Station of the U. S. Bureau of 

In view of the project to re-open the old copper mines 
in the mainland of the Shetland Islands, a recent report 

by Dr. J. S. Flett, director of the Geological Survey for 
Scotland, is of timely interest, states ' The Mining Maga- 
zine'. The deposits are found in the Old Bed Sandstone 
of the Devonian Age, and extend from Bovey Head, 
north of Lerwick, along the eastern side to the extreme 
south of the mainland. Pyrite and chalcopyrite have 
been worked for copper at several places; the most im- 
portant deposit is at Sandlodge, 14 miles south of Ler- 
wick, where the main lode, consisting largely of siderite, 
is 9 or 10 ft. wide. This deposit was first worked at the 
end of the 18th century, but active development was not 
undertaken until 1872. and during the period 1872-1880 
about 10.000 tons of iron and copper ore was raised. In 
1880 the yield was 1995 tons of ore, valued at £5814, and 
396 tons of iron ore, valued at £344. Copper pyrite is 
known to exist at a number of other places, but Dr. Flett 
does not regard successful exploitation as at all profit- 
able. At the Sandlodge min there is a possibility of 
success if modern methods of mining and dressing be 

A State-controlled platinum trust has been organ- 
ized by the soviet government, which will have charge of 
all the platinum prospecting and mining business in 
Siberia, as well as the platinum smelting and refining 
works near Petrograd, Moscow, and Ekaterinburg, states 
a consular report. This trust will act as the central sales 
agency for both foreign and domestic trade, and will 
thus be in a position to regulate the prices of platinum 
in the international market. The following statistics 
have been compiled from reports, published from time to 
time in the official soviet publication 'Economic Life', 
covering the production for 1921 up to August : 


Poods pounds Zolotniks Dolias 

January to April 31 -3 76 

May 1 6 S5 48 

June 4 14 62 S 

July 2 .". 11 

August 3 1 41 S4 

Total 11 19 32 24 

Note: One pood is equivalent to 40 Russian pounds: a Russian pound — 

96 zolotniks: a zolotnik = 96 dolias. One Russian pood = 526.6637 troy 

ounces; 1 Russian pound = 13.1666 troy ounces. 

The above total is thus equal to 6047.8 oz. The annual 
average production for five years prior to 1914 was 172.- 
000 oz. After the beginning of the "War the output of 
Bussia's platinum mines showed a steady decline, pro- 
duction coming to a complete standstill about the middle 
of 1918. Production in 1914 amounted to 157,000 oz. ; 
in 1915, to 108,000 oz. ; in 1916, to 79,000 oz. ; in 1917, to 
98,000 oz. ; and for the first six months of 1918 it reached 
only 13,000 oz. The United States consumes ordinarily 
about one-half of the world's platinum production; of 
this output Bussia, in normal years, furnished more than 
90%. It is now an important element in the manufac- 
ture of sulphuric and nitric acid, electric furnaces, con- 
tacts for telephone, telegraph, and wireless systems, aero- 
plane engines, scientific and surgical instruments, etc. 
The dental industry and chemical laboratories also re- 
quire a large amount of platinum, and lately a strong de- 
mand has developed in the manufacture of jewelry. 

January 28, 1922 




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The North-West .Mining Association recently passed a 
resolution in support of the proposal to secure a reciprocal 
agreement between Canada and the I'nited States, providing 
that lead bullion derived from ores shipped across the inter- 
national line, either way, may be returned free of duty to 
the country of origin. It was maintained that such agree- 
ment would not In any way interfere with the lead schedules 
provided for in the Fordney tariff bill now before Congress 
and by which import duties of 2ic. per pound upon lead 
bullion and lie. per pound upon lead in ore of foreign origin 
are provided. The adoption of such reciprocal agreement 
with Canada would provide alternative smelting outlets for 
ore from districts adjacent to the international line in 
British Columbia and Washington, thus promising more un- 
interrupted development and greater prosperity in both. 


At the recently held annual meeting of the British Co- 
lumbia's Prospectors' Protective Association, officers were 
elected as follows: honorary president, Hon. Wm. Sloan; 
president, J. W. Mulholland; vice-president, J. C. Riley; 
secretary, F. A. Starkey; treasurer, R. J. Elliott; executive 
committee, W. W. Moore, J. Rodway, and J. P. Sherran. An 
outline of the achivements of the association during 1920 
was given by Mr. Mulholland, after which it was decided to 
urge the Dominion government to establish a plant for the 
experimental treatment of the complex ores of the Kootenay, 
and to petition the Provincial government to take over the 
Granite Poorman mill, or some similar plant, and operate it 
for the benefit of small property owners, giving advance pay- 
ments on shipments in order that development might pro- 
ceed. It was pointed out in this connection that there are 
in eastern British Columbia a large number of properties 
that could be operated on such a basis. 


Secretary of Commerce Hoover, as chairman of the Colo- 
rado River Interstate Commission, has outlined the policy 
he will advise and pursue for the promotion of the Boulder 
Dam project and the reclamation of arid land. 

Secretary Hoover has informed Congressman Swing that 
the Colorado River Commission should supervise construc- 
tion; he is convinced that the work should be done by the 
Government. He intimated that there might be three 
agencies in the construction machinery, the Colorado River 
Commission to have general supervisory powers, recommend- 
ing successive steps in the improvement of the river, which 
would eventually result in its complete utilization, actual 
construction to be done by the U. S. Reclamation Service. It 
is possible that an advisory board of engineers will be 
selected by the commission to pass upon proposed plans and 
to give their expert advice. Delay in the approval of the 
Davis report on a general survey of the Colorado River 
reclamation project has caused attendant delay in actual 
framing of the bill to be submitted to Congress for govern- 
mental action. Congressman Swing protested to Secretary 

Hoover against the report that Davis considered "the States 
of Arizona and Nevada, in which this great reservoir site 
lies, should each be granted a block of free power per- 
petually in lieu of the taxes that would be collected upon the 
property if it were erected by private enterprise". Con- 
gressman Swing considers the two States entitled to no such 
special privilege. 


Conditions in Mexico are slightly improved, although the 
industrial depression continues and unemployment is in- 
creasing slightly, according to a report received by the 
United States Department of Commerce. The banking situa- 
tion is not much better, with difficult collections and gold 
hoarding on the increase. The bank interest averages 1S%, 
loan money is tight; gold is easier at 488. The gold stock 
is estimated at 1*100,000,000, of which 1*45.000,000 is in 
banks, 1*30,000,000 is circulating, and 1*25,000,000 is 

Little change is noted in foreign trade, but freight con- 
gestion at ports and on railways has been alleviated, conse- 
quently the roads are looking for business. Freight-rates 
on imports entering through Juarez have been reduced from 
15 to 40%. November oil production was valued at ap- 
proximately 1*4,500,000. 


During 1921, Nipissing produced approximately 3,097,000 
oz. silver, an increase of 286,000 oz. over the 1920 produc- 
tion, and comparing with 3,080,069 oz. in 1919. Last 
year's output was the largest since 1918, when 4,116.000 
oz. was produced. As showing the extent to which pro- 
duction was increased during the last quarter of 1921 in 
order to take advantage of the higher silver prices, it is 
interesting to note that October, November, and December 
accounted for 1,065,000 oz., or 34% of the entire year's 
production. Last April, Nipissing reduced its dividend from 
5% to 3%, due to low silver prices and high labor costs. 
At that time silver was about 571c. per ounce, since which 
time there has been a substantial advance, culminating in 
the high prices of last October. The net value of silver to 
Nipissing in May was 58Jc. per ounce. By August it had 
increased to 65c, thence to 70c. in September. The Novem- 
ber average was down to 66Jc, whereas that for December 
was lower still. The estimated value of ore produced by 
Nipissing last year was $2,184,467. comparing with $2,550.- 
000 in 1920, $3,117,000 in 1919, and $3,544,000 in 1918. 


Over 200.000,000 lb. of American copper was shipped to 
Germany during 1921, an amount far exceeding the exports 
to any other country and an amount representing more than 
33% of the outward-bound shipments. The business repre- 
sented cash payments of more than $30,000,000, states the 
•Boston News Bureau'. 

Total copper exports for the first 11 months of 1921 were 
566,928.506 lb., against 581,885,109 lb. in 1920 and 476,- 
322,109 lb. two years ago. France and England have fallen 
far behind their records of the years immediately preceding. 
Japanese buying during the past year was not up to that of 



January 28, 1922 

19i9. Eleven months' consignments were 47,410,544 lb., 
in comparison with 82,913,730 lb. in 1920 and 62,803,603 
lb. in 1919. 


At the annual meeting of the El Oro Mining & Railway 
Co., recently held in London, R. T. Bayliss, the chairman, 
said: "For the year ending June 30, 1921, we earned from 
all sources, and before deduction for taxation, a profit of 
£221,311. The amount we had to deduct therefrom for pay- 
ment of taxes in Mexico, and the provision it was necessary 
to make for income and corporation profits tax in England 
on what was left amounted together to £146,927, repre- 
senting slightiy oyer 66% of the total profit earned. This 
leaves us with a net profit for the period of £74,383 3s. 6d., 
as shown in the balance-sheet. For companies such as ours, 
operating abroad and domiciled in England, this burden of 
double taxation is very severe; and if it is to continue, as I 
fear it must, the whole question will furnish cause for care- 
ful consideration as to whether we should not remove the 
company beyond the jurisdiction of the income-tax authori- 

American Cyanamid Co. at 23Jc. per pound as against 28}c. 
asked by the Roessler company. He estimated that the 
gold industry of the United States in 1920 saved $100,000 
by purchasing from the American Cyanamid Company. 


Opposition to import duties, on cyanide salts, mixtures, 
and compounds, of 33 J % ad valorem or 7c. per pound was 
made by the Homestake Mining Co., of Lead, South Dakota, 
supported by Senator Sterling of that State and also by the 
American Cyanamid Co. of New York. Opposition was 
based on the fact that such a levy would increase the price 
of these products, which are used in extracting gold and 
silver from ore. 

The hearing before the Senate Finance Committee was 
marked by charges that mining interests had been depend- 
ent on a monopoly held by the Roessler company. Senator 
Sterling charged that the company exercised a monopoly, 
and opposed the duty on the ground that American mining 
interests had contracted for cyanide with American pro- 
ducers in Canada. He read a letter from A. L. Alberson, a 
metallurgist, to the effect that German producers referred 
American purchasers to the Roessler company. Senator 
Sterling charged that there was an agreement between the 
Roessler company and German and English manufacturers 
to control the market. The Homestake company was mak- 
ing 900% profit per year, the gold-mining industry was in a 
condition of collapse. It gave a chart showing the decline 
in gold production from 1907 to to 1920, and stated that 
40% of gold-mine operations in this country had suspended 
during the last few years; and that gold mining in the 
Black Hills of South Dakota was in a state of disintegra- 
tion, not because the mines are becoming exhausted but be- 
cause the gold does not have sufficient value to pay the cost 
of production. It was said the increased cost of gold pro- 
duction was largely due to the cost of materials in such 
production, chief among which were cyanide compounds. 
It said the duty would add 1.6c. per ton to gold-mining 
costs, or $25,000 per year to the Homestake company. The 
company says cyanide prices paid the Roessler company in- 
creased from 14*c. per pound in 1914 to 30c. per pound in 
1918, with a reduction to 21Jc. per pound in 1920, but an 
increase to 24Jc.'per pound in 1921. The Homestake com- 
pany refused the Roessler products in 1921, purchasing 
from the American Cyanamid Co. at a lower rate. The 
company said it consumed annually 175 tons or 350,000 lb. 
of sodium cyanide. The representative of the Homestake 
company spoke at length of the value of cyanide in mining. 
Until 1917, when the American Cyanamid Co. undertook 
production of cyanide, the mining industry was at the mercy 
of a foreign corporation. He said, in 19 21 the Nevada 
Mine Operators' Association purchased cyanide from the 


Imports of gold during December were the lowest for any 
month during the past year, aggregating $32,000,000, as 
compared with $51,000,000 in November and $45,000,000 
in December 1920, and exports during the month aggre- 
gated $2,000,000 as compared with $606,000 in November 
and $17,000,000 in December 1920, according to the De- 
partment of Commerce. 

Imports of silver in 1921 totaled $63,000,000, compared 
with $88,000,000 in 1920, and exports of the white metal 
amounted to $52,000,000, against $114,000,000. During 
December silver imports aggregated $6,000,000, as com- 
pared with $7,000,000 in November and $5,000,000 in De- 
cember 1920, and exports totaled $8,000,000, as compared 
with $5,000,000 in November and $6,000,000 in December 


Surplus stocks of zinc in this country were further re- 
duced in December. Total production amounted to 22,013 
tons; shipments totaled 22,454 tons, a reduction in surplus 
of 441 tons. On December 1 surplus stocks stood at 67,049 
tons, and on the first of the current month they amounted 
to 66,080 tons. On July 1 of last year surplus stocks 
amounted to 89,062 tons, the largest tonnage of metal on 
hand at any one time in the history of the industry. In six 
months, therefore, there has been a reduction of virtually 
25,000 tons. 

The improvement in the zinc situation is all the more 
noteworthy when it is remembered that, for the first eight or 
nine months of this year, production averaged between 
14,000 and 15,000 tons monthly. Production in the last 
few months of 1921 had increased 50%, yet at the same 
time surplus stocks were reduced over 30% from their high 


The directors of the New Cornelia Copper Co. have de- 
clared a dividend of 25 cents per share, payable on February 
20, to stockholders of record February 3. The last dividend 
paid was 25c. in July 1920. At the close of that year the 
company had copper on hand valued at over $4,500,000, at 
12ic. per pound. This surplus has doubtless been liquidated 
during the past year so that the company is now in a strong 
cash position. The company has a total of 1,800,000 shares 
outstanding of $5 par value, of which Calumet & Arizona 
owns nearly 70%. The company last year produced 21,- 
150,000 lb. of copper. Although commercial production was 
suspended on April 1 in unison with other leading mines, 
the company had to keep a small but steady flow of copper 
through its reduction works in order to preserve them in 
good condition. A considerable amount of New Cornelia's 
1921 production was sold, but the company still has enough 
copper on hand to get the benefit of any rising quotations 
during the next few weeks. 

Exclusive of unsold metal net quick assets at the close of 
last year were $4,S00,000. New Cornelia can resume maxi- 
mum operations quickly. It can double its current produc- 
tion of 21,000,000 lb. per year. The company has demon- 
strated that it can produce copper as cheaply as can the 
other leading mines of the country. 


Globe. — The first United States patent to asbestos claims 
to be recorded in Gila county has been filed by the Arizona 
Asbestos Association. Twenty-one claims were patented. 

January 88, 1922 



The Arizona Asbestos Clearing House has been organ- 
ized with headquarters at Globe, to handle the minor as- 
bestos production of the district; It will be under the man- 
agement of experienced asbestos men, and it Is the intention 
of the concern to serve the smaller claim-owners by pur- 
chasing small shipments. The asbestos so purchased will 
be graded and sold In the Eastern markets. 

Kingman. — It Is announced that the McCracken mine. 36 
miles south-east of Yucca, has been taken over from F. A. 
Garbutt by L. D. Adams. The purchase price Is said to be 
about half a million dollars. The property will be operated 
by L. D. Adams and J. C. Bucher, who represent a Canadian 
corporation. The new company proposes to equip the mine 
immediately for a production of 150 tons per day. The 
McCracken mine was discovered in 1S74 and has produced 

over $4,000,000 in silver from the upper workings. It is 

reported that a strike of high-grade ore running 250 oz. 
silver has been made on the level 30 ft. above the tunnel of 
the Dean mine. The ore at this point is said to be 54 in. 
wide and was opened to the west of a fault through which a 
drift had been carried for a distance of 30 ft., the ore being 
found in a short cross-cut. The mill is operating steadily; 
80 tons of high-grade silver concentrate is being shipped to 
the smelter each month. It is expected that the addition 
now being made to the mill will bring the capacity up to 
150 tons per day. 

Miami. — J. Carolan, M. McAuliffe. and associates have 
honded their Spring Creek properties in Pleasant valley, 75 
miles north of Globe, to Denver interests. The purchase 

price is said to be $125,000. It is announced that the 

Cactus mine is to be opened in the near future and a large 
force of men are to be engaged. It is understood that G. H. 
Drummond of the Superior & Boston, who represent in- 
terests in control of the Cactus, will have charge of opera- 
tions. The mine, which is on Pinto creek a few miles west 
of Miami, has been closed-down for 12 years. 


Blackhawk. — Smelter returns on a carload shipment to 
the Arkansas Valley smelter. Leadville, by the Silver Moun- 
tain Mining Co.. showed $5.89 gold, $56.07 silver, $3.52 
lead, a total of $65.48 per ton. The net return was 
$1012.44. A new stope has been started at 260 ft., on the 
Black Jack vein, and 20 tons was sent to the Leadville 

Creede. — Road conditions are delaying shipments, but 
three leased properties were shipping last week. The Ethel 
lease on the Solomon group shipped a carload to the Arkan- 
sas Valley smelter, Leadville; Morgan and Sloan, of the 
New York property, sent a car of high-grade ore to the 
Durango smelter. 

Cripple Creek. — The Cresson continues to make large 
shipments of ore averaging between $12 and $15 per ton. 

A new company, the Cripple Creek Gold Bond Mining 

Co., organized to take over the holdings of the Gold Bond 
Consolidated company's holdings, has commenced opera- 
tions and has shipped two carloads of ore from a clean-up 
of the old workings. One car netted $11.80, the second 

car $32.75 per ton. Gold ore, sampling from 2 to 16 oz. 

per ton, has been opened up in a 3-ft. vein at the 300-ft. 
level of the Dig Gold Mining Co.'s property on the southern 
slope of Gold hill. The property is operated by the Dig Gold 
Leasing Co., composed of stockholders of the owning cor- 

Ouray. — Machinery and equipment has been purchased in 
California for the Welch-Worland Mines Syndicate, operat- 
ing the property formerly owned by the Wanakah Mining 
Co. Tests on the ores are being conducted. Ore is being 
held in reserve until the mill is ready to resume treatment. 
The Chipeta M. M. & S. Co. continues development of 

the H. A. C. mine. Drifting Is In progress, and a long cross- 
cut will prospect virgin territory. Lessees on the upper 

workings of the Guadaloupe are in receipt of $1000 from a 
carload shipment. Another shipment goes forward this 

Sllverton. — A syndicate, headed by State Senator John H. 
Slattery, has taken a long-time lease on the Mayflower; new 
machinery is being installed. A former lease in which 
Senator Slattery was interested Is reported to have netted 

the operators in excess of $300,000. The Melville Mining 

& Leasing Co. has been organized locally to take over the 

Smuggler-Union Mill, Telluride, Colorado 

properties of the Iowa-Tiger Mining & Milling Co., succeed- 
ing the South-Western Leasing Co. The new company will 
operate both mine and mill. 


Kellogg. — Five feet of carbonate ore, principally lead 
oxide, has been uncovered in the drift on the 300-ft. level 
of the Lookout mountain property, situated near Kellogg. 
This marks the third consecutive shoot of ore found on this 
level. The drift has passed through 68 ft. of ore, averaging 
better than 6 ft. wide, and has now entered a second shoot 
of oxides. Cross-cuts on the vein at this point have been 
extended 34 ft. without reaching either wall. The ore ex- 
posed contains 50% lead and 40 oz. silver. The property 
shows a large tonnage of commercial ore. available for 
shipment to the Bunker Hill smelter; as soon as a 2000-ft. 
tramway can be built shipments will start. The company 



January 28, 1922 

has withdrawn the sale of treasury stock from the market 
and will finance further development work from ore ship- 
ments. Ore shipments to the smelter will be made by auto- 
truck, a distance of eight miles. 

The Star Mining Co. has distributed a dividend of $250,- 
000 in accordance with a declaration recently made. The 
disbursement was at the rate of 2 5c. per share. The prop- 
erty of the Star company has passed into the possession of 
the Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concentrating Co., 
who sold a half interest to the Hecla Mining Co. A tunnel 
8000 ft. long is being driven from a deep horizon of the 
Hecla to the Star. 

According to M. H. Sullivan, general manager of the 
Bunker Hill smelter at Kellogg, in future the smelter will 
be able to refund the duty of Je. per pound to Canadian 
shippers, which hitherto has been held out of settlements. 
On ore containing 50% lead this will be an increase of 
$7.50 per ton in the returns they will get from the smelter. 
Another furnace was blown-in several weeks ago, now mak- 
ing two in operation. A customs inspector of Eastport has 
been overseeing the weighing and sealing of 200 tons of 
lead at the Bunker Hill smelter which was derived from 
British Columbia ore and shipped to Kellogg in bond. The 
lead has been shipped to Portland, where it will be loaded 
for transportation to France. 

Three shifts daily are now employed at the Sunshine Min- 
ing Co. on Big creek, in the Coeur d'Alene. After being 
closed two months operations were resumed. This is one of 
the newest mining ventures in the Coeur d'Alene to be 
brought to a successful consummation. The company was 
organized a year ago by E. C. Tousley, a Spokane mining 

The Boulder Creek Mining Co., in which John Peter and 
Thomas King of Sandpoint are large shareholders, has pur- 
chased machinery for the erection of a mill on its property 
20 miles north of Sandpoint on Boulder creek. The com- 
pany has driven a tunnel, now 130 ft., on a vein which has 
increased from 3 to 6 ft. in width in the last few months. A 
recent assay of this ore went $48 per ton. Machinery will 
be installed as soon as weather permits. All development 
work has been done by the owners and no stock is for sale. 


Houghton. — Calumet & Hecla and subsidiaries, Isle Roy- 
ale, Ahmeek, and Allouez will resume production on April 1. 
The majority of the men being taken on are timbermen, for 
the major part of the work preliminary to re-opening con- 
sists of repairing shafts. More work will have to be done in 
the conglomerate zones of Calumet & Hecla than in the 
amygdaloid zones, because the earth movement has occurred 
there. "A few of the hoists on the conglomerate zone are 
being placed in commission, and more will be employed as 
the work of timbering extends to other shafts. Timbering 
is now in progress in No. 2, 4, 5, and 6, Calumet branch, 
6 and 7, Hecla branch, and in the* Red Jacket shaft; the 
hoists at these shafts are in commission. All hoists on the 
conglomerate zone are in good condition; during the period 
of idleness they were turned over each week to ensure 
against defects from lack of use. The Osceola-lode hoists 
were the only ones dismantled. The Calumet & Hecla 
plant, which in 1920 produced over 1,000,000 lb. of refined 
copper per month, will not be re-opened on April 1. On a 
return of normal conditions, work on the proposed reclama- 
tion plant on the Tamarack conglomerate sands probably 
will be undertaken next summer. No date has yet been 
considered for the re-opening of the Osceola and Centennial 

Copper Range continues to take on men at its three mines, 
principally at Champion. The program of mining and open- 
ing work has been increased at both the Champion and Bal- 
tic; developments in Champion are satisfactory. Sinking 

and drifting are under way in both of these mines; a pro- 
gram of development continues at Trimountain. Champion 
is opening good ground, averaging 39 lb. of refined copper 
per ton; Trimountain holds its improvement, and is averag- 
ing 30 lb. per ton. Baltic ground is running about 34 lb. 
Champion production now is 80% of normal, Trimountain 
65%, and Baltic S0%. Copper Range metal sales have not 
kept pace with production, and the company now has be- 
tween 8,000,000 and 9,000,000 lb. copper on hand, equal to 
about three months' production. 

At Mohawk, sinking is in progress in No. 1, 4, and 6 
shafts, in addition to drifting. The property continues to 
work to the capacity of its milling facilities, shipping about 
2 600 tons per day. Mohawk is in position to benefit con- 
siderably by an increase in the price of copper, for its force 
has been normal for upward of a year and the small labor- 
turnover has made for efficiency. The vein in the lower 
levels is not being mined for the full width. This will 
permit a return to the older workings in years to come. 

Work in the Seneca property is continuing. The con- 
struction of a new hoisting-plant and boiler-house, the in- 
stallation of the new hoist and the extension of the Mineral 
Range railroad to the shaft are yet to be undertaken; so it 
will be late spring before it will be possible to resume sink- 
ing. The third-level drift from Seneca toward the Gratiot 
property is now in over 2000 ft., with approximately 1500 
ft. more to go. There is good milling ground for almost 
the entire length of this drift; the fourth-, fifth-, and sixth- 
level drifts toward Gratiot are well mineralized. The sev- 
enth or bottom level is in good ground both north and south, 
the vein showing uniformity in copper content with depth. 

Six furnaces are in operation at the Calumet & Hecla 
smelter. Cupola blocks constitute about the only material 
left to refine, although it is believed there is enough of these, 
and cathodes from the electrolytic plant, to keep several 
furnaces in commission until the mines re-open. 


Carthage. — A total of 3S1.000 tons of lead and zinc ore 
was produced in the Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma field in 
1921, the lowest tonnage production since 1915 and the 
lowest valuation since 1903, the price received for the 1921 
ore being $10,749,427. In 1903 the total value was $9,471,- 
390. The total output of zinc ore was 313,002 tons, the 
lowest since 1914 when it was 309,538. The value of the 
1921 zinc ore was $7,199,949, the lowest in 20 years. In 
1901 the zinc ore produced in the district brought $6,353,- 
950. The lead-ore production was 68,006 tons, valued at 
$4,289,838, which has been exceeded in only two years in 
the history of the field — 1919 and 1920 — and exceeded in 
value only by the annual production of each of the last five 
years. Low prices were responsible for the slump in pro- 
duction, a big portion of the mines being forced to shut- 
down. Recently ore prices have been improved and more 
mines have opened up, with indications of continued in- 
creased production. 

Oronogo.^Plans are being laid to open the Oronogo 
Circle mine in this city, and two 10-hr. shifts will be main- 
tained. This is the largest mine in the Tri-State district 
and represents a valuation investment of more than a mil- 
lion dollars. It is owned by the Connecticut Lead & Zinc 
Co. and will be under the management of A. J. Burnham. 
The plant has a capacity of 3000 tons per 24 hours, and 
when working full time employs 75 men. The mine has 
been closed since last October and the management has had a 
force of men employed doing the preliminary work necessary 
to get the shaft repaired. One of the jobs was to shoot away 
large pillars underground, thus letting down surface soil 
that had been previously removed to a point where it could 
be dragged to the big shafts. Seven electric drags are to be 

January 88, \:>'2-2 



used and underground crushers have been put In place to 
reduce all rock to a size that can be handled on belt-con- 
uhich tarry it from the hoppers to the mill, Into 
which It Is automatically dumped. The surface ore from 
about 11 acres of the ground was scraped back by the com- 
pany some time ago. preparatory to shooting the under- 
ground pillars and dropping the mass to where It could be 
handled. In the walls of the cave, pockets and veins of lead 
ore arc found. While the mill has not been In operation the 
company has permitted prospectors to take ore from the 
ground at a 33! r ; royalty. The cave has proved a rich 
field for 'gougers', who have searched the walls by paths 
along the ledges and by lowering wires or ladders to points 
they could not reach otherwise. These miners use nothing 
but a pick and buckets. In the more accessible places, hand- 
jies are used. One side of the cave is honey-combed with 
dug-outs and entrances to prospects. 


Ely. — The Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. plans to re- 
sume operations in the Ely district within a few weeks, ac- 
cording to advices received. It is reported that the com- 
pany will operate at about 60 % of its normal capacity and 
devote particular attention to the deposits opened several 
months ago in the Ruth mine, and the copper pits on the 
main deposit. All surplus copper at the McGill smelter was 
shipped last year and the plant is in readiness to go into 

Eureka County. — As reported by F. T. M. Torpey, its 
president, the Eureka-Uncle Sam Mining Co. has closed the 
purchase of two mining claims — the Hamburg and Southern 
Pacific, situated south of New York canyon and adjoining 
the Uncle Sam south end-line. The Hamburg mine, at one 
time extensively prospected, has been idle for about 27 
years. William P. Dewey, of San Francisco, once a promi- 
nent adventurer in the mines of Eureka district, was the 
leading spirit in the Hamburg company, and at his death 
was succeeded by his son, Eugene P. Dewey. The addition 
of the Hamburg to the Uncle Sam property will extend min- 
ing and milling operations for many years. A great deal of 
exploratory work has been done, resulting in the develop- 
ment of a considerable tonnage of ore, some of it assaying 
high in gold and silver. If the plans for development along 
the Uncle Sam adit-level materialize, the cost of mining will 
be 50% lower than it was in the early days of development. 
The Southern Pacific claim, which parallels the Hamburg, 
was located to provide a place for a shaft that would reach 
the ore-bearing limestone on its dip eastward. The shaft 
was down 250 ft. before it entered the limestone zone and 
is now 860 ft. deep. The timbers to the 250-ft. level have 
been crushed, so nothing will be done with the shaft at pres- 
ent. The Hamburg company opened up levels at the re- 
spective depths of 250, 450, 600, and 800 ft., with the inten- 
tion of going down to a depth of at least 1000 ft., but on 
account of the descending price of silver and lead, the mine 
became unprofitable to work, and was closed down. Much 
of the ore left in sight contains either little or no lead and 
is believed to be amenable to cyanidation; the products of 
the Uncle Sam and Hamburg mines will be treated event- 
ually in a combination mill, of 200 tons daily capacity. The 
Uncle Sam adit enters its portal near the head of New York 
canyon, and has been driven about 900 ft. It therefore must 
be driven about 500 or 600 ft. farther to the north end- 
line of the Hamburg and 400 to 500 ft. farther to the Ham- 
burg shaft, which it will tap at a depth of about 400 ft. It 
is understood that the Uncle Sam company anticipates work- 
ing through the Hamburg shaft up to the 300-ft. level, and 
will then proceed with exploitation. The company will not 
begin building a mill until next May or June. The equip- 

ment at present Includes a Chicago Pneumatic 4 -drill air- 
compressor, and Clipper drills made by the Denver Hock 
Drill Company. 

Minn. — The new mill of the Simon Silver-Lead Co. is a 
success, having been operating daily on three 8-hour shifts 
since December 24. wilh the following results: The silver- 
lead concentrate assays average 35 oz. silver and 50% lead, 
and carries about 8% zinc, making a recovery of over 80% 
of the lead and silver in the form of lead concentrate. The 
zinc concentrate averages 42% zinc, 6% lead, and 5 oz. 
silver, a recovery of 62% of the zinc, thus making a total 
recovery of about 90% of the silver and lead. It is ex- 
pected to recover most of the silver and lead in the zinc 
concentrate at the company's smelter at Harbor City. Cali- 
fornia. Eight carloads of silver-lead concentrate are at the 
smelter or en route, and one carload of zinc concentrate is 
at the zinc smelter. Silver-lead concentrate is now being 
produced at the rate of three carloads per week, and about 
the same amount of zinc concentrate. 


Alta. — What is believed to be the downward extension of 
the Rustler orebody has been encountered in a drift from 
the Quincy tunnel level at the South Hecla mine, about 
1200 ft. below the surface, according to George H. Watson, 
president. The old Rustler mine adjoins the South Hecla. 
and its lowest workings are 600 ft. above the drift where the 
ore-shoot has been uncovered. The orebody is about 6 ft. 
wide, and average assays give returns of $1.80 gold, 31 oz. 
silver, and 16% lead, or approximately $47 per ton, gross. 

An interesting showing is being followed in the Price 

mine, in a raise upon a fissure that cuts the main tunnel 
about 750 ft. from the portal. Several streaks of high- 
grade ore, varying from 1 to 6 in. wide, assay as high as 485 
oz. silver and 46% lead. It is believed these ore-stringers 
lead to a favorable lime-bed, a short distance above. 

Eureka. — Official announcement was made on January 14 
that the Grand Central Mining Co. had been acquired by the 
Chief Consolidated Mining Co. Paul Hilsdale obtained an 
option on the Grand Central property three months ago. and 
it has been understood that he was representing the Chief 
Consolidated interests. Cecil Fitch, general manager of the 
Chief, announces that a vigorous development campaign 
will be undertaken, particularly on the lower levels of the 
Grand Central. The Plutus mine, controlled by the Fitch 
interests, adjoins the Grand Central, and it is proposed to 
develop the Plutus from Grand Central workings. About 
100 lessees are now working in the Grand Central, and this 
system will be continued. The Chief Consolidated is driv- 
ing four drifts from the Water Lily shaft, each below the 
water-level. Each of these headings is going forward at the 
rate of 400 ft. per month, and this work is in charge of the 

Walter Fitch Co. Ore shipments for the week ending 

January 14 totaled 152 cars, of which the Tintic Standard 
shipped 59; Chief Consolidated, 37; Victoria, 13; Grand 
Central. 10; Colorado, 8; Eagle & Blue Bell, 7; Dragon, 8; 
Swansea, 4; Iron Blossom, 3; Centennial Eureka, 2; Tintic 
Drain Tunnel, 2; Mammoth, 1; Gemini, 1. Shipments the 
previous week totaled 140 cars. 

Gold Hill. — Operations are to be accelerated at the Carna- 
tion mine, 3 6 miles from here, a small producer of high- 
grade silver-lead ore, according to T. E. Wessel, manager for 
the company, who recently returned from Salt Lake City. 
At present the ore is being hauled to Oasis, on the Salt Lake 
Route, a distance of 8 2 miles, the road to Gold Hill being in 
an impassable condition. A new ore deposit has been dis- 
covered to the south of the shaft, averaging 250 oz. silver 
and from 35 to 40% lead. The ore carries little silica and 
an excess of iron. The ore being mined at present in the 



January 28, 1922 

developed portion of the mine carries from 100 to 400 oz. 
silver. Orebodies found in other properties in that district 
have been irregular in size, but those in the Carnation mine 
are exceptionally regular. The ore is found in shoots from 
2 to 4 ft. wide. 

Park City. — George L. Bemis and George W. Morgan, of 
Salt Lake City, have been elected directors of the New 
Quincy Mining Co., thus increasing the directorate to seven 
members. During the past year, 139 tons of ore, all from 
development work on the 700-ft. level, was shipped, netting 
the company $5163.28. Ore shipments for the week end- 
ing January 14 totaled 1983 tons, of which the Judge allied 
companies shipped 943; Silver King Coalition, 720; and the 
Ontario, 320. Shipments the previous week totaled 1968 

Salt Lake City. — The U. S. Smelting Co: recently com- 
pleted shipment of 41 cars of bonded lead bullion from its 
Midvale smelter to Eastern refineries. The lead was con- 
tained in ores received from Canadian mines. Under the 
tariff regulations, Canadian producers are permitted to ship 
their ores into this country, under bond, for reduction, and 
an equivalent amount of the metal can be withdrawn from 
the smelters for export, without paying duty. The with- 
drawal may be made any time within three years. The 
metal shipped from the Midvale smelter has been there for 
almost a year, the last Canadian ore being received in 
February. This ore was of great benefit to the smelter, as 
it averaged high in lead. The Midvale smelter has no re- 
finery, and the silver in the bullion will be extracted at 

Grasselli, Indiana, and the lead shipped to Europe. 

Salt Lake County has renewed its fight in an effort to com- 
pel the Utah Copper Co. to pay taxes on its tailing pond at 
Garfield. Several weeks ago, Federal Judge Tillman D. 
Johnson handed down an opinion in favor of the company, 
holding that the county could assess a tax only on the net 
proceeds of metals that might be derived from treatment of 
the tailing. The company thereupon endeavored to collect 
$148,520 paid during 1917 and 1918 as taxes on the tailing. 
The new suit is based on the theory that the tailing is per- 
sonal property; the ore from which they were derived hav- 
ing been removed from the mine, part of the mineral ex- 
tracted, and the remainder impounded for possible future 

Stockton. — E. V. Anderson, a director of the Stockton 
Standard Mining Co., reports that conditions in the mine are 
more promising than at any time in the past three or four 
years. Two veins, showing strong mineralization, have 
been cut on the 400-ft. level. At present the company is 
drifting to the south-east in a lime-belt lying between the 
two veins, to intersect a quartzite-limestone contact along 
which the mineralization was opened on the 200-ft. level. 


Highland. — N. J. Garlock, a buyer representing smelter 
interests, is collecting samples of carbonate zinc ore avail- 
able for prompt shipment. Quotations will be made as soon 
as the analyses are available, and sales are possible of 
about 1000 tons now ready for shipment. 

Linden. — J. S. Huxtable has purchased the surface plant 
of the Optimo Mining Co., one mile north of this village. A 
new company will be organized; it is intended to repair the 
mill and to resume underground work at Optimo mine No. 3. 

Mineral Point. — The zinc oxide works, owned and oper- 
ated by the Mineral Point Zinc Co., are in active operation. 
Of the 48 furnaces 34 are in operation, the remainder being 
under repair. The warehouses, capable of storing 50,000 
barrels of the finished product, are about half full. Con- 
siderable quantities of zinc oxide are now being packed in 
50-lb. sacks, in addition to the stock packed in 300 barrels 

for shipment. The acid plant is partly dismantled; it will 
not resume operations, it is stated. 

Platteville. — Mill No. 2, constructed for the Block-House 
Mining Co., by John Mayhew, contractor, is complete and 
ready to start when conditions warrant. The Block-House 
mine when it shut-down had a reserve of 1200 tons of 
crude concentrate; about 800 tons of finished separator 
blende is carried in storage. 


Lillooet. — Two syndicates have started work on placer de- 
posits at Lower Bridge river, and several cars of machinery 
and lumber have been shipped in from here. 

New Hazelton. — Arrangements have been made for the re- 
opening of the American Boy mine, at Nine-mile moun- 
tain, as soon as weather conditions allow. A consignment 
of 250 tons of ore from the American Boy was treated at 
the Silver Standard mill in 1918; since then the mine has 
been closed. 

Prince Rupert. — The Guggenheim interests are stated to 
have purchased a one-third interest in the properties of the 
B. C. Silver Mines, Ltd., which adjoin the Premier mine, for 
$100,000. A controlling interest in the properties is held 
by the British Canadian Silver Corporation, of London; the 
company's engineer, C. A. Banks, states that he believes the 
information to be correct. H. J. Bush and associates, not 
the English owners, are said to have sold their interest in 

the property. P. Sloan, formerly manager of the Drum 

Lummon mine, recently bought a gold-copper property on 
Prince Royal Island from the Rivers Bight Syndicate, and is 
developing ore. At the present time only 12 men are em- 
ployed, but more will be added as the mine develops. 

The net earnings of the Belmont-Surf Inlet mine for the 
quarter ended September 30 was $11,144.47. A com- 
pressor is to be shipped to the Homestake mine, at Alice 
Arm, and operations will be resumed as soon as weather 
conditions allow. 

Princeton. — The Hematite Iron Co., of Bellingham, Wash- 
ington, has re-located the pay-streak on the old Swan placer 
claim, on Granville creek, and has six men driving a tunnel 
45 ft. above the level of the Tulameen river. The gravel is 
running up to 50c. per pan in gold and some platinum. In 
1886 gold and platinum to the value of $193,000 was taken 
from this district, but little work has been done since 1888. 

Sandon. — It is the opinion of the directors of the Silver- 
smith Mines that the company will be on a permanent divi- 
dend-paying basis by June 1. Milling operations were 
started on December 31, and the first carload of concentrate 
has been produced. It is safe now to predict that the com- 
pany will be able to ship about 500 tons of ore monthly. 
The company has a body of high-grade ore opened, which it 
is estimated should provide mill feed for at least five years, 
with the opportunity, of course, during the period of greatly 
increasing the ore-reserves by development. The present 
ore-shoot, as opened, is 450 ft. long on the No. 10, 8, and 5 
levels. It is 2 to 42 ft. wide, the average being 7 J ft. A 
winze has been sunk 100 ft. below the No. 10, and some 
good ore has been exposed, but sufficient work has not been 
done to determine if the shoot persists at the same depth 
and length as on the levels above. Ore possibilities remain 
above the No. 5 level and below the 1100-ft. depth. It is 
believed the average grade of this shoot is 21 oz. silver. 
10*% lead, and 10% zinc. From June 1, 1920, to June 1, 
1921, the company shipped 2195 tons of ore that netted 
$260,404 after freight, smelter charges, and lead duty were 
deducted. Its average content was about 100 oz. silver and 
65% lead. There is now on hand about 2000 tons of zinc 
concentrate having an average content of 43% zinc and 35 

January 28, L922 



oi. silver which will be sold when It can be marketed with 

siilm \ Inl-i . Operation! will bo resumed soon on the 
Tidewater Copper company's property, Vancouver Island. 
Important ore-reserves are said to have been blocked out 
during the period of Inactivity at the plant. 

SI. >.aii City. — Rich ore Is being taken from the Arlington 
mine, under lease and bond to R. R. Medley, and from the 
Anna group, owned by Kurt Zimmerman. At the Ottawa 
mine. L. 11 Biggar and associates have had a tube-mill In 
operation during the past year; a few shipments of ore have 
been made to the Trail smelter, but difficulties had to be 
overcome in the completion of the plant, chiefly in the ob- 
taining of pebbles and lining. A new steel lining has been 
obtained and a change has been made from pebbles to steel 

Stewart. — Regular shipments of high-grade ore are ex- 
pected from the Silverado group of mineral claims within a 
few weeks. The ore will be transported across a gulch by 
aerial tram, then to the lower camp by tram, and from that 

point will be raw-hided to tidewater. The Premier mine 

is the only substantial shipper from the district at present, 
but many miners and prospectors are wintering at Stewart 
and Hyder. George Clothier, the resident mining engineer, 
is advocating more trails and it is assured that Government 
assistance will be forthcoming. The regions of Salmon 
River, Fish Creek, Marmot River, and the more distant 
Unuk River will see much prospecting and more develop- 
ment on promising properties in the prospect stage than 
ever before. 

Describing recent activities of the Premier Mining Co., 
Salmon river, Portland Canal district, T. J. Shenton, Dis- 
trict Mines Inspector, says that the mill has been completed 
and the HJ-mile aerial tramway began operations on De- 
cember 20; compressors, coupled to two Diesel units, are in 
operation; a concrete foundation has been constructed at 
the foot of Cascade creek for the erection of housing for the 
machinery of the main power-house, which will be finished 
early this year. The average number of men employed per 
day during the year was 3 28, the total tonnage mined was 
15.129 tons, the total length. of tunnel and drifting was 
4027 ft., the total diamond-drilling done was 6821 ft. 
About 50 ft. from the entrance of No. 2 tunnel a small shaft 
has been sunk to a depth of 420 ft. connecting No. 3 and 4 

The Belmont Surf Inlet company's Pugsley mine may be 
considered an established producer. Ore-bins have been 
built and an aerial tramway installed from these to the 
bunkers at the head of Surf mine. 

Trail. — Ore received at the Trail smelter totaled 8933 tons 
from January 1 to 7. Of this, 8809 tons was from the 
company's mines. 

Vancouver. — An appeal has been entered by the Engineer 
Mining Co. against the recent judgment handed down by the 
British Columbia courts, which leaves the property in the 
hands of the heirs of the late Allan I. Smith. It is said 
that the action will be carried to the Privy Council before 
the litigants will be content to consider the issue settled. 
The case involves title to the Engineer mine of the Atlin 

The Britannia Mining & Smelting Company has let 
the contract for the fabricated steel work for its new 
mill-building to the Canadian Northwest Steel Co., of this 
city, for $175,000; Richard Tench, who superintended the 
erection of the fabricated steel work at the Trail smelter, 
will superintend the construction of the building, which 
will measure 209 by 270 ft. and will be built in six terraces 
on the hill-side to the west of where the old mill-building 
stood. Hodgson, King & Marble, of this city, have been 
awarded the contract to re-build the tramway bridge, de- 

stroyed by the flood, for $10,000. The new bridge will bo 
of steel on concrete foundations. 

Vernon.— J. K. Getsey, who has been prospecting a prop- 
erty on Monashee mountain, 45 miles east of this town, has 
packed 750 lb. of ore over the mountains and shipped ii to 
the Kellogg smelter, for a trial test. The vein is 3 ft. wide, 
and assays give an average of $50 per ton in gold. There is 
a two-stamp mill on the property which Getsey purposes to 
put into operation in the spring. 

Victoria. — The Hon. W. Sloan has given instructions to 
the district mining engineers to resume the lectures on 
mineralogy and field geology started last winter. These 
lectures will be given in the principal centres of the various 


Cumpns. — It is reported that the flotation mill of the San 
Nicolas lease will be started up shortly. Some development 
was done last year during the dry season when the mill was 
shut-down for lack of water. Owing to good winter rains it 
is expected that the mill will be able to run continuously 
throughout the year. 

Durango. — A number of new mining claims have been 
recorded in the Inde camp by Miguel Barraza, representing 
the firm of Barraza Bros., Parral. These claims are all in 
the Bufa de Inde mountains and are being surveyed into 
four different groups: The Recompensa, comprising 10 per- 
tenencias, adjoining the Descubrimiento, La Concha, and La 
Alianza mines; the San Juan group of 9 claims, near La 
Nina and Corpus Cristi properties; El Tajo, 6 claims near 
the old mines of Agua Blanca, Nigajar, and Zona Libre, and 
the Purisima, 10 pertenencias next to the Hector and 

Anomalia patented claims. Luciano M. Salas and Carlos 

Cano, of Durango City, have re-denounced the old San Diego 
mines, in the municipality of Victoria, this State. The prop- 
erty comprises 10 contiguous claims bearing gold, silver, 
and lead. It is expected that some shipments will shortly be 

made. American mining men have closed a contract with 

the American Smelting & Refining Co. to ship some large 
dumps in the Chachihuites district to the smelter at Asarco. 

near VelardeQa. The dumps of the old San Miguel del 

Mezquital mines are to be worked over and the best ores 
shipped to the Asarco plant of the American Smelting & 
Refining Company. 

Nacozari. — The Pilares Extension Mining Co. is pushing 
development work in three different headings and has some 
copper-silver ore blocked out. About a carload from the 
drifts has been set aside for shipping to the Douglas smelter, 
which is expected to be open for custom ores about February 
10. Two more denouncements were recently made on the 
continuations of the veins. The holdings of this company 
now cover considerably more than 100 acres of ground be- 
tween the San Pedro mine and the Zarape concession, both 
of the Moctezuma Copper Co. E. H. Devore is now drift- 
ing west from the 100-ft. level of the Rubi shaft, and has 
struck a large quartz-lead carrying native silver and sul- 
phides. He expects to strike the shoot of ore below the 
'antigua' workings. 

Picacho. — A group of engineers Is sampling the Picacho 
mine of the Moctezuma Copper Co., with a view to taking a 
lease and bond on the property. 

Torreon. — Active mining continues to increase in the 
Sierra Ramirez of the San Juan de Guadalupe mining dis- 
trict, a short distance south of Torreon. Since the resump- 
tion of operations at the Torreon and Velardena smelting 
plants, a number of the old mines in this mountain have re- 
sumed work and many new claims have been surveyed and 

recorded. Eloy C. Rueda has taken up the Ampliacion de 

la Castellana mine in the Javalias canyon in the Sierra 



January 28, 1922 

Ramirez, also other claims known as the 2da Ampliacion de 
la Burgalesa in the same vicinity. These properties are to 

be developed together with others by Sr. Rueda. The 

San Rafael mines have been re-located by Miss Genieva 
Benton and will be opened up. These properties formerly 
belonged to her father, James Benton, and were allowed to 

lapse during the revolution.. Justino Gonzalez has taken 

up two new claims in this district, lying east of La Virgin 
mine. Luis Audiffred has made some new filings adjoin- 
ing the Recompensa, Quebradillas, and El Rosario mines. 

Zacatecas. — The Espiritu Santo group, comprising four 
pertenencias or mining claims, in the district of Juchipila, 
has been located by Jesus Organist. Preliminary develop- 
ment work is exposing some good ores of gold and silver. 

David Ruiz Esparaza has denounced a number of new 

claims next to the old Chino mines in La Bufa moun- 
tains near the City of Zacatecas. Samuel Frias, Hipolito 

Valdez, Manual Cortes Roeha. Gabriel Castillo, and Isaias 
Puente, local mining men of Zacatecas, have formed a co- 
partnership to develop the Rio Plata group of mines in the 

Concepcion del Oro mining district. Work of repairing 

the old Reyes smelter, in the northern part of this State, is 
progressing and it is expected that it will be ready to start 
up within a few months. American engineers are in charge 
of this work. The operation of the Reyes smelter will cause 
renewed activity in the mining industry of that section of 
the State. 


Cobalt. — The Nipissing during December maintained its 
high rate of production. The company mined ore of an esti- 
mated net value of $251,467, and shipped bullion from 
Nipissing and custom ores of an estimated net value of 
$204,869. The winze on vein 251 at No. 63 was down 38 ft. 
at the end of the month, showing 2 or 3 in. of ore assaying 

several thousand ounces per ton. The Right of Way 

mine, which was recently in liquidation, has been taken 
over by De La Plante & Co. of Ottawa. 

Kirkland Lake. — The Wright-Hargreaves during Decem- 
ber increased operations, the mill treating about 542 5 tons 

of ore. At the Ontario Kirkland the ore is softer than on 

other mines in the district, so that drilling efficiency ranges 
from 5 to 25% higher than where the ground is hard, and 
crushing and grinding at the mill is also easier. The mill 
has been repaired and is in operation; the first bullion is 
expected to be produced early in February. At the 450-ft. 
level, the deepest point of working, there are three ore- 
shoots, two of them about 200 ft. in length, and two of 
about the same length at the 300-ft. level. 

Lightning River. — Some rich ore has been extracted from 
a; shaft down about 12 ft. on the property of the Lightning 
River Gold Mines, the vein being about 5 ft. wide. The 
find has created some excitement in the mining camp, and a 
number of prospectors are preparing to go into the dis- 
trict in the spring. 

Porcupine. — The plans of the Hollinger Consolidated for 
a large increase of tonnage are considerably more compre- 
hensive than previously stated. The management has in 
view a maximum of 7000 tons daily as soon as the company 
is assured that sufficient electric power is available. The 
company has brought an action against the Northern Canada 
Power Co., claiming damages of $2,150,000 for failure of 
the contract to supply the full needs of the mine during the 

winter of 1920-'21. Graphitic ore such as caused serious 

difficulties last year at the Mclntyre has also been en- 
countered on the Hollinger, but its occurrence is at a point 
from which there is no immediate necessity for drawing 
ore. When it becomes necessary the company can doubt- 
less avail itself of the process adopted by the Mclntyre. 

pbrson alI 

The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our readers. 

F. F. Mathieu is here from Roux, Belgium. 

X. D. Bothwell, of Anchorage, Alaska, is at Seattle. 

H. F. Elliott, recently at Tampico, Mexico, is in San Fran- 

Thomas H. Leggett has returned to New York from 

Arthur C. Kinsley is now at Kingman, Arizona, as mineral 

E. P. Mathewson is returning from Burma by way of 

Charles Butters sailed from San Francisco for Nicaragua 
on January 28. 

A. J. Eveland has left Mexico on account of ill health, and 
is now at Boston. 

William Russell, of London, has left Johannesburg, Trans- 
vaal, for the Congo. 

L. L. Farnham has become chemist and assayer for the 
R. A. Perez Co., at Los Angeles. 

G. B. Rosenblatt has returned to San Francisco from a 
visit to the mining districts of Idaho. 

R. G. Hall, recently resident manager for the Burma Cor- 
poration in India, has returned to New York. 

George Collins has been re-elected a governor of the Colo- 
rado chapter of the American Mining Congress. 

Edgar L. Newhouse, chairman of the board of the Ameri- 
can Smelting & Refining Co., is at Salt Lake City. 

Fernando Montijo, who has been with the Minas Pedraz- 
zini Co., in Sonora, Mexico, is at Berkeley, California. 

F. Lynwood Garrison has returned to Philadelphia from 
Campeche, Mexico, where he has been examined oil-lands. 

John K. MacGowan, vice-president of the Braden Copper 
Co., will sail on February 4 from New York for Valparaiso, 

Douglas Clark has returned from Santo Domingo, Chon- 
tales, Nicaragua, and is now at Stanford University, Cali- 

C. W. Beauchamp has resumed the position of mill fore- 
man for the Harmony Mines at Baker, Idaho, which has just 

George Stahl, vice-president and general manager for the 
Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining Co., has been elected 
president of the Colorado Metal Mining Association. 

Edward Tj. Shera, for five years mechanical engineer to 
the Cia. Minera Las Dos Estrellas, has resigned to take a 
similar position with the Mexico Mines of El Oro, at El Oro, 

C. E. Kindall, of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, has returned 
to headquarters at Berkeley, California, from Tonopah, 
where he has been making investigations into miners' 

D. M. Drumheller, Jr., is returning to the Tidewater Cop- 
per Co., at Sidney Inlet, British Columbia, as general super- 
intendent. He has been at Spokane, Washington, while the 
property has been shut-down. 

W. B. Smith, superintendent for the Mineral Point Zinc 
Co., at Mineral Point, Wisconsin, is recovering from a stroke 
of paralysis. He hopes to go to California soon. Arthur 
Pope, his assistant, is in temporary charge at the plant. 

Thomas P. McNamara, superintendent for the Simon Sil- 
ver-Lead at Simon, Nevada, is ill in a hospital in San Fran- 
cisco, where he underwent an operation for intestinal 
trouble. He was foreman of the Mohawk mine at Goldfield 
for several years, and was also foreman of the Bluestone 
mine in Mason Valley. 

.human- 88, L922 




J- 4MB 

San Francisco. January 24 

Aluminum-dual, cents per pound 65 

Aluminum nhwlit. cents per pound 60 

Antimony. cenU per pound 6.26 — 8.25 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 14.75 — 15.25 

Lead. pic. cenu per pound 4.05 — 6.95 

Platinum, pure, per ounce $105 

Platinum. 10",. Indium, per ounce $115 

Zinc. slab, cents per pound 6.75 — 7.75 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 0.50 — 10.00 


(By wire from New Yorkl 
January 28. — Copper i* Inactive and May. Lead te mum t ami steady 
■/.me Is Ufa! .tmi demand i- lower. 


Below are riven official or ticker quotations for silver in the open market 
as distinguished from the fixed price obtainable for metal produced, smelted. 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Plttmao Act such silver will be purchased by the United States Mint at SI 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eighths of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 linei m British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (025 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 


New York London 


17 65.75 

18 85 ST 1 , 

in 65.87% 


21 84.87 M 

22 Sunday 

23 lil.T.', 


34.87 ij 
34.87 'j 


Average week ending 

12 65.46 

19 66.08 

26 65.50 

2 64.82 

9 64.00 

16 66.06 

23 65.27 



Mch 101.12 

Apr 101.12 

May 107 23 

June 110.50 



Monthly averages 


5 9.5 5 




July 106.36 

Aug 111.35 

Sept 113.92 

Oct 119.10 

Nov 127.57 

Dec 131.02 


35 (10 
35 26 


Prices of electrolytic, in cents per pound. 


Jan. 17 13.62 \', Dee. 

18 13.02% 

19 13.50 

20 13.50 Jan. 

- 21 13.60 

22 Sunday 

23 13.50 

Monthly averages 
1920 1921 
19.25 12.94 
19.05 12.84 
18.49 12.20 
19.23 12.50 
19.05 12.74 
19.00 12.83 

Average week ending 

12 13.46 

19 13.58 

28 13 62 

2 13.62 

9 13.56 

16 13.62 

23 13.54 


Jan 20.43 

Feb 17.34 

Men 15.05 

Apr 15.23 

May 15.91 

June 17.63 


July 20.82 

Aug 22.61 

Sept 22.10 

Oct 21.66 

Nov 20.45 

Dec 18.65 




Lead la quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 







22 Sunday 



. 5.60 

. 5.13 

. 6.24 

. 6.05 

. 5.04 

June 6.32 




Monthly averages 

Average week ending 








4.67 Dec 7.12 





, 4.70 

, 4.70 

, 4.70 

. 4.70 

. 4.70 

i 4.70 



Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 



Jan 71.50 

Feb 72.44 

Men 72.50 

Apr 72.60 

May : 72.50 

June 71.83 






July . . 












Oct. . . 





Nov. . . 








Zinc is quoted as spelter. 
In cents per pound. 

Jan 17 





22 Sunday 

standard Western brands. New York delivery. 

6.12 « 

.. u: . 

-"■ ••--• •_■ 
6 00 

Average week ending 




June 6.91 



Monthly averages 





6 10 






4 86 




6 1 9 
6 28 




5 09 

The primary market for 
the largest producer. The 
quantity. Prices, in dollars 

Dec. 27 

Jan. 3 


Jan 103.75 

Feb 90.00 

Meh 72.80 

Apr 73.12 

May 84.80 

June 94.40 


quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
price is fixed in the open market, according to 
per flask of 75 pounds. 

Jan. 10 60 00 

. .48.00 •■ 17 

..50.00 I " 24 60.00 

Monthly averages 

1921 1919 

50.00 July 100.00 

48.76 Aug 103.00 

45.88 Sept 102 60 

411.00 Oct 86.00 

50.00 Nov 78.00 

49.50 | Dec 95.00 














49 50 


A review of the producing 1 , probable, and possible oil-bearing- regions in 
tbe United States by a joint committee composed of members of the Amcri- 
Can Association of Petroleum Geologists and of the U. S. Geological Survey 
has resulted in an inventory estimate that nine billion barrels of oil re- 
coverable by methods now in use remained in the ground in this country 
on January 1, 1922, 

Unlike our reserves of coal, iron, and copper, which are so large that 
apprehension of their early exhaustion is not justified, the oil-reserves of 
the country, as the public has frequently been warned, appear adequate to 
supply the demand for only a limited number of years. The annual pro- 
duction of the country is now almost half a billion barrels; but the annual 
consumption, already well beyond the half-billion mark, is still growing-. 
For some years we have had to import oil; and. with the growth of demand, 
our dependence on foreign oil has become steadily greater, in spite of our 
own increase in output. 

Of the total estimated reserves, five billion barrels may be classified as 
oil in sight and four billion barrels as prospective and possible. Rather 
more than four billion barrels should be assigned to the heavy-oil group. 
These oils will be recovered mainly in the Pacific Coast, Rocky Mountain, 
and Gulf States. The contents of the Lima-Indiana region, which yields 
oil of a distinctive type, are estimated at 40 million barrels. In general 
the so-called paraffin oils of moderate and high grade, as contrasted with 
the heavier oils, amount in all to about five billion barrels. The estimated 
reserves of high-grade oils of the Appalachian States are about 725 million 

The estimated reserves are enough to satisfy the present requirements of 
the United States for only 20 years, if the oil could be taken out of the 
ground as fast as it is wanted. Should these estimates fall even so much 
as two billion barrels short of tbe actual recovery, that error of 22% 
would be equivalent to but four years supply, a relatively short extension 
of life. However, the committee expressly decries the too frequent assump- 
tion that inasmuch as the estimated reserves appear to be sufficient to meet 
the needs of the country at the present rate of consumption for 20 years, 
therefore the reserves will be exhausted at the end of that time or. at most, 
a few years later. This assumption is misleading 1 , for the oil-pools will not 
all be found within that length of time, drilling will be spread over many 
years, as the pools are found, and the wells cannot be pumped dry so 
quickly. Individual wells will yield oil for more than a quarter of a century, 
and some of the wells will not have been drilled in 1950. In short, the oil 
cannot all be discovered, much less taken from the earth, in 20 years. The 
United States is already absolutely dependent on foreign countries to eke 
out her own production, and if the foreign oil can be procured, this de- 
pendence is sure to grow greater and greater as our own fields wane, except 
as artificial petroleum may be produced by the distillation of oil-shales and 
coals, or some substitute for petroleum